Showing posts with label YAJURVEDA. Show all posts
Showing posts with label YAJURVEDA. Show all posts

Tuesday, August 25, 2015

AKS The Primality Test. .The AKS primality test is a deterministic primality-proving algorithm created and published by three Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur computer scientists, Manindra Agrawal, Neeraj Kayal, and Nitin Saxena on 6 August 2002 in a paper titled PRIMES is in P, Commenting on the impact of this discovery, Paul Leyland noted: "One reason for the excitement within the mathematical community is not only does this algorithm settle a long-standing problem, it also does so in a brilliantly simple manner. Everyone is now wondering what else has been similarly overlooked".
Baudhāyana, (fl. c. 800 BCE)[1] was the author of the Baudhayana sūtras, which cover dharma, daily ritual, mathematics, etc. He belongs to the Yajurveda school, and is older than the other sūtra author Āpastamba. He was the author of the earliest of the Shulba Sutras—appendices to the Vedas giving rules for the construction of altars—called the Baudhāyana Śulbasûtra. These are notable from the point of view of mathematics, for containing several important mathematical results, including giving a value of pi to some degree of precision, and stating a version of what is now known as the Pythagorean theorem. Sequences associated with primitive Pythagorean triples have been named Baudhayana sequences. These sequences have been used in cryptography as random sequences and for the generation of keys
Finite Difference Interpolation: The Indian mathematician Brahmagupta presented what is possibly the first instance[97 of finite difference interpolation around 665 CE.
Algebraic abbreviations: The mathematician Brahmagupta had begun using abbreviations for unknowns by the 7th century. He employed abbreviations for multiple unknowns occurring in one complex problem. Brahmagupta also used abbreviations for square roots and cube roots.
Basu's theorem: The Basu's theorem, a result of Debabrata Basu (1955) states that any complete sufficient statistic is independent of any ancillary statistic.
Brahmagupta–Fibonacci identity, Brahmagupta formula, Brahmagupta matrix, and Brahmagupta theorem: Discovered by the Indian mathematician, Brahmagupta (598–668 CE).
Chakravala method: The Chakravala method, a cyclic algorithm to solve indeterminate quadratic equations is commonly attributed to Bhāskara II, (c. 1114 – 1185 CE) although some attribute it to Jayadeva (c. 950~1000 CE).Jayadeva pointed out that Brahmagupta’s approach to solving equations of this type would yield infinitely large number of solutions, to which he then described a general method of solving such equations. Jayadeva's method was later refined by Bhāskara II in his Bijaganita treatise to be known as the Chakravala method, chakra (derived from cakraṃ चक्रं) meaning 'wheel' in Sanskrit, relevant to the cyclic nature of the algorithm. With reference to the Chakravala method, E. O. Selenuis held that no European performances at the time of Bhāskara, nor much later, came up to its marvellous height of mathematical complexity.
Hindu number system: With decimal place-value and a symbol for zero, this system was the ancestor of the widely used Arabic numeral system. It was developed in the Indian subcontinent between the 1st and 6th centuries CE.
Fibonacci numbers: This sequence was first described by Virahanka (c. 700 AD), Gopāla (c. 1135), and Hemachandra (c as an outgrowth of the earlier writings on Sanskrit prosody by Pingala (c. 200 BC).
Zero, symbol: Indians were the first to use the zero as a symbol and in arithmetic operations, although Babylonians used zero to signify the 'absent'. In those earlier times a blank space was used to denote zero, later when it created confusion a dot was used to denote zero (could be found in Bakhshali manuscript). In 500 AD circa Aryabhata again gave a new symbol for zero (0).
Law of signs in multiplication: The earliest use of notation for negative numbers, as subtrahend, is credited by scholars to the Chinese, dating back to the 2nd century BC. Like the Chinese, the Indians used negative numbers as subtrahend, but were the first to establish the "law of signs" with regards to the multiplication of positive and negative numbers, which did not appear in Chinese texts until 1299. Indian mathematicians were aware of negative numbers by the 7th century, and their role in mathematical problems of debt was understood. Mostly consistent and correct rules for working with negative numbers were formulated, and the diffusion of these rules led the Arab intermediaries to pass it on to Europe.
Madhava series: The infinite series for π and for the trigonometric sine, cosine, and arctangent is now attributed to Madhava of Sangamagrama (c. 1340 – 1425) and his Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. He made use of the series expansion of \arctan x to obtain an infinite series expression for π.Their rational approximation of the error for the finite sum of their series are of particular interest. They manipulated the error term to derive a faster converging series for π. They used the improved series to derive a rational expression,104348/33215 for π correct up to eleven decimal places, i.e. 3.14159265359. Madhava of Sangamagrama and his successors at the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics used geometric methods to derive large sum approximations for sine, cosin, and arttangent. They found a number of special cases of series later derived by Brook Taylor series. They also found the second-order Taylor approximations for these functions, and the third-order Taylor approximation for sine.
Pascal's triangle: Described in the 6th century CE by Varahamihira[, and in the 10th century by Halayudha,, commenting on an obscure reference by Pingala (the author of an earlier work on prosody) to the "Meru-prastaara", or the "Staircase of Mount Meru", in relation to binomial coefficients. (It was also independently discovered in the 10th or 11th century in Persia and China.)
Pell's equation, integral solution for: About a thousand years before Pell's time, Indian scholar Brahmagupta (598–668 CE) was able to find integral solutions to vargaprakṛiti (Pell's equation) \ x^2-Ny^2=1, where N is a nonsquare integer, in his Brâhma-sphuṭa-siddhânta treatise.
Ramanujan theta function, Ramanujan prime, Ramanujan summation, Ramanujan graph and Ramanujan's sum: Discovered by the Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan in the early 20th century.
Shrikhande graph: Graph invented by the Indian mathematician S.S. Shrikhande in 1959.
Sign convention: Symbols, signs and mathematical notation were employed in an early form in India by the 6th century when the mathematician-astronomer Aryabhata recommended the use of letters to represent unknown quantities. By the 7th century Brahmagupta had already begun using abbreviations for unknowns, even for multiple unknowns occurring in one complex problem. Brahmagupta also managed to use abbreviations for square roots and cube roots. By the 7th century fractions were written in a manner similar to the modern times, except for the bar separating the numerator and the denominator. A dot symbol for negative numbers was also employed. The Bakhshali Manuscript displays a cross, much like the modern '+' sign, except that it symbolized subtraction when written just after the number affected. The '=' sign for equality did not exist. Indian mathematics was transmitted to the Islamic world where this notation was seldom accepted initially and the scribes continued to write mathematics in full and without symbols.
Trigonometry was invented in India.* Trigonometric functions (adapted from Greek): * Trigonometric functions (adapted from Greek): The trigonometric functions sine and versine originated in Indian astronomy, adapted from the full-chord Greek versions (to the modern half-chord versions). They were described in detail by Aryabhata in the late 5th century, but were likely developed earlier in the Siddhantas, astronomical treatises of the 3rd or 4th century.Later, the 6th-century astronomer Varahamihira discovered a few basic trigonometric formulas and identities, such as sin^2(x) + cos^2(x) = 1. The first use of the idea of ‘sine’ in the way we use it today was in the work Aryabhatiyam by Aryabhata, in A.D. 500. Aryabhata used the word ardha-jya for the half-chord, which was shortened to jya or jiva in due course. When the Aryabhatiyam was translated into Arabic, the word jiva was retained as it is. The word jiva was translated into sinus, which means curve, when the Arabic version was translated into Latin. Soon the word sinus, also used as sine, became common in mathematical texts throughout Europe. An English Professor of astronomy Edmund Gunter (1581–1626), first used the abbreviated notation ‘sin’. The origin of the terms ‘cosine’ and ‘tangent’ was much later. The cosine function arose from the need to compute the sine of the complementary angle. Aryabhatta called it kotijya. The name cosinus originated with Edmund Gunter. In 1674, the English Mathematician Sir Jonas Moore first used the abbreviated notation ‘cos’.
Medicine
Cataract in the Human Eye—magnified view seen on examination with a slit lamp. Indian surgeon Susruta performed cataract surgery by the 6th century BCE.
Amastigotes in a chorionic villus. Upendranath Brahmachari (19 December 1873 – February 6, 1946) discovered Urea Stibamine, a treatment which helped nearly eradicate Visceral leishmaniasis.
Ayurvedic and Siddha medicine: Ayurveda and Siddha are ancient and traditional systems of medicine. Ayurveda dates back to Iron Age India (1st millennium BC) and still practiced today as a form of complementary and alternative medicine. It means "knowledge for longevity". Siddha medicine is mostly prevalent in South India. Herbs and minerals are basic raw materials of the Siddha system which dates back to the period of siddha saints around the 5th century BC.
Cataract surgery: Cataract surgery was known to the Indian physician Sushruta (6th century BCE). In India, cataract surgery was performed with a special tool called the Jabamukhi Salaka, a curved needle used to loosen the lens and push the cataract out of the field of vision] The eye would later be soaked with warm butter and then bandaged. Though this method was successful, Susruta cautioned that cataract surgery should only be performed when absolutely necessary. Greek philosophers and scientists traveled to India where these surgeries were performed by physicians. The removal of cataract by surgery was also introduced into China from India.
Cure for Leprosy: Kearns & Nash (2008) state that the first mention of leprosy is described in the Indian medical treatise Sushruta Samhita (6th century BCE). However, The Oxford Illustrated Companion to Medicine holds that the mention of leprosy, as well as ritualistic cures for it, were described in the Atharva-veda (1500–1200 BCE), written before the Sushruta Samhita.
Plastic surgery: Plastic surgery was being carried out in India by 2000 BCE. The system of punishment by deforming a miscreant's body may have led to an increase in demand for this practice.The surgeon Sushruta contributed mainly to the field of plastic and cataract surgery. The medical works of both Sushruta and Charak were translated into Arabic language during the Abbasid Caliphate (750 CE). These translated Arabic works made their way into Europe via intermediaries. In Italy the Branca family of Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi of Bologna became familiar with the techniques of Sushruta.
Lithiasis treatment: The earliest operation for treating lithiasis, or the formations of stones in the body, is also given in the Sushruta Samhita (6th century BCE). The operation involved exposure and going up through the floor of the bladder.
Visceral leishmaniasis, treatment of: The Indian (Bengali) medical practitioner Upendranath Brahmachari (19 December 1873 – 6 February 1946) was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1929 for his discovery of 'ureastibamine (antimonial compound for treatment of kala azar) and a new disease, post-kalaazar dermal leishmanoid.' Brahmachari's cure for Visceral leishmaniasis was the urea salt of para-amino-phenyl stibnic acid which he called Urea Stibamine. Following the discovery of Urea Stibamine, Visceral leishmaniasis was largely eradicated from the world, except for some underdeveloped regions.
Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia
Some Images: idatapix.com
Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia.

Friday, January 16, 2015

Let us understand Vedas, the foundations of entire HUMANITY. प्रजापतिश्चरति गर्भे अन्तरजायमानो बहुधा वि जायते। तस्य योनिं परि पश्यन्ति धीरास्तस्मिन् ह तस्युर्भुवनानि विश्वा॥ (यजुर्वेद:३१:१९) प्रजापालक परमात्मा की सत्ता सम्पूर्ण पदार्थों में विद्यमान है, वह अजन्मा होकर भी अनेक रूपों में प्रकट होता है। उसकी कारण शक्ति में सम्पूर्ण भुवन समाहित है। ज्ञानी-जन उसके मुख्य स्वरूप को देख पाते हैं॥ (यजुर्वेद:31:19) The 19th verse of Yajurveda: Chapter 31 explains that the Lord/परब्रह्म الله / is present in all the matter i.e. a part of Him and His power resides in every entity i.e. He is Omnipresent and that Supreme Being, although unborn, appears in many (several/diverse) forms (set-up/aspects/looks/features/figures/Avatars) i.e. He incarntes when there is unbearable harm to Dharma. Everything is within Him. Pandits (Scholars) could see His prime (Universal) form i.e. Viraat Svaroop (विराट् स्वरूप). When you go through the 30th verse of Gita: Chapter 6 you find the same thing: "One who sees Me pervading in every entity in the form of soul and everything within Me, for him I am never unseen and hr is not unseen to Me" (Gita:6:30) *NOTE: The exact TRANSLATION of Vedic verses isn't possible. So, they are to be understood through self-consciousness.

Do you know where we go after death????
Abrahamic religions prophesy that a man after death goes either to Heaven or Hell. Only a Christian, according to Thr Holy Bible goes to Heaven and all the non-Christians go to Hell, no matter how good you have done in any scale and dwell there FOREVER. Islam, on the other hand, prophesy that ONLY Muslims go to Heaven and the rest go to Hell regardless of his good tasks. In fact, they clearly declare Christians and Jews ