Tuesday, August 25, 2015

Ancient India Is Full Of Scientific Innovations

Twelve Things that Prove Indian Mythological Literature Is Full Of Scientific Innovations
Vedas and ancient Indian science theories are often considered as the most advanced works in the world from their era. There are scientists taking who are fascinated by the knowledge of the ancient Indian scholars and dedicated their life researching on the ancient Indian Science.
1. The Vedas knew about the Solar System, including Pluto long before the West found out.
The sun moves in its own orbit but holding earth and other heavenly bodies in a manner that they do not collide with each other through force of attraction.” – Rig Veda 1.35.9
2,Theorized gravity way before the western world.
The verse 10.22.14 of Rig Veda says: “This earth is devoid of hands and legs, yet it moves ahead. All the objects over the earth also move with it. It moves around the sun”.
3. Vedas knew the speed of light, before the rest of the world knew it.
A Vedic scholar by the name of Sayana discovered the speed of light back in the 14th century AD. His quote which translates to: “With deep respect, I bow to the sun, who travels 2,202 yojanas in half a nimesha.” A yojana is approximately 9 miles; a nimesha is 16/75 of a second. So, 2,202 yojanas x 9 miles x 75/8 nimeshas = 185,794 miles per second which is remarkably equal to the actual value of 186 282.397 miles per second.
4. They Knew The Science Behind Eclipses When The Rest Of The World Was Scared Thinking Eclipses Are Caused By Some Sort Of Black Magic
Rig Veda 5.40.5 has a phrase which translates to: “O Sun! When you are blocked by the one whom you gifted your own light (moon), then earth will be surprised by the sudden darkness.” This is a remarkably accurate description of a solar eclipse. The Vedas’ detailed descriptions of the universe, planets, and other phenomena demonstrates the vast knowledge of the people of those times far before modern civilization even started to exist.
5. Nikola Tesla Took Inspiration From Swamy Vivenakanda And Indian Vedas For His World Acclaimed Work
After his lab was burned down and his life’s work had vanished. Nikola Tesla studied the concept of Prana and Akasha to work on FORCE and MATTER. He developed a new perspective on the world and started viewing world in terms of frequencies and energy which resulted in him establishing his concepts on energy. We intended to write this article not to take sides or argue against anyone’s beliefs but only to give a small idea on the intensity of the knowledge and imagination of our ancestors. They even had the concept of sustainable energy, projectile science, and many others like Thrust, momentum, Thermodynamics, Astrophysics etc to name a few.
6 . .Vedas measured the cimcumference of the Earth
Brahmagupta in the 7th century CE proposed that the circumference of the Earth to be 36,000 km, which is close to the actual figure of 40,075 km, with an error margin of 1%.
7. They Estimated The Length Of An Year
Surya Sidhhanta speaks of 4 ways to measure the length of an year namely ‘Nakshatra’, ‘Savana’, ‘Lunar’ and ‘Saura’. Of these The Saura method accurately estimates the length of year to be 365 days, 6 hours 12 mins and 30 seconds. If you are still wondering how they could do it go and visit temples at Konark or Hampi where you will find the incredibly complex and technically correct architecture systems of the temples that use the sunlight to measure the length of the day and year.
8. Vedas deduced the Value of Pi.
Aryabhata worked on the approximation of value of pi () and came to the conclusion that is irrational and is approximately 3.1416 in 499 CE when he was 23 years old. He can be considered as one of the smartest brains of ancient India because because the irrationality of pi was proved in Europe only in 1761 by Lambert. Not to mention, he even derived the values of sine & cos and gave birth to the concept of trigonometry.
9. They theorized that Earth is sphere.
Although the discovery of Earth being round is credited to Greek astronomers. Interestingly, Indian astronomers had already claimed that Sun is a star and that earth is spherical long before the Greeks. It is documented that various attempts had been made to measure the circumference of earth during the Vedic periods. Aryabhata deduced a formulation which proves that the Earth is rotating on an axis. By estimating the value of pi to be 3.1416 he deduced the circumference of earth to be 39736 Kilometers which is only 100 kilometers below its true value. In fact, in his book Aryabhatiya, he also asserts that the movement of heavenly bodies like the sun, the stars are all relative, and only earth is moving. “Just as a passenger in a boat moving downstream sees the stationary (trees on the river banks) as traversing upstream, so does an observer on earth see the fixed stars as moving towards the west at exactly the same speed (at which the earth moves from west to east.” -translated from Aryabhatiya Gola 9
10. They Build The Worlds First Underground Drainage System.
Indus valley civilization designed the worlds first Underground sanitation system back in 3300–1300 BCE which was adopted by the rest of the world centuries later. They are also the first civilization to create modern sanitation.
11. They Theorized And Actually Implemented The Concept Of Surgical Procedures Using Surgical Tools Centuries Before The Rest Of The World
The Sushruta Samhita written by Sage Sushruta is the earliest medical encyclopaedia known to world being written during 1200BC containing 184 chapters contains descriptions of 1,120 illnesses, 700 medicinal plants, 64 preparations from mineral sources and 57 preparations based on animal sources. You name a disease and it has a chapter on it. It was announced in a scientific journal that the oldest and the first evidence for the drilling of human teeth of a living person was found in Mehrgarh. Eleven drilled molar crowns from nine adults were discovered in a graveyard in Mehrgarh that dates from 7,500–9,000 years ago. A few evidences of orthopedic surgeries were also found concluding that ancient India had the technology to implement surgical procedures. Anesthesia was made using herbs in Ayurveda.
12. They Theorized The Concept Of Cloning, Test Tube Babies And Surrogate Mothers
The epic Mahabharata describes Gandhari as a mother of 100 sons who were called Kauravas, the eldest of them being Dhuryodhana. The Kauravas were created by splitting the single embryo into 100 parts and growing each part in a separate kund (container). The birth story of Karna & the Pandavas shockingly resembles the modern Test Tube Baby concept. Being born from the “characteristics adopted from men of her choice” In other words, they not only had the concept of cloning, Test Tube Babies and embryo spliting but also had the dream to grow human fetuses outside the body of a woman something that is not known to modern science very recently.
Mystery of india.

Advancement of science and mathematics a gift of India to world

Advancement of science and mathematics.
AKS The Primality Test. .The AKS primality test is a deterministic primality-proving algorithm created and published by three Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur computer scientists, Manindra Agrawal, Neeraj Kayal, and Nitin Saxena on 6 August 2002 in a paper titled PRIMES is in P, Commenting on the impact of this discovery, Paul Leyland noted: "One reason for the excitement within the mathematical community is not only does this algorithm settle a long-standing problem, it also does so in a brilliantly simple manner. Everyone is now wondering what else has been similarly overlooked".
Baudhāyana, (fl. c. 800 BCE)[1] was the author of the Baudhayana sūtras, which cover dharma, daily ritual, mathematics, etc. He belongs to the Yajurveda school, and is older than the other sūtra author Āpastamba. He was the author of the earliest of the Shulba Sutras—appendices to the Vedas giving rules for the construction of altars—called the Baudhāyana Śulbasûtra. These are notable from the point of view of mathematics, for containing several important mathematical results, including giving a value of pi to some degree of precision, and stating a version of what is now known as the Pythagorean theorem. Sequences associated with primitive Pythagorean triples have been named Baudhayana sequences. These sequences have been used in cryptography as random sequences and for the generation of keys
Finite Difference Interpolation: The Indian mathematician Brahmagupta presented what is possibly the first instance[97 of finite difference interpolation around 665 CE.
Algebraic abbreviations: The mathematician Brahmagupta had begun using abbreviations for unknowns by the 7th century. He employed abbreviations for multiple unknowns occurring in one complex problem. Brahmagupta also used abbreviations for square roots and cube roots.
Basu's theorem: The Basu's theorem, a result of Debabrata Basu (1955) states that any complete sufficient statistic is independent of any ancillary statistic.
Brahmagupta–Fibonacci identity, Brahmagupta formula, Brahmagupta matrix, and Brahmagupta theorem: Discovered by the Indian mathematician, Brahmagupta (598–668 CE).
Chakravala method: The Chakravala method, a cyclic algorithm to solve indeterminate quadratic equations is commonly attributed to Bhāskara II, (c. 1114 – 1185 CE) although some attribute it to Jayadeva (c. 950~1000 CE).Jayadeva pointed out that Brahmagupta’s approach to solving equations of this type would yield infinitely large number of solutions, to which he then described a general method of solving such equations. Jayadeva's method was later refined by Bhāskara II in his Bijaganita treatise to be known as the Chakravala method, chakra (derived from cakraṃ चक्रं) meaning 'wheel' in Sanskrit, relevant to the cyclic nature of the algorithm. With reference to the Chakravala method, E. O. Selenuis held that no European performances at the time of Bhāskara, nor much later, came up to its marvellous height of mathematical complexity.
