Tuesday, April 7, 2015

Debunked story of Dinosaurs and its extinction-Ancient Indian Scripture

Dinosaurs in ancient hinduism scriptures

Makara(Dinosaurs) as the vehicle of god and goddesses 
 In Scriptures, ‘Makara’ is known as the vehicle of sacred goddess ‘Ganga’-the guardian of the longest river of India. Furthermore, ‘Makara’ is also described as the vehicle of Deity ‘Varuna’-the sea god. Makara is also the emblem of lustful desires and hence, is depicted on the flag (known as Makara-Dhvaja) of KamaDeva(Deity of sex and passion). In Hindu astrology, ‘Makara’ is one of the 12 zodiac signs, known as Capricorn in English. 
 Scriptures says Deity ‘Varuna’ as the only fearless one who controls the ‘makara’ and can defeat the ‘Makara’. This description clearly implies that ‘makara’ is not crocodile since crocodile can be defeated by even a common well-trained man. 
Makara(Dinosaurs) in ancient Indian scriptures
Makara of Chennakesava temple Belur,Karnatka

You wouldn’t find any information on dinosaurs or other similar species in any of the ancient western texts but it is in ancient Indian literary texts,dinosaurs and other species similar to dinosaurs could be found. 
Sanskrit word ‘Makara’, meaning ‘spider’. ‘Makara’ was used to refer to a giant amphibian dragon that lived under sea. Was it a‘crocodile’ ? Not per description of ‘Makara’. Description and ancient paintings of ‘Makara’ across Asian countries like Cambodia, Burma, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Japan Vietnam and China presents a picture resembles dinosaurs.

 Makara of sambar prei kuk temple ,Indonesia
 Makara of sambar prei kuk temple ,Indonesia
‘Makara’ is depicted as the half aquatic-Half animal aggressive monster having head of a crocodile, tail of a peacock, small horns like that of a goat, body of an antelope and paws of a panther. 

According to Mahabharata, Makara and Timingila(Shark or whale) were the two powerful sea creatures that lived very deep within the sea along with similar huge creatures. For example, consider the below verse  
 Verse 168.3, Vana Parva, Mahabharata
“timingilah kacchapasca tatha timi timingilah
makarascatra drsyante jale magna ivadrayah”
 Translation: “There were seen Timingilas, tortoises, Timi-timingilas and Makaras, that were like great rocks submerged in the water.”
Makara of candi kalasan temple, Indonesia
Also, There are many other texts like susruta samhita, bhagavad purana and bhagavad gita that depicts ‘Makara’ and ‘Timingila’ as the most dreadful amphibian species. For example consider the below verse
Chapter 45, Susruta Samhita
mahamina-rajiva prabhrtya samudrah
 "The Timi, Timingila, Kulisa, Paka-matsya, Nirularu, Nandi-Varalaka, Makara, Gargaraka, Candraka, Maha-mina, and Rajiva etc, constitute the family of marine fish." 
Makara head found in northern Qi dynasty, China(CE 550-577),
Makara head found in northern Qi dynasty, China

Makara head found in northern Qi dynasty, China
In bhagavad gita, Lord Krishna used ‘Makara’ to represent entire aquatic species thus referring ‘makara’ as the king of all aquatic species.
Verse 31, Chapter 10, Bhagavad-gita
pavanah pavatam asmi ramah sastra-bhrtam aham
jhasanam makaras casmi srotasam asmi jahnavi
“Of purifiers I am the wind. Of the wielders of weapons I am Rama. Amongst aquatics I am the makara and of rivers I am the Ganga.” 
  In Srimad Bhagavatam, ‘Makaras’ and ‘Timingila’ are explicitly stated as dangerous predators that attacked sage ‘Markandeya’
 ksut-trt-parito makarais timingilair upadruto vici-nabhasvatahatah
tamasy apare patito bhraman diso na veda kham gam ca parisramesitah
 “Suffering from hunger and thirst, attacked by Makaras and Timingila and battered by the waves and the wind, Markandeya wandered through the infinite gloom that enveloped him. Overcome by exhaustion, he lost all sense of direction and could not ascertain what the sky was and what the earth was."
 makara of wat that phun(loas)

Makara from 7th centuryCE at National MuseumKuala LumpurMalaysia
 right is makara of Banteay Srei, Cambodia
 MAKARA OF ANGKOR VATAND PHUN(LEFT)Right is Makara of Banteay Srei of Cambodia
Does Makara refers to dinosaurs of Eocene or Cretaceous Periods
Most of the verses in Indian scriptures are in poetical form and so naturally, the author/poet used allegories to represent different situations, objects, scenarios etc. Considering this point, if we apply the above verses to modern scientific findings, we can easily come to the conclusion that ‘Makara’ referred to a species of dinosaurs called ‘Ambulocetus’-(the most dangerous predator of Eocene Period) or ‘Pliosaur’-(the most dangerous predator of Cretaceous Periods). The first fossil of ‘Pliosaur’, estimated to be 155 millions old, was found in Dorset, England in 2003.
  Famous Paleontologist ‘Richard Forrest’ in an interview to BBC said “This is an iconic specimen - one of the most exciting we have seen in years. It was probably the most fearsome predator that ever lived. Standing in front of the skull you can imagine this enormous beast staring straight back at you, fixing you with its binocular vision, and attacking. This creature bulky body was powered in waters by four paddle-like limbs that has never been found and may not have fossilized”
 On ‘Ambulocetus’, reports describe it as an amphibian creature that existed 60 million years ago. Fossil of Ambulocetus found in Pakistan, is said to be of a time when the land mass of Indian subcontinent was slowly drifting from Africa toward the continental shift of Asia.

Makara at Nanpaya Temple, Burmaat 
Makara at Nanpaya Temple, Burmaat 
About other species of dinosaurs?
Now your mind may be wobbling up with many questions like “Makara and timinglas are fine but if Indian ancient scriptures really have description about dinosaurs, then why not the details of other huge creatures that roamed on earth”.
Well, the answer to this specific question is that Ancient scriptures do refer to many other mammoth creatures. However the information is limited since such texts were composed for spiritual reasons and not as entertaining books/stories on dinosaurs. You may be aware that Indian scriptures are full of stories on fights between gods and demons. In such battles, both demons and gods are shown as seated on their specific vehicle, mostly a deadly predator. One of the verses that state the use of strange creatures in battles is as follows
Chapter 8, Verse 10-12, Bhagavad Purana
grdhraih kankair bakair anye syena-bhasais timingilaih
sarabhair mahisaih khadgair go-vrsair gavayarunaih
sivabhir akhubhih kecit krkalasaih sasair naraih
bastair eke krsna-sarair hamsair anye ca sukaraih
anye jala-sthala-khagaih sattvair vikrta-vigrahaih
senayor ubhayo rajan vivisus te ’grato ’gratah
“O King, some soldiers fought on the backs of vultures, eagles, ducks, hawks and bhasa birds. Some fought on the backs of timingilas, which can devour huge whales, some on the backs of sarabhas, and some on buffalo, rhinoceroses, cows, bulls, gavaya [jungle cows] and arunas. Others fought on the backs of jackals, rats, krkalasa, rabbits, human beings, goats, black deer, swans and boars. In this way, mounted on animals of the water, land and sky, including animals with deformed bodies [vikrta-vigraha], both armies faced each other and went forward.” 
  Some of the creatures in the above verse are not identifiable. Nobody knows the English or Hindi equivalent of animals like ‘bhasa’, ‘krkalasa’, ‘gavaya’, ’sarabhas’, ‘arunas’, and ‘vikrta-vigraha’. All of them are said to be aggressive predators. These may be the names of extinct species of dinosaurs or some other extinct species.
Furthermore, in sanskrit, ‘vikrta-vigraha’ means ‘Animals with distorted body’, krkalasa means ‘Big lizard or chameleon’ and gavaya means ‘wild bull’.  So, when the opponent is riding on an elephant, rhinoceros or wild buffalo, one would definitely opt for a big lizard like dinosaurs as his vehicle... isn’t it?
Makara and kirtimukha at Hindu temple in kathmandu, Nepal
Species of dinosaurs in Mahabharata
You may say that one example is not enough...So, Let us take one more, this time from Mahabharata.
In Mahabharata, there is a mention of dinosaurs in symbolic form of dangerous serpents. There is description of species that throws fire (Dragon) and species that can kill a live tree with one just bite. 
 Exact Story is as follows
Parikshit, Son of Arjuna, was cursed by a sage to die of snake bite. After his death, Son of Parikshit, ‘Janamejaya’ decided to take vengeance against the whole serpent dynasty (dragons and dinosaurs belongs to serpents race). He organized a grand sacrifice to destroy all serpents dwelling on earth. Many serpents died in this yagna and just before the entire serpent race was about to wipe out, Janamejaya was stopped by a learned sage named ‘Astika’, Son of Naga mother and Brahmin father. The mass sacrifice that started on the banks of river Arvind at Bardan (Presently Parham, shortcut of ‘Parikshitgarh’) ended all the enmity between the pandavas and nagas. Masonry tank built by Janamejaya to mark this event can still be seen at Parikshit kund(commonly known as Gowdvana) at Mainpuri district in Parham. 

Makara and Nagas of Wat suthat, Bangkok, Thailand 

The exact verse that describes some dinosaur like wild creatures are as follows
"Preists lit fire and chanted mantras to start the sacred ceremony of yagna. When the flames were high and sound of mantras vibrated the environment, all sorts of serpents in different colors started spitting venom and combusted into ashes. Hundreds and thousands of snakes, some of length spanning several yojana(1 yojana=8-15 km) got dragged in fire and burned down into ashes. These serpents are 
   1)    Descendants of Vasuki (Kotisa, Hiranyavahu, Purna, Cala, Pala, Halmaka, Manasa,  Kaunapa, Pichchala,  Kalavega, Carana, Cakra,  Kakshaka, Prakalana and Kaladantaka)
2)    Descendants of Takshaka (Mandalaka, Puchchandaka,  Ravenaka; Uchochikha, Pindasektri,  Bhangas, Carava,  Vilwatejas, Sili, Salakara, Virohana;  Muka, Pravepana, Sukumara, Sisuroman, Mudgara, Suroman and Mahahanu)
3)    Descendants of Iravati (Paravata, Pramoda, Pandara, Parijata,  Krisa, Harina, Sarabha, Meda, Vihanga  and Sauhatapana)
4)    Descendants of Kauravya (Pratara, Eraka, Veniskandha, Kumaraka, Vahuka, Kundala Veni, Dhurtaka, Sringavera, and Astaka.) 
 5)    Descendants of Dhritarashtra (Sankukarna, Kuthara, Sukhana, and Shechaka; Pitharaka, Purnamukha, Purnangada, Sakuni, Dari, Amahatha, Prahasa,  Sushena, Kumathaka, Bhairava, Mundavedanga, Pisanga, Vyaya,  Udraparaka, Vegavat, Pindaraka; Raktanga, Sarvasaranga, Samriddha, Patha, Rishabha and Vasaka; 
 6)    Descendants of Varahaka(Viranaka, Tarunaka, Chitravegika, Maniskandha, Suchitra, Parasara and Aruni). 
Cham god Nāgaemerging from mouth ofMakara at the NationalMuseum of VietnameseHistory

 naga emerging from mouth of makara
Pic from national museum of Vietnam that shows a naga emerging from mouth of makara 
Species of dinosaurs in Ramayana
In Ramayana, there is a mention of an event where King Vibhishana of lanka confronted mighty creatures that were troubling mankind on earth. Further, sage Valmiki mentions giant flying horses guarding the city of Lanka. For me, Giant horses certainly sounds like dinosaurs, especially the ones that has the distinctive characteristic of flying in the air. Ramayana is said to be 18 million year old story. So, it is quite possible that dinosaurs or similar other creatures ruled earth during those times. (also read Neanderthal man and hominid species in Ramayana  )
There are two more stories on species of dinosaurs from bhagavad purana. Since these lengthy stories would extend this article further, I would take it in a separate article.
From the above verses, description of dinosaurs and other similar species is quite evident in ancient Indian literary texts.
Vedic explanation to existence of dinosaur’s species
According to Bhagavad Purana, combination of yugas called as ‘manvantaras’ repeat indefinitely where each manvantaras is characterized by its own set of plants and animals. In Total, Vedas states 84,00,000 different species of animals. Some of the animals and plants of previous ‘manvantaras’ become extinct in next ‘manvantaras’ and then are revived again after series of ‘manvantaras’. Additionally, Bhagavad Purana states that extinct species of previous ‘manvantaras’ are replaced by new species in next ‘manvantaras’ and this process of replacement is known as ‘Transmigration of souls’. 
 Since only a small portion of this vast earth has been excavated and examined, many of the species including human species are still unknown to us.  But the series of findings has forced all the scientists to refute Darwin concept of evolution thus paving the path for Vedic concept of ‘Soul Transmigration’, the concept that cannot be proved scientifically. (Also read Scientific explanation of Hindu cosmology and reincarnation) 
Short discourse on Transmigration of souls
Life is not simply the scientific formula of some biochemical events; instead, life is created by a spark of the spirit that turns the body composed of five elements into a living being. As long as soul lives in the body, body is alive and no sooner does it leaves the body, the material body starts to decompose back to five elements.  
Though soul drives the body, the relationship between the two is not eternal but only for one lifetime, the time period till which the soul stays inside the human body. After that time period, soul takes up a new body which may be of an animal/ plant or women/men depending upon the karma in his/her previous life. Until the soul understands the transcendental connection with the supreme god and become self-realized, the soul continues to transmigrate from one species to another. This process is ‘Transmigration of souls’ or cycles of birth and death. 
Dinosaurs and all species follow the cyclic pattern of extinction
Vedic theory states that Fish or any other aquatic animal, when brought on earth develops intense desires to breathe like an amphibian. As a result, they are born as amphibian in their next birth. With desires of becoming dangerous predators, they become lizards or snakes in their next life. Tired of slow motion, they develop a desire of running thus transmigrating into monstrous predators like dinosaurs in their next life. After series of births in desirable forms, they become extinct and the cycle starts from first phase again.
 Vedic theory also states the degrading level of species in each yuga. i.e Species become smaller and spiritually less inclined in each degrading yuga. This is why we don’t find giant humans/animals in this yuga though there are enough evidences of both giant humans and giant animal species like dinosaurs. 
Did Human and dinosaurs co-exist?
In Vedic civilization, humans were spiritually advanced and not materialistically advanced. Quite possibly, predators-like dinosaurs lived in places far off from human settlements while other dinosaurs lived along with humans. Limited use of technology and lack of materialistic desires may have bolstered the co-existence of humans and dinosaurs. 
Recent study of dinosaur dung and fossil fuel in central India (especially Pisdura village of Nagpur district) by scientists from US, china and India has concluded that “Few species of Dinosaurs in India fed on rice and a variety of rice was grown in India millions of years ago during the Cretaceous and Eocene period”, thus pushing back the date of Indian civilization to at least 65 million years old, the time when the landmass of Indian subcontinent was situated very close to continental shelf of Africa.  

 Recently, when huge dinosaur’s eggs were excavated in Gujarat, villagers thought those to be the boon of Lord Shiva and started worshipping such fossilized eggs as shiv-Lingam...
Huh...Typical Hindus... 
Left is Shiv-Lingam and on the right is dinosaur’s eggs that illiterate villagers mistakenly thought as Shiv-Lingam... 
Note: Central India is known as the largest dinosaur breeding site in the world from where the largest number of eggs and nest from a single period of time (68 to 65 million years ago) were excavated. Gold medalist geologist ‘Prithiraj Chungkham’ postulated the journey of dinosaurs from all around the world to India in order to nest or lay eggs in India. 
Why scientists are mum on findings of dinosaurs
Theory of Co-existence between humans and dinosaurs is slowly embraced by scientists all over the world but are reluctant to admit so under the pressure of atheistic communist empire that strictly wants to hold on dogma of evolution. Under the pressure of Christian evangelists and preachers, some of the modern scientists are quite reluctant to reveal all the truth related to fossil discoveries that contradict the biblical claim of this universal creation just 6000 years ago. Moreover, such frequent changes in scientific theories would undermine the significance of science/scientists and would question the progress of science. Some of the scientists are reluctant to admit faults in science and are fooling others to believe in false theories like ‘theory of evolution’.

 So, the modern scientist’s claim of dinosaurs being the exclusive ruler of this earth is quite misleading and quite questionable. 
 Check the footprints of human and dinosaurs in the above video from 10min.
Below Stones from Peru which was part of the ancient Vedic empire reveals the co-existence of humans and dinosaurs like creatures
Dinosaurs in ancient hinduism scriptures
Dinosaurs in ancient hinduism scriptures

  If Dinosaurs existed in India during ancient times, then naturally it would find a place in written literature. Now that it has been proved that dinosaurs existed in vast regions of India, we can definitely say that the animals mentioned in ancient literature like Srimad Bhagavatam are species of dinosaurs. This also dates the literary texts of ‘Srimad Bhagavatam’ to be millions of years old, last thoroughly compiled in 1900 BC. Description of extinct animals proves that the author of such texts were either aware of such creatures because of the information passed by their ancestors/gurus through ages or they lived during the age when such creatures roam across the geographical regions of earth. This once again validates the superiority and authenticity of Indian scriptures.

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  1. ^ Sir Monier Monier-Williams (2005), A Sanskrit-English dictionary: etymologically and philologically arranged,Motilal Banarsidass Publicationsp771http://books.google.com/books?id=zUezTfym7CAC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA771#v=onepage&q&f=falseretrieved 2011-1-22
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  4. ^ "Crocodile"Raftar English - Hindi Dictionaryhttp://shabdkosh.raftaar.in/Hindi-Dictionary/Meaning/crocodile,retrieved 2011-1-14
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  11. ^ Wilkins (2004)", p.373
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  • Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend (ISBN 0-500-51088-1by Anna Dallapiccola
  • The Illustrated Book of Signs and Symbols by Miranda Bruce-Mitford

External links

 Media related to Makara at Wikimedia Commons

Sunday, April 5, 2015

Charvaka school , Vedas and Indian Philosophy

The Charvaka school was a philosophical movement in India that rejected the traditional religious order by challenging the authority of the Vedas as well as the hegemony the Brahman priests. Contrary to the view that India has always been an entirely religious and spiritual land, the Charvaka school is one of the most irreligious and skeptical systems of thought ever devised. This school is considered part of the heterodox systems (also referred to as heresies) of Indian philosophy, and it is also known as Lokayata, a term which in Sanskrit and Pali means “Naturalist” or “Worldly”.

Origin & Early Development

The Charvaka school started to develop around the 7th century BCE, during the time when the culture of world renunciation emerged in India. Buddhist scriptures occasionally mention the Charvaka as part of the wandering religious groups known as sramanas. Before the time of the Charvaka school there were other materialistic schools in India, but none of them managed to systematize their teachings like the Charvaka did.

The founder of the Charvaka school is considered to be Brihaspati, who seems to be more of a legendary figure rather than an actual person. The most prominent member of this school during the time of the Buddha was a man named Ajita Kesakambali (Ajita of the Hair Blanket), whose ideas are summarized in a Buddhist Pali text known as Samannaphala Sutta, where he denies the doctrine of transmigration of the soul.

Doctrine & Core Beliefs

The earliest texts of the Charvaka were written around the 6th century BCE, but unfortunately they have been lost. From what we can piece together, mainly through later works, these thinkers believed in a rigid materialistic perspective in which only things that could be perceived directly were thought to exist. Some of the key principles of this doctrine of materialism were:

All things are made of earth, air, fire and water.
That which cannot be perceived does not exist; to exist implies to be perceivable.
Heaven and hell are nothing but inventions. The only goal of humans is to enjoy pleasures and avoid pain.
Providing a good living for the priests is a sufficient explanation for the practice of religion.
The members of this school did not believe in ideas such as the soul, reincarnation, spirits, or gods. Religion, they said, is nothing but a fraud devised by clever men who want to take advantage of others. Soul or consciousness can be explained in natural terms as a side effect of having a healthy body: When the body dies, consciousness simply disappears. No existence other than the physical body exists for the Charvaka.

The attitude towards human conduct in the Charvaka school was a very flexible one: Right or wrong were seen as merely human conventions. The cosmos, they believed, was indifferent to human behaviour. If this life is all there is, if there is no afterlife whatsoever, then we should live enjoying the physical life the best we can.

There were a number of aphorisms ascribed to Brihaspati that have also been lost. Only a brief poem used to denounce the priestly caste has survived to our days:

The costly rites enjoined for those who die

Are but a means of livelihood devised

By sacerdotal cunning, nothing more....

While life endures let life be spent in ease

And merriment; let a man borrow money

From all his friends, and feast on melted butter

(Durant, 418)

This poem is particularly provocative if we keep in mind that butter was poured into the sacrificial fire by the Brahman priests.

In the novel about the life of the Buddha named "A Spoke in the Wheel", the author paraphrases some of the criticisms of the Charvaka school concerning the practices of Brahman priests. Although this is only fiction, it reflects some good points of conflict between the Charvaka and the traditional religious order:

[...] Spells, incantations, rituals, even the duties of the four varnas [castes] - all these are nonsense, invented for the livelihood of those destitute of knowledge and manliness. If a beast slain in the Jvotistoma rite [Vedic ritual] goes straight to heaven, why doesn't the sacrificer offer his father instead? If offerings to priests can feed ancestors in heaven, how is it that that person standing on top of a house cannot be gratified by food served inside? They cannot - because all such long-distance gratification is buffoonery!

(Kanekar, 181)

The materialism that the Charvaka school advocated in India was popular for quite a long time. It claimed that the truth can never be known except through the senses: The body, not the soul, feels, sees, hears and thinks. Religions flourish only because people have become accustomed to them. Faith is destroyed by true knowledge and when this happens, people feel a sense of loss and an uncomfortable void that's difficult to handle. Nature is indifferent to human conventions, such as good and bad or even virtue and vice. The sun shines equally upon sinners and saints.

The Charvaka school challenged the traditional religious order in India, weakening the authority and reputation of the priests and encouraging a sort of spiritual vacuum in Indian society that compelled the development of new religious alternatives. The materialistic ideas were so strong that the new religions, which arose to replace the old faith, were devotions without a god or gods or, in other words, non-theistic religions. Such an idea might sound like a contradiction in itself, but that was exactly the approach of some of the main religious movements that appeared as a result of this religious controversy. In a reaction against the priestly class, these new religions originated in the Kshatriyas caste (the warrior rulers caste), opposing the traditional priestly hegemony

Hindu customs-Mysteries Explored:

Mysteries Explored: 

Shocking science behind Hindu traditions: Indian Customs Vs Scientific Reasons Traditions in Hinduism were considered mainly as superstitions, but with the advent of science, it is becoming evident that these traditions are based on some scientific knowledge and moved from generations to generations as traditions. Though the common people did not know science in it, they were following it very faithfully over the years. This blog is an attempt to bring forward the science involved in these traditions and rituals...

1. Throwing Coins into a River: The general reasoning given for this act is that it brings Good Luck. However, scientifically speaking, in the ancient times, most of the currency used was made of copper unlike the stainless steel coins of today. Copper is a vital metal very useful to the human body. Throwing coins in the river was one way our fore-fathers ensured we intake sufficient copper as part of the water as rivers were the only source of drinking water. Making it a custom ensured that all of us follow the practice. 

2. Joining Both Palms together to Greet: In Hindu culture, people greet each other by joining their palms - termed as “Namaskar.” The general reason behind this tradition is that greeting by joining both the palms means respect. However, scientifically speaking, joining both hands ensures joining the tips of all the fingers together; which are denoted to the pressure points of eyes, ears, and mind. Pressing them together is said to activate the pressure points which helps us remember that person for a long time. And, no germs since we don’t make any physical contact!

3. Why do Indian Women wear Toe Ring: Wearing toe rings is not just the significance of married women but there is science behind it. Normally toe rings are worn on the second toe. A particular nerve from the second toe connects the uterus and passes to heart. Wearing toe ring on this finger strengthens the uterus. It will keep it healthy by regulating the blood flow to it and menstrual cycle will be regularized. As Silver is a good conductor, it also absorbs polar energies from the earth and passes it to the body.

4. Applying Tilak on the Forehead: On the forehead, between the two eyebrows, is a spot that is considered as a major nerve point in human body since ancient times. The Tilak is believed to prevent the loss of "energy", the red 'kumkum' between the eyebrows is said to retain energy in the human body and control the various levels of concentration. While applying kumkum the points on the mid-brow region and Adnya-chakra are automatically pressed. This also facilitates the blood supply to the face muscles.

5. Why do Temples have Bells: People who are visiting the temple should and will Ring the bell before entering the inner sanctum (Garbhagudi or Garbha Gruha or womb-chamber) where the main idol is placed. According to Agama Sastra, the bell is used to give sound for keeping evil forces away and the ring of the bell is pleasant to God. However, the scientific reason behind bells is that their ring clears our mind and helps us stay sharp and keep our full concentration on devotional purpose. These bells are made in such a way that when they produce a sound it creates a unity in the Left and Right parts of our brains. The moment we ring the bell, it produces a sharp and enduring sound which lasts for minimum of 7 seconds in echo mode. The duration of echo is good enough to activate all the seven healing centres in our body. This results in emptying our brain from all negative thoughts.

6. Why do we have Navratras: Our living style has drastically changed if we compare it to the society hundreds & thousands of years ago. The traditions which we follow in present are not establishments of today but of the past. Ever thought, why do we have Navratras twice a year unlike other festivals like Deepawali or Holi? Well, both these months are the months of changing seasons and the eating habits of both the seasons are quite different from each other. Navratras give enough time to the body to adjust and prepare itself for to the changing season. These nine days were marked as a period when people would clean their body system by keeping fasts by avoiding excessive salt and sugar, meditate, gain a lot of positive energy, gain a lot of self confidence & increase the self determination power (fasts are a medium to improve our will power and self determination) and finally get ready for the challenges of the changed season.

7. Why do we worship Tulsi Plant: Hindu religion has bestowed ‘Tulsi’, with the status of mother. Also known as ‘Sacred or Holy Basil’, Tulsi, has been recognized as a religious and spiritual devout in many parts of the world. The vedic sages knew the benefits of Tulsi and that is why they personified it as a Goddess and gave a clear message to the entire community that it needs to be taken care of by the people, literate or illiterate. We try to protect it because it is like Sanjeevani for the mankind. Tulsi has great medicinal properties. It is a remarkable antibiotic. Taking Tulsi everyday in tea or otherwise increases immunity and help the drinker prevent diseases, stabilize his or her health condition, balance his or her body system and most important of all, prolong his or her life. Keeping Tulsi plant at home prevents insects and mosquitoes from entering the house. It is said that snakes do not dare to go near a Tulsi plant. Maybe that is why ancient people would grow lots of Tulsi near their houses.

8. Why do we worship Peepal Tree: ‘Peepal’ tree is almost useless for an ordinary person, except for its shadow. ‘Peepal’ does not a have a delicious fruit, its wood is not strong enough for any purpose then why should a common villager or person worship it or even care for it? Our ancestors knew that ‘Peepal’ is one of the very few trees (or probably the only tree) which produces oxygen even at night. So in order to save this tree because of its unique property they related it to God/religion.

9. Start with Spice & End with Sweet: Our ancestors have stressed on the fact that our meals should be started off with something spicy and sweet dishes should be taken towards the end. The significance of this eating practice is that while spicy things activate the digestive juices and acids and ensure that the digestion process goes on smoothly and efficiently, sweets or carbohydrates pulls down the digestive process. Hence, sweets were always recommended to be taken as a last item.

10. Choti on the Male Head: Sushrut rishi, the foremost surgeon of Ayurveda, describes the master sensitive spot on the head as Adhipati Marma, where there is a nexus of all nerves. The shikha protects this spot. Below, in the brain, occurs the Brahmarandhra, where the sushumnã (nerve) arrives from the lower part of the body. In Yog, Brahmarandhra is the highest, seventh chakra, with the thousand-petalled lotus. It is the centre of wisdom. The knotted shikhã helps boost this centre and conserve its subtle energy known as ojas.

11. Applying Mehendi/Henna on the Hand: Besides lending color to the hands, mehndi is a very powerful medicinal herb. Weddings are stressful, and often, the stress causes headaches and fevers. As the wedding day approaches, the excitement mixed with nervous anticipation can take its toll on the bride and groom. Application of mehndi can prevent too much stress because it cools the body and keeps the nerves from becoming tense. This is the reason why mehndi is applied on the hands and feet, which house nerve endings in the body.

12. Celebration & Cleaning During Diwali: Diwali usually falls in October or November which marks the start of winter season and end of rainy season. Rainy season wasn't a good time for everyone back then; many homes needed repair and renovation after a heavy fall. That is why time before diwali was considered the period during which everyone can indulge in cleaning and beautification of their home. And also take out their winter clothes and pack the summer ones.

13. Sitting on the Floor & Eating: This tradition is not just about sitting on floor and eating, it is regarding sitting in the “Sukhasan” position and then eating. Sukhasan is the position we normally use for Yoga asanas. Sitting in this position while eating helps in improving digestion as the circulatory system can focus solely upon digestion and not on our legs dangling from a chair or supporting us while we are standing.

14. Why not to sleep with Your Head towards North: Myth is that it invites ghost or death but science says that it is because human body has its own magnetic field (Also known as hearts magnetic field, because the flow of blood) and Earth is a giant magnet. When we sleep with head towards north, our body's magnetic field become completely asymmetrical to the Earth's Magnetic field. That cause problems related to blood pressure and our heart needs to work harder in order to overcome this asymmetry of Magnetic fields. Apart from this another reason is that Our body have significant amount of iron in our blood. When we sleep in this position, iron from the whole body starts to congregate in brain. This can cause headache, Alzheimer’s Disease, Cognitive Decline, Parkinson disease and brain degeneration.

15. Surya Namaskar: Hindus have a tradition of paying regards to Sun God early in the morning by their water offering ritual. It was mainly because looking at Sun rays through water or directly at that time of the day is good for eyes and also by waking up to follow this routine, we become prone to a morning lifestyle and mornings are proven to be the most effective part of the day.

16. Ear Piercing in Children: Piercing the ears has a great importance in Indian ethos. Indian physicians and philosophers believe that piercing the ears helps in the development of intellect, power of thinking and decision making faculties. Talkativeness fritters away life energy. Ear piercing helps in speech-restraint. It helps to reduce impertinent behaviour and the ear-channels become free from disorders. This idea appeals to the Western world as well, and so they are getting their ears pierced to wear fancy earrings as a mark of fashion.

17. Application of Sindoor or Vermillion: It is interesting to note that that the application of sindoor by married women carries a physiological significance. This is so because Sindoor is prepared by mixing turmeric-lime and the metal mercury. Due to its intrinsic properties, mercury, besides controlling blood pressure also activates sexual drive. This also explains why Sindoor is prohibited for the widows. For best results, Sindoor should be applied right upto the pituitary gland where all our feelings are centered. Mercury is also known for removing stress and strain.

18. The scientific explanation of ouching Feet(charan sparsh): Usually, the person of whose feet you are touching is either old or pious. When they accept your respect which came from your reduced ego (and is called your shraddha) their hearts emit positive thoughts and energy (which is called their karuna) which reaches you through their hands and toes. In essence, the completed circuit enables flow of energy and increases cosmic energy, switching on a quick connect between two minds and hearts. To an extent, the same is achieved through handshakes and hugs. The nerves that start from our brain spread across all your body. These nerves or wires end in the fingertips of your hand and feet. When you join the fingertips of your hand to those of their opposite feet, a circuit is immediately formed and the energies of two bodies are connected. Your fingers and palms become the ‘receptor’ of energy and the feet of other person become the ‘giver’ of energy.

19. Why do we Fast: The underlying principle behind fasting is to be found in Ayurveda. This ancient Indian medical system sees the basic cause of many diseases as the accumulation of toxic materials in the digestive system. Regular cleansing of toxic materials keeps one healthy. By fasting, the digestive organs get rest and all body mechanisms are cleansed and corrected. A complete fast is good for heath, and the occasional intake of warm lemon juice during the period of fasting prevents the flatulence. Since the human body, as explained by Ayurveda, is composed of 80% liquid and 20% solid, like the earth, the gravitational force of the moon affects the fluid contents of the body. It causes emotional imbalances in the body, making some people tense, irritable and violent. Fasting acts as antidote, for it lowers the acid content in the body which helps people to retain their sanity. Research suggests there are major health benefits to caloric restriction like reduced risks of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, immune disorders etc.

20. Why Idol Worship: Hinduism propagates idol worship more than any other religion. Researchers say that this was initiated for the purpose of increasing concentration during prayers. According to psychiatrists, a man will shape his thoughts as per what he sees. If you have 3 different objects in front of you, your thinking will change according to the object you are viewing. Similarly, in ancient India, idol worship was established so that when people view idols it is easy for them to concentrate to gain spiritual energy and meditate without mental diversion.

21. Why do Indian Women wear Bangles: Normally the wrist portion is in constant activation on any human. Also the pulse beat in this portion is mostly checked for all sorts of ailments. The Bangles used by women are normally in the wrist part of ones hand and its constant friction increases the blood circulation level. Further more the electricity passing out through outer skin is again reverted to one's own body because of the ring shaped bangles, which has no ends to pass the energy outside but to send it back to the body. 

Madhavacharya and Trignometry

The Madhava Trignometric series 

The Madhava Trignometric series is one of a series in a collection of infinite series expressions discovered by Madhava of Sangramagrama ( 1350-1425 ACE ), the founder of the Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics. These are the infinite series expansions of the Sine, Cosine and the ArcTangent functions and Pi. The power series expansions of sine and cosine functions are called the Madhava sine series and the Madhava cosine series.

The power series expansion of the arctangent function is called the Madhava- Gregory series.

The power series are collectively called as Madhava Taylor series. The formula for Pi is called the Madhava Newton series.

One of his disciples, Sankara Variar had translated his verse in his Yuktideepika commentary on Tantrasamgraha-vyakhya, in verses 2.440 and 2.441

Multiply the arc by the square of the arc, and take the result of repeating that (any number of times). Divide (each of the above numerators) by the squares of the successive even numbers increased by that number and multiplied by the square of the radius. Place the arc and the successive results so obtained one below the other, and subtract each from the one above. These together give the jiva, as collected together in the verse beginning with "vidvan" etc.

Rendering in modern notations

Let r denote the radius of the circle and s the arc-length.

The following numerators are formed first:


These are then divided by quantities specified in the verse.

2)s. s^2/(2^2+2)r^2. s^2/4^2+4)r^2
3)s.s^2/(2^2+2)r^2.s^2/(4^2+4)r^2. s^2/(6^2+6)r^2

Place the arc and the successive results so obtained one below the other, and subtract each from the one above to get jiva:

Jiva = s-(1-2-3)

When we transform it to the current notation

If x is the angle subtended by the arc s at the center of the Circle, then s = rx and jiva = r sin x.

Sin x = x - x^3/3! + x^5/5! - x^7/7!...., which is the infinite power series of the sine function.

By courtesy www.wikipedia.org and we thank Wikipedia for publishing this on their site.

By means of the same argument, the circumference can be computed in another way too. That is as (follows): The first result should by the square root of the square of the diameter multiplied by twelve. From then on, the result should be divided by three (in) each successive (case). When these are divided in order by the odd numbers, beginning with 1, and when one has subtracted the (even) results from the sum of the odd, (that) should be the circumference. ( Yukti deepika commentary )

This quoted text specifies another formula for the computation of the circumference c of a circle having diameter d. This is as follows.

c = SQRT(12 d^2 - SQRT(12 d^2/3.3 + sqrt(12 d^2)/3^2.5 - sqrt(12d^2)/3^3.7 +.......

As c = Pi d , this equation can be rewritten as

Pi = Sqrt(12( 1 - 1/3.3 + 1/3^2.5 -1/3^3.7 +......

This is obtained by substituting z = Pi/ 6 in the power series expansion for arctan (z).

Pi/4 = 1 - 1/3 +1/5 -1/7+.....

This is Madhava's formula for Pi, and this was discovered in the West by Gregory and Liebniz.

Source :


Vedic time


The uniform worldwide tradition of time-management and the Sanskrit terminology associated with it, is yet another emphatic proof of the prevalence of a uniform , unitary Vedic culture throughout the world from time immemorial. The Hindu alias Vedic almanac is the ancient most because it adheres to the Srushti-Samvat i.e, the time -computation from the creation of the cosmos. Nothing can be more ancient.

What is more, anybody undertaking any Vedic ritual at any time in any part of the world has to recall and repeat the entire computation of the aeons, eras, years and days that have passed from the moment of the creation to the day of the ritual. Thus a continual, up-to-date, day -to -day computation uttered through billions of months down the ages, day -in and day –out, all over the world has ensured an unerring tally of eternal time, A quick review of the cosmic time tally is part of the Sankalpa uttered at Vedic rituals.

It is that Vedic tradition which has been keeping a continuous tally or the time-dimension of' the cosmos namely of the time that has elapsed and the period that lies ahead before the next cataclysmic end or worldly life. Of the current Kali era 5097 years have elapsed . Even or that stretch of time present-day scholars know a bare, dented outline of history only or the last about 2000 years. Of the balance 3097 anterior years they know next to nothing.

It was during that remote antiquity that the world had a unitary administration of Kshatriyas trained to govem the world under the Vedic socio-political system.

People retaining the Vedic tradition are currently identified as Hindus. And since Vedic-tradition has been a world-heritage every human being is, in a way, a Hindu, in Modern paralance.

It was during that long stretch of universal administration that a uniform time-calculation system and terminology was introduced. The world still sticks to it and yet very few seem to be aware of it.

The word Time itself is a corruption of the Sanskrit word ‘Samay’. That was pronounced as ‘Tamay’ and later as ‘Time.’

Take the word ‘calendar’ itself. That is the Sanskrit word ‘Kalantar’ (कालांतर) which signifies a chart detailing the divisions of time (namely the day, week, month and year.

Likewise the word clock is Sanskrit ‘Kala-ka’ (काल-क)i.e a recorder-cum-indicator of time.

Let us know start from the split-second to find out how the entire time computation around the world is all of the Vedic tradition.

The 60 second, 60 minute calculation is Vedic mathematics because according to the 60 vipalas make one ‘pala’ and 60 ‘palas’ make one ‘ghati’(i.e.24 minutes. The word ‘second’ itself is a malpronunciation of the Sanskrit word ‘Kshan’(क्षण). The word Minute is also corruption of sanskrit word ‘Mit’(मित).

The term ‘hour’ is a malpronunciation of the Sanskrit word (होरा)’hora’ (which is made up of 2 ½ ghatis). 60 Pal = 1 Ghati (24 Minutes) 2.5 Ghati = 1 Hora (=1 Hour)

Below in detail -
Krati =34,000th of a second Truti =300th of a second 2 Truti =1 Luv 2 Luv = 1 Kshana 30 Kshana =1 Vipal 60 Vipal = 1 Pal 60 Pal = 1 Ghati (24 Minutes) 2.5 Ghati = 1 Hora (=1 Hour) 24 Hora = 1 Divas (1 Day) 7 Divas = 1 Saptah (1 Week) 4 Saptah = 1 Maas (1 Month) 2 Maas = 1 Ritu (1 Season) 6 Ritu = 1 Varsha (1 Year) 100 Varsha = 1 Shatabda (1 Century) 10 Shatabda = 1 Sahasrabda 432 Sahasrabda = 1Yuga (Kali Yuga)) 2 Kali Yuga = 1 Dwaapar Yuga 3 Kali Yuga = 1 Treta Yuga 4 Kali Yuga = Kruta Yuga 10 Kali Yuga = 1 Maha Yuga (4,320,000) 1000 Maha Yuga = 1 Kalpa 1 Kalpa = 4.32 Billion Years

The word ‘day’ is the corrupt form of the Sanskrit word 'din’ (दिनम्).
All the days of the week too follow the order laid down by Vedic tradition wherein each day is named after the members of our solar system in a specified order. For Instance. Sunday (the day named after the Sun) follows Saturday (the day of Saturn). Monday (which is Moonday) follows Sunday and so on.

The whole world couldn’t have followed this system without the slightest egoistic or chauvinistic murmur from anywhere, had it not been subject to a common Vedic administration.

After the week comes the month. The division of the year into 12 Parts (each or which is known as month, corresponding to the twelve Zodiacal signs) is devised by the Vedic system and is unquestioningly followed all over the world.

Even the Sanskrit term ‘mas’ (मास) signifying a month is still used in Europe. The European terms Christmas and Michaelmas signify the months in which the celebrations concerning Christ (alias chrisn)and Michael are observed. Michael is Sanskrit Mukul.

The names September, October, November and December are the Sanskrit words (सप्तांबर)Saptambar, (अष्टांबर)Ashtambhar, (नवांबर)Navambar, (दशांबर)Dashambar where (अंबर)’ambar’ is the Sanskrit term for the Zodiac while the numbers (सप्ता) sapta, (अष्टा)ashta, (नवा) nava and (दशा) dasha, signify the 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th months respectively.

If the remaining eight months are not easily identifiable as Sanskrit that is because history always leaves ruins in its wake for various reasons. It is like an old man whose teeth have wide gaps. The two rows of well-set teeth of his childhood do not remain intact as age advances. But the remaining teeth and dented gums do lead to the conclusion that once the man did have a full set of teeth.

The same may be said of the months. From the four months still clearly identifiable as Sanskrit. It can be safely deduced that the remaining eight months too had Sanskrit names.

Among the others a few more can still be identified as Sanskrit on a closer look. The name Januarius is the original name, of which January is an abbreviation. Here it may be recalled that in Latin the name of God Ganesh came to be spelled as Janus.So even the Januray beginning of the year is rooted in the Vedic tradition of Ganesh worship. Even the name Januarius misbelieved to be Latin in the Sanskrit term ‘gana-raya-eash’ (गणरायईश)signifying Lord Ganesh.

The name of the succeeding month February wag spelled by the Romans as Februarius. That is a malpronunciation of the Sanskrit word Pravaresh. From the Sanskrit word ‘Pitar’ changing to' father' in European pronunciation we know that European 'f’ replaces Sanskrit ‘P’ Consequently Februarius was (प्रवरेश)Pravaresh. (प्रवर) Pravar in Sanskrit signifies a sage. So the term Pravaresh alias Februarius signified God as the Lord of Sages.

The term March is from (मरीचि) ‘Marichi’ -one of the Sanskrit names of the Sun. Since that month marks the beginning of longer alias a kind of waxing of the sunlight hours it was named after the Sun. Another explanation is that March signifies a start i.e marching orders. Since in ancient practice the beginning of the year coincided with that period, the opening month was named March.

These clues should help scholars to trace the Vedic origin of the term April, May, June and July or either Sanskrit substitutes. It could be that May is named after Maya - i.e. illusion(in Sanskrit), the Holy Spirit which consorted with the Creator to create the cosmos.

It is commonly believed that the name July originates from Julius Caesar and Augustus from Augustus Caesar. These could be explanations concocted by latter-day scholars. Muslim and Christian histories bristle with such concoctions . By that token other Roman emperors too should have had the remaining ten months named after themselves. Were they less egoistic or ambitious?.

The term August and even the imperial name ‘Augustus’ derive from Sage Agastya (अगस्त्य) an ancient seer and Vedic scholar of world renown who was known for his impressive personality. The term ‘august personality’ and ‘august presence’ derive from that sage. The Agastya had a world impact is additional proof that the Vedas were revered and recited all over the world in ancient times.

Even the Sanskrit term 'mas' (मास) signifying a month is still used in Europe. The European terms Christmas and Michaelmas signify the months in which celebrations concerning Christ (alias Chrisn) and Michael are observed. Michael is Sanskrit Mukul. European scholars are so oblivious of the Sanskrit meaning of the term 'mas' (month ) that they equate Christmas with only one day i.e . December 25 and Michaelmas also only with one day, namely September 29.

Equating the term 'Christmas' with one day i.e. December 25, and also sometimes with a whole week (December 25 to 31) is a terminological and mathematical absurdity because the Sanskrit term (दशांबर) December signifies the entire tenth month. This is due to the present ignorance of the ancient worldwide prevalence of Vedic, Sanskrit traditions.
This is a graphic pointer to the enormously long period that has elapsed from the time the Europeans lost touch with their Vedic origins . Their proselytization as Christians pulled them further away from their Vedic roots. Whatever we say in this volume, about Christians applies equally to Mahomedans. They too were forcibly torn away from their Vedic moorings .
This brings us , incidentally , to the erudite compilers of the Oxford and Webster's dictionaries. Those dictionaries explain Christmas as Christ 's birthday. They seem to be blissfully unaware that even in their own language the suffix 'mas' does not signify a birthday . How then could Christmas mean Christ' s birthday ? Had the suffix 'mas' signified a birthday we should have seen everybody celebrating birthdays inviting his near and dear ones to attend his ‘mas.’

Could anyone imagine one Christian writing to another using the symbol ' X ' wherever he wishes to mention Jesus or swear in the name of Jesus Christ ? For instance could one write ' Jesus X ' to mean Jesus Christ ? Anybody reading such a letter would conclude that ' X ' represents some secret, missing, unmentionable word . In fact the term X 'mas could as well be written as Y ' mas or Z ' mas for all the Christians care or know . Because if Christ could be represented by the algebrical symbol ' X ' he could as well be represented by ' Y ' or ' Z. '

This illustration is a measure of the world 's ignorance about ancient history. Most people are content to swallow unquestioned all they are taught at school or college. It is only with the help of Sanskrit and Vedic tradition that we can unravel and rationally explain the terms Christmas and ' X ' mas. The Roman numeral 10 is written as ' X ' while the Sanskrit word ' mas ' signifies a ' month ' . Therefore the term X "mas signifies the 10th month. Correspondingly the term December also signifies the 10th month. Thus X 'mas is a brief expression in figure of the term December meaning the 10th month. The term Christmas (alias Chrisnmas) also signifies the entire month as symbolizing or commemorating Christ alias (Chrisn ).

December was observed as Chrisn-mas because Chrisn has mentioned in the Bhagwad Geeta that all months Margasheersh (i.e. December) represents him.

Chrisnmas (कृषणमास )has been so named in Vedic tradition also because that is the last month of long, dark nights and the word Krishna signifies darkness too.

In our own day September ranks as the ninth month though its Sanskrit name proclaims it to be the seventh month. What explains this anomaly?
September could be the seventh month only if March is counted as the first month. And actually all around the ancient world, in Rome, in England etc the year began only in March. It was only from 1752 A.D. that England formally switched on to January 1 as the New Year Day by an act of Parliament. Earlier its New Year Day used to be March 25. This provides a very good clue to detect when England actually broke away from Vedic tradition and permanently adopted March 25 as the New Year Day. One of those could be determined from other evidence as the year in which England last observed March 25 as the astronomical Vedic lunar New Year Day.
Likewise since Rome observed March 15, as the New Year Day it may be calculated as to which was the year (or years ) in which March 15 coincided with the vernal equinox i.e. the start of the Vedic lunar New Year Day. That will enable us to determine the year upto which Rome adhered to the Vedic lunar Year practice before switching on to the stiff March 15 as the New Year Day.

The importance of Ides of March in Roman tradition was due to the worship of the Vedic Goddess Annapooma (i .e. the Goddess of plentitude of food) at the start of the year. It was attended with feasting and rejoicing and public holiday and worship of the Goddess in tastefully decorated pandals . That Goddess now stands Christianized as Anna Perina.
The worldwide tradition of considering the year to begin in March as per Vedic practice is a clear indication of the prevalence of a unitary Vedic administration throughout the world in ancient times. Thus throughout the world time is computed even today from the split-second to the year according to the Vedic system as explained above. Likewise the terminology associated with it is also all still Sanskrit.

The European tradition of counting the hours of the day from the midnight hour originated in India after the Mahabharata War, taking the time of Krishna’s birth as its base since Krishna was revered throughout the world and Krishna’s birth symbolized the end of a dark period of tyranny.
Another explanation is that the Vedic administrative headquarters for Europe used to be in London in the British Isles. London meridian time is 5½ hours behind the Indian time. When the sun rises at 5.30 a.m. India changes the date as per vedic practice. At that time it is midnight hour in London. Therefore, the vedic administration there cultivated the tradition of reckoning the day from the midnight hour. Forgetting that, our own times Indian bureaucracy reckons its official date to commence from the midnight hour.

Even the terms a.m. and p.m. have a Sanskrit connotation and not English as is easily assumed. Even the terms a.m. and p.m have a Sanskrit connotation, and not English as is easily assumed. In English parlance the term a.m. means ’ante-meridian' and p.m. means 'post -meridian'. But the question remains who is ante-meridian and post -meridian ? That is to say the subject himself is missing .The 'Sun’ who is vital to the calculation remains un -mentioned . This is unthinkable and unjustifiable. That lacuna arises because it is not realized that the letters a.m. and p.m. are the initials of the hoary Sanskrit expressions (आरोहणम् मार्तडस्य्) Arohanam Martandasaya (i.e. the climbing of the sun) and (पतनम् मार्तडस्य्)Patanam Martandasaya (i.e. the falling of the sun).

London has been a very ancient Vedic capital. Its ancient Sanskrit name was Nondonium which is Sanskrit for a ‘Pleasing Habitation’. In Roman time, it was misspelled as Londonium. Later this was abbreviated to London. In European languages the letter ‘ L' has very often replaced the Sanskrit letter 'N’.' That is why the Sanskrit name Svetanana (the fair- faced ) is pronounced in Russia, as Svetlana.

Vedic Divisions of Time

The current trend of the academic world is to regard the Vedic era as the most primitive. Contrarily it was an era of almost divine excellence in every respect because of billions of years ago divinity itself provided the first proto-types of humanity. Those humans of that first generation had a calculating range which extended from the infinitesimal trillionth or a second to trillions or years. Hereunder is that split second scale of ancient Vedic calculation. Such a wide, minute to colossal, computation system also pre-supposes a highly developed base or scientific and technological excellence.

Hereunder' is that split-second scale or ancient Vedic calculation (mentioned in the 32nd chapter or the Marathi translation or the Yajurveda, by S.K. Devdhar, Prasaad Prakasban, Pune, India) :

1 Paramanu = 1/379675 Second, 2 Paramaanu= 1 Anu [sub-atomic particle, idivisible and cannot contain life] 3 Anu= 1 Trasarenu - 3 Trasarenu= 1 Truti – time the Sun takes to cross 3 Trasarenu is called Truti (8/13,500 parts of a second) 100 Truti= 1 Vedh (8/135 parts of a second) 3 Vedh= 1 Lav (8/45 parts of a second) 3 Lav= 1 Nimesh (8/15 parts of a second) 3 Nimesh= 1 Kshan, or Pal, or second (8/5 parts of a second) 5 Kshan= 1 Kaashthaa (8 seconds) 15 Kaashthaa= 1 Laghu (120 seconds or 2 minutes) 15 Laghu= 1 Naadikaa*, or 1 Dand, or 30 minutes
- From book - World Vedic Heritage by P.n. Oak.