Showing posts with label vedic anatomy. Show all posts
Showing posts with label vedic anatomy. Show all posts

Thursday, May 8, 2014

Vedas On Human Anatomy


Human Anatomy explained in the Vedas

This Head consists of three parts.

a) Lalata (brow)
b) Kakatika
c) Kapala
- Atharva veda[ii]and the shatapatha bramhana[iii],
Four ,Sankhya aranyanka[iv]
The upper skull bones are attached to the other skull bones- Shatpad bhramhan[v].
The upper skull bone , the cranium.
The number of skull bones in modern anatomy Eight.
The Shatapada bhramhan[vi]describes the human head as made of skin, bone, and the brain.
The gopath bhramana[vii] mentions marrow in addition.
The Atharva veda[viii]further describes the head as having seven apertures (khani) – two ears, two eyes, two nostrils and the mouth.
2) Griva (neck)

The structure of the Neck. as described in the Vedas.
Posterior part – the posterior part of the neck is made of
a) One strong bone (virya) with 14 karukaras (lateral processes) on the two sides of the vertebral column.
b) One artery carrying the blood upwards (rig veda 10.163.2 . Av 11.32.2)
c) Eight manyas (carotid arteries)
Anterior part – the anterior part of the neck is the throat (kanta)- in which their lies a dhamani (should be the wind pipe in this context).
The structure given here refers to the cervical column i.e griva with 14 karukaras [posterior] and to the windpipe anterior.

The exact number of cervical bones according to modern observation is Seven.

Hoernle[xi] comments : the two transverse process to each vertebral are counted as separate bones so the number they counted as 14.

3) Hanu (jaw)
The atharva veda[xii] mentions the jaw as a complete organ.
The expression found in the av is Hanu-cityaa.
4) Akshi (eyes)
The bhramhana[xiv] texts refer to the white the black and the red ball of the eye
Two passages of give elaborate description of eye as follows:
a) First Lohini-raji (red arteries and red veins of the white part of eye)
b) Then Aapa (vitreous humours)
c) Then Kaninika (pupil)
d) Then mandal (eye ball)
e) Then Krishna (iris)
f) Then Sukra or sukla (white part of eye ball)
g) Lastly the eye lashes in the upper and lower part of the eye.
(Shatpath bramhan[xv] and bruhat aranyaka upanishad[xvi] )
There are two arteries (nadis ) of the eye, which extend to the heart
5) Vaksha (thorax):
The shatpath bramhan[xviii] through the analogy of chandas (metres) describes the chest of the human body.
There are four sides of the chest:
a) kikasa (thoracic vertebrae)
b) parshvas (two sides)
c) uras (Sternum)
d) sixteen jatrus (costal cartilages)
6) Hrdaya
In the Upanishad period the hrdaya is described and is stated there as made up of flesh with a network structure.
[xxi]. Puritat the coating of the heart has been mention in the text of the vajasaneyi samhita[xxii].
Moreover in the same text[xxiii] there occurs the mention of two lump of flesh(kosi)of the hrday.
In the Upanishad[xxiv] the heart is conceived of as the wheel of a chariot in which the arteries emanating from the heart are described as the spokes of the wheel.
The numbers of vessels in the heart stated in different Upanishads differ.
According to some the number is 101 whereas in Brhat Aranyaka upanishad[xxv] and other Upanishad the number of vessels with its branches and sub branches are 72000.
The weight of heart is stated in the garbha upanishad[xxvi] as eight pala.
7) Parshva (sides)
The shatapath bramhan[xxvii] gives the following account of the structure of the two sides.
The two sides of the body are formed by 26 parsus or parisavas (ribs).
Theses ribs are joined at either end to the thoracic vertebrae (kikasa) in the back and jatru (costal cartilage) in the front.
These ribs are attached to the andaparisus ( which should mean globular end of the rib)
8) Pristi (vertebral or vertical column)
The shatapath bramhan[xxviii] refers to the three division of the vertical column:
a) Griva (cervical)
b) Amuka (thoracic)
c) Udara (lumbar)
In the thoracic portion of the vertebral column there are 32 pristi kundalas or karukaras (vertebra). The lumbaric portion (udara) is statedas consisted of 20 kuntapas
9) Vasti (Bladder)
The atharva veda[xxix] describes it as the size of a bow.
The urine is conveyed to the bladder by the two Gavini. To the bladder is attached the vasti –bila (bladder-orifice) and mehana or vartam (urinary duct).
10) Upper limbs
From the account give in the vedic text we can form an idea of the component parts of the upper limbs.
These are shoulder (amsa) and the hands, the arms (bahu), forearm (doshan) and palm (pani).
Amsa (shoulder) – the atharva veda[xxx] mentions of two parts of shoulder consisting of aksha (collar bone) and kaphoda (shoulder blades).
According to the shatpath bramhan[xxxi] the shoulder blade (phalaka) are very small bones.
Bahu (hands) = the hands are joined to the trunk by means of the collar bones[xxxiii].
They are made up of three parts[xxxiv].The name of the three parts are known as bahu (arm), doshan (forearm) and pani (palm).
The palm consist of two parts – ucchalankhas (long bones) and in midst of the hand and the angulis each with three joints.[xxxv]
11) The lower limb
Fom the description given in atharva veda[xxxvi] and shatapath bramhan[xxxvii] the following idea about the structre of lower limb can be made.
The lower limb are connected to the trunk by means of shroni (hip). Vankshana (groin) is a joint connecting the thigh with the belly. There are three parts of the leg
a) Uru (thigh)
b) Jagana(lower part of the leg)
c) Pada (foot)
The knee resemble a ‘fourfold frame’ for joining thigh with the lower part of leg. The foot consists of five parts
a) Parsni (the heel)
b) Gulpha (ankle )
c) Ucchalamkha (meta tarsal)
d) Prastista (base – carpus)
e) Anguli (digits)
An interesting and Informative site on AyurVeda, visit the Link below.