Hindu number system: With decimal place-value and a symbol for zero, this system was the ancestor of the widely used Arabic numeral system. It was developed in the Indian subcontinent between the 1st and 6th centuries CE.
Fibonacci numbers: This sequence was first described by Virahanka (c. 700 AD), Gopāla (c. 1135), and Hemachandra (c as an outgrowth of the earlier writings on Sanskrit prosody by Pingala (c. 200 BC).
Zero, symbol: Indians were the first to use the zero as a symbol and in arithmetic operations, although Babylonians used zero to signify the 'absent'. In those earlier times a blank space was used to denote zero, later when it created confusion a dot was used to denote zero (could be found in Bakhshali manuscript). In 500 AD circa Aryabhata again gave a new symbol for zero (0).
Law of signs in multiplication: The earliest use of notation for negative numbers, as subtrahend, is credited by scholars to the Chinese, dating back to the 2nd century BC. Like the Chinese, the Indians used negative numbers as subtrahend, but were the first to establish the "law of signs" with regards to the multiplication of positive and negative numbers, which did not appear in Chinese texts until 1299. Indian mathematicians were aware of negative numbers by the 7th century, and their role in mathematical problems of debt was understood. Mostly consistent and correct rules for working with negative numbers were formulated, and the diffusion of these rules led the Arab intermediaries to pass it on to Europe.
Madhava series: The infinite series for π and for the trigonometric sine, cosine, and arctangent is now attributed to Madhava of Sangamagrama (c. 1340 – 1425) and his Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. He made use of the series expansion of \arctan x to obtain an infinite series expression for π.Their rational approximation of the error for the finite sum of their series are of particular interest. They manipulated the error term to derive a faster converging series for π. They used the improved series to derive a rational expression,104348/33215 for π correct up to eleven decimal places, i.e. 3.14159265359. Madhava of Sangamagrama and his successors at the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics used geometric methods to derive large sum approximations for sine, cosin, and arttangent. They found a number of special cases of series later derived by Brook Taylor series. They also found the second-order Taylor approximations for these functions, and the third-order Taylor approximation for sine.
Pascal's triangle: Described in the 6th century CE by Varahamihira[, and in the 10th century by Halayudha,, commenting on an obscure reference by Pingala (the author of an earlier work on prosody) to the "Meru-prastaara", or the "Staircase of Mount Meru", in relation to binomial coefficients. (It was also independently discovered in the 10th or 11th century in Persia and China.)
Pell's equation, integral solution for: About a thousand years before Pell's time, Indian scholar Brahmagupta (598–668 CE) was able to find integral solutions to vargaprakṛiti (Pell's equation) \ x^2-Ny^2=1, where N is a nonsquare integer, in his Brâhma-sphuṭa-siddhânta treatise.
Ramanujan theta function, Ramanujan prime, Ramanujan summation, Ramanujan graph and Ramanujan's sum: Discovered by the Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan in the early 20th century.
Shrikhande graph: Graph invented by the Indian mathematician S.S. Shrikhande in 1959.
Sign convention: Symbols, signs and mathematical notation were employed in an early form in India by the 6th century when the mathematician-astronomer Aryabhata recommended the use of letters to represent unknown quantities. By the 7th century Brahmagupta had already begun using abbreviations for unknowns, even for multiple unknowns occurring in one complex problem. Brahmagupta also managed to use abbreviations for square roots and cube roots. By the 7th century fractions were written in a manner similar to the modern times, except for the bar separating the numerator and the denominator. A dot symbol for negative numbers was also employed. The Bakhshali Manuscript displays a cross, much like the modern '+' sign, except that it symbolized subtraction when written just after the number affected. The '=' sign for equality did not exist. Indian mathematics was transmitted to the Islamic world where this notation was seldom accepted initially and the scribes continued to write mathematics in full and without symbols.
Trigonometry was invented in India.* Trigonometric functions (adapted from Greek): * Trigonometric functions (adapted from Greek): The trigonometric functions sine and versine originated in Indian astronomy, adapted from the full-chord Greek versions (to the modern half-chord versions). They were described in detail by Aryabhata in the late 5th century, but were likely developed earlier in the Siddhantas, astronomical treatises of the 3rd or 4th century.Later, the 6th-century astronomer Varahamihira discovered a few basic trigonometric formulas and identities, such as sin^2(x) + cos^2(x) = 1. The first use of the idea of ‘sine’ in the way we use it today was in the work Aryabhatiyam by Aryabhata, in A.D. 500. Aryabhata used the word ardha-jya for the half-chord, which was shortened to jya or jiva in due course. When the Aryabhatiyam was translated into Arabic, the word jiva was retained as it is. The word jiva was translated into sinus, which means curve, when the Arabic version was translated into Latin. Soon the word sinus, also used as sine, became common in mathematical texts throughout Europe. An English Professor of astronomy Edmund Gunter (1581–1626), first used the abbreviated notation ‘sin’. The origin of the terms ‘cosine’ and ‘tangent’ was much later. The cosine function arose from the need to compute the sine of the complementary angle. Aryabhatta called it kotijya. The name cosinus originated with Edmund Gunter. In 1674, the English Mathematician Sir Jonas Moore first used the abbreviated notation ‘cos’.
Cataract in the Human Eye—magnified view seen on examination with a slit lamp. Indian surgeon Susruta performed cataract surgery by the 6th century BCE.
Amastigotes in a chorionic villus. Upendranath Brahmachari (19 December 1873 – February 6, 1946) discovered Urea Stibamine, a treatment which helped nearly eradicate Visceral leishmaniasis.
Ayurvedic and Siddha medicine: Ayurveda and Siddha are ancient and traditional systems of medicine. Ayurveda dates back to Iron Age India (1st millennium BC) and still practiced today as a form of complementary and alternative medicine. It means "knowledge for longevity". Siddha medicine is mostly prevalent in South India. Herbs and minerals are basic raw materials of the Siddha system which dates back to the period of siddha saints around the 5th century BC.
Cataract surgery: Cataract surgery was known to the Indian physician Sushruta (6th century BCE). In India, cataract surgery was performed with a special tool called the Jabamukhi Salaka, a curved needle used to loosen the lens and push the cataract out of the field of vision] The eye would later be soaked with warm butter and then bandaged. Though this method was successful, Susruta cautioned that cataract surgery should only be performed when absolutely necessary. Greek philosophers and scientists traveled to India where these surgeries were performed by physicians. The removal of cataract by surgery was also introduced into China from India.
Cure for Leprosy: Kearns & Nash (2008) state that the first mention of leprosy is described in the Indian medical treatise Sushruta Samhita (6th century BCE). However, The Oxford Illustrated Companion to Medicine holds that the mention of leprosy, as well as ritualistic cures for it, were described in the Atharva-veda (1500–1200 BCE), written before the Sushruta Samhita.
Plastic surgery: Plastic surgery was being carried out in India by 2000 BCE. The system of punishment by deforming a miscreant's body may have led to an increase in demand for this practice.The surgeon Sushruta contributed mainly to the field of plastic and cataract surgery. The medical works of both Sushruta and Charak were translated into Arabic language during the Abbasid Caliphate (750 CE). These translated Arabic works made their way into Europe via intermediaries. In Italy the Branca family of Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi of Bologna became familiar with the techniques of Sushruta.
Lithiasis treatment: The earliest operation for treating lithiasis, or the formations of stones in the body, is also given in the Sushruta Samhita (6th century BCE). The operation involved exposure and going up through the floor of the bladder.
Visceral leishmaniasis, treatment of: The Indian (Bengali) medical practitioner Upendranath Brahmachari (19 December 1873 – 6 February 1946) was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1929 for his discovery of 'ureastibamine (antimonial compound for treatment of kala azar) and a new disease, post-kalaazar dermal leishmanoid.' Brahmachari's cure for Visceral leishmaniasis was the urea salt of para-amino-phenyl stibnic acid which he called Urea Stibamine. Following the discovery of Urea Stibamine, Visceral leishmaniasis was largely eradicated from the world, except for some underdeveloped regions.
Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia
Some Images: idatapix.com
Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia.

Sunday, August 23, 2015

The Vedas

The Vedas (Sanskrit वेद véda, “knowledge”) are a large body of texts originating in Ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism
Veda is the highest authority in Hindu knowledge system and the authority of all other scriptures are based on the authority of the Veda. Vedas are four – Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva. Rigveda contains prayers to Gods (Riks are the mantras). Yajurveda has methods to use Riks for sacrifices (Yajus-Yajna). Sama Veda introduces musical notes. Atharva Veda gives ways to make life successful, and contains methods to fulfill what can be called material aspirations.
Each Veda has three sections – Samhita, Brahmana and Aranyaka. Samhita has prayers or Suktas. Brahmana has sacrificial methods. Aranyaka has Mantras and methods that are practiced in the forests (that is, not for grhasthas). Upanishads normally appear in the last part of Aranyaka and deal with spiritual philosophy. Some Upanishads are exceptions and appear in Samhita and Brahmana too. Thus Upanishad, as it appears in the last part of the Veda, is called Vedanta. There are 108 Upanishads and 10 of them are famous. Since Upanishads mostly philosophical they are found in prose. But there are Upanishads like Taittireeya and Ganapathi Atharva seersha that have svara.
These four sections are mapped to the four Ashramas. A brahmacari is supposed to study the Samhita. Grhastha is supposed to follow the Brahmana. Vanaprasthi is supposed to follow Aranyaka. Sanyasi is supposed to contemplate on the Upanishads.
The Rigveda itself indicates that Truth is one – “ekam sad vipra bahudha vadanti agnim yamam matariswanam ahuh”[1] (meaning Truth is one, but the learned refer to it in different names like agni, yama, matariswan). But the concept that there is a single Parabrahman and that all Gods are Its forms, is more clearly visible towards the Vedanta (Upanishads). Its implications can be seen in later sections, especially when we discuss Darshanas and Puranas.
Veda literally means knowledge. Traditionally the following features are attributed to the Veda:
Veda is anantha (infinite). Only an infinitesimal portion of it is revealed to humans. This can be understood in the sense that knowledge is infinite. However, Veda is the knowledge of Brahman, the True, Absolute and the Infinite. And the essence of Veda is said to be understood if one knows the infinite, i.e., opens up to the infinite Self. Realizing the infinite through any single mantra/sukta of the Veda is equivalent to understanding the essence of any other mantra and the entire Veda. Thus it is said know the One (Brahman) by which everything else is known.
Veda is anadi, having no beginning or end. It said to exist eternally; it is called the breath of Paramatma. This is a poetic expression, this does not literally mean paramatma has a breath but just the way breath exists with a person’s life similarly veda exists with God/creation. While the modern view is that Rigveda is the oldest, it is only in compilation that it is possibly older. Rigveda itself mentions Yajurveda and Samaveda. For instance Purusha sukta (RV 10.90) says “Tasmaat yagnaat sarva hutaH, RucaH-samaani jagnire, chandaagmsi jagnire tasmaat, yajus tasmaadajaayata”.
Veda is apourusheya, not authored by humans(divine creation). The seers are said to reveal veda mantras to the world, they are called drashtas. Rigveda says “catvari vak parimita padani tani vidur brahmana ye minishinah, guha trini nihita neengayanti turiyam vaco manushya vadanti”[2], meaning vak exists in four forms and the learned know of them. Three are hidden and the fourth is what men speak. Vak (literally word, but meaning veda mantra here) is said to exist in four forms – para, pasyanti, madhyama and vaikhari. Para is the eternal form of vak. Pasyanti is when a seer envisions the mantra. Madhyama is when it descends into mind plane. Vaikhari is the expression. Thus the Veda mantras exist eternally, they are only revealed to the world by the seers.
Though there are four Vedas, there are alternate recitations in each Veda. These are called “pathantaram”s. Based on these, various branches exist in each Veda, each of them is called a Veda sakha.
There are various methods of chanting the Veda, like ghana and jata.
Purpose and Origin of the Vedas
Veda means knowledge. The Sanskrit word véda “knowledge, wisdom” is derived from the root vid- “to know”.Originally the Vedas were composed in Sanskrit. There are two types of Sanskrit, vaidika and laukika. The Vedic Sanskrit is called vaidika and it is more complicated both in its grammar and in the use of certain words which are only found in the Vedas. The worldly or more popular Sanskrit is called laukika. This is the language of the puranas and itihasas
According to Hindu tradition, the Vedas are apauruṣeya “of divine origin” are supposed to have been directly revealed, and thus are called śruti (“what is heard”). The four Saṃhitās are metrical . The term saṃhitā literally means “composition, compilation”. The individual verses contained in these compilations are known as mantras. Some selected Vedic mantras are still recited at prayers, religious functions and other auspicious occasions in contemporary Hinduism.
The Vedas are called the books of gods .Each word of veda is Powerful.Thus the knoweldge of Vedas is a secret .
The class of “Vedic texts” is aggregated around the four canonical Saṃhitās or Vedas proper (turīya), of which three (traya) are related to the performance of yajna (sacrifice) in historical Vedic religion:
There are four Vedas:
The Rigveda, containing hymns to be recited by the hotṛ;It contains 1028 hymns dedicated to thirty-three different gods; these gods were, quite expectedly, nature gods. The most often addressed gods are Indra (rain god; king of heavens), Agni (fire god) and Rudra.This oldest religious text in the world has10,589 verses which are divided into ten mandalas or book-sections.
The Yajurveda, containing formulas to be recited by the adhvaryu or officiating priest;The Yajur-Veda or the wisdom of sacrifices lays down various sacred invocations (yajurs) which were chanted by a particular sect of priests called adhvaryu. They performed the sacrificial rites. T
The Samaveda, containing formulas to be sung by the udgātṛ.The Sama-Veda or the wisdom of chants is basically a collection of samans or chants,
The fourth is the Atharvaveda, a collection of spells and incantations, apotropaic charms and speculative hymns It has 760 hymns, ts first part consists chiefly of spells and incantations, concerned with protection against demons and disaster, spells for the healing of diseases, for long life and for various desires or aims in life.
The Vedas are called Triyi Vidya because Ved is generally divided in to three kinds of Vidyas
Main article: Rigveda
The mantras in Rigveda are called Riks. Rigveda has 10 mandalas, 1028 suktas and 10170 riks in the whole. Each sukta is a collection of riks on a devata and each mandala has many suktas. The samhita portion of Rigveda contains suktas alone and all suktas are addressed to devatas like Agni, Vayu, Vishnu, Rudra, Mitra, Varuna, Pushan, Aryaman.
The major Upanishads found in Rigveda sakhas are Aitareya and Kaushitaki.
Main article: Yajurveda
As the name suggests, Yajurveda deals with Yajna, sacrifice. It applies riks and gives procedures and mantras for sacrifices.
There are two major sakhas in the Yajurveda, Sukla and Krishna. Krishna Yajurveda sakha is also called Taittireeya sakha. Samhita of Sukla Yajurveda is called Vajasaneya samhita and that of Krishna Yajurveda is called Taittireeya samhita. Brahmana of Sukla Yajurveda is called the Satapatha brahmana. In the Krishna Yajurveda, there is an overlap between samhita and brahmana portions and lays down the procedures for sacrifices. This can be understood in the light of the fact that brahmana is the sacrificial code and Yajurveda combines this with riks. Many sacrifices like Darsapurnamasa, Vajapeya, Somayaga, and Aswamedha are found in Yajurveda.
There is a special place for lord Rudra in the Krishna Yajurveda, and Rudra suktam is found in the middle of Taittireeya Samhita. It has 7 kandas and the fourth kanda has 9 chapters. Namakam is the 5th chapter and while Chamakam 7th chapter of the fourth kanda. This is because Rudra is the presiding deity of Yajnas and Yajurveda deals with Yajnas.
The major Upanishads found in Yajurveda are Brihadaranyaka, Maitri, Isa, Taittiriya, Svetasvatara and Katha.
Main article: Samaveda
Samaveda puts the riks in musical notes. The musical notes in samaveda are said to be the origin of traditional musical octet.
Major Upanishads found in Samaveda are Kena and Chandogya.
Main article: Atharvaveda
Atharvaveda, apart from hymns to gods, gives many ways to make life successful. While Gayatri mantra is said to be the essence of the three Vedas (Rig, Yajur and Sama), there is a different Gayatri mantra for Atharvaveda. And it requires that a second Upanayana is done for the pupil before he is initiated to learning Atharvaveda. (Another brahmopadesam of Atharva Gayatri is done here).
Atharvaveda contains prayers to Gods not mentioned in the other three Vedas, like Pratyangira. Atharvaveda also uses many Riks. For instance, the Manyu sukta of Rigveda appears as two chapters “sena nireekshana” and “sena samyojana” in the Atharvaveda.
Major Upanishads in Atharvaveda are Mandukya, Mundaka and Prasna.
mainly from hindupedia.com

Friday, August 21, 2015

Jewels of Hinduism, Sanatan Dharm

Vedanta: Hinduism Quotes

“Most humbly we bow to You, O Supreme Lord.
At Your command moves the mighty wheel of time.
You are eternal, and beyond eternity.”
(Artharva Veda)
“The one who loves all intensely begins perceiving in all living beings a part of himself…
He becomes a lover of all, a part and parcel of the Universal Joy.
He flows with the stream of happiness, and is enriched by each soul.”
(Yajur Veda)
“The human body is the temple of God.
One who kindles the light of awareness within gets true light.
The sacred flame of your inner shrine is constantly bright…
The experience of unity is the fulfillment of human endeavors.
The mysteries of life are revealed.”
(Rig Veda)
“Sing the song of celestial love, O singer!
May the divine fountain of eternal grace and joy enter your soul.
May Brahma, (the Divine One),
Pluck the strings of your inner soul with His celestial fingers,
And feel His own presence within.
Bless us with a divine voice
That we may tune the harp-strings of our life
To sing songs of Love to you.”
(Rig Veda)
“Of everything he is the inmost Self.
He is the truth; he is the Self supreme.” (Chandogya Upanishad)
“Meditating on the lotus of your heart,
in the center is the untainted;
the exquisitely pure, clear, and sorrowless;
the inconceivable;
the unmanifest,
of infinite form;
blissful, tranquil, immortal;
the womb of Brahma.”
“Those in whose hearts OM reverberates
Unceasingly are indeed blessed
And deeply loved as one who is the Self.
The all-knowing Self was never born,
Nor will it die. Beyond cause and effect,
This Self is eternal and immutable.
When the body dies, the Self does not die.”
(Katha Upanishad)
“The whole mantram AUM
Indivisible, interdependent,
Goes on reverberating in the mind…
Established in this cosmic vibration,
The sage goes beyond fear, decay, and death
To enter into infinite peace.”
(Prashna Upanishad)
“O Almighty!
You are the infinite; the universe is also infinite!
From infinite the infinite has come out!
Having taken infinite out of the infinite, the infinite remains!
O Almighty! May there be Peace! Peace! Everywhere!”
(Ishawashya Upanishad)
“Meditating on the lotus of your heart, in the center is the untainted; the exquisitely pure, clear, and
sorrowless; the inconceivable; the unmanifest, of infinite form; blissful, tranquil, immortal; the womb
of Brahma.” (Kaivalyopanishad)
“O seeker, know the true nature of your soul, and identify yourself with it completely.
O Lord, (may we attain) the everlasting consciousness of Supreme Light and Joy.
May we resolve to dedicate our life to the service of humankind,
And uplift them to Divinity.”
(Yajur Veda)
“O Brahma, lead us from the unreal to the real.
O Brahma, lead us from darkness to light.
O Brahma, lead us from death to immortality…
Shanti, Shanti, Shanti, Om.”
(Brhadaranyaka Upanishad)
“Look to this day, for it is life, the very breath of life. In its brief course lie all the realities of your
existence; the bliss of growth, the glory of action, the splendor of beauty. For yesterday is only a
dream, and tomorrow is but a vision. But today, well lived, makes every yesterday a dream of
happiness, and every tomorrow a vision of hope. Look well, therefore, to this day.” (Ancient Sanskrit)
“The highest Self, all endless bliss, the unconditioned limitless consciousness, being realized, whether
through the great texts, or through Yoga, in all experience whatever—let one lose himself in the
ecstasy of Realization, for he has forever lost all touch with bondage of every description.”
“This ritual is One.
This food is One.
We who offer the food are One.
The fire of hunger is One.
All action is One.
We who understand this are One.”
(Ancient Hindu Blessing)
“A particle of Its bliss supplies the bliss of the whole universe. Everything becomes enlightened in Its
light. All else appears worthless after a sight of that essence. I am indeed of this Supreme Eternal
Self.” (Vijnanananka)
“The knower catches in the ecstasy of his heart the full light of that Brahman (that Divine Essence)
which is indescribable—all pure bliss, incomparable, transcending time, ever free, beyond desire.”
"Bright but hidden, the Self dwells in the heart.
Everything that moves, breathes, opens, and closes
Lives in the Self. He is the source of love
And may be known through love but not through thought
He is the goal of life. Attain this goal!"
(Mundaka Upanishad)
“All is change in the world of the senses,
But changeless is the supreme Lord of Love.
Meditate on him, be absorbed by him,
Wake up from this dream of separateness.”
(Shvetashvatara Upanishad)
“O mysterious and incomprehensible Spirit!
“In the depths of my heart, there is only You—You, for all time.”
(source unknown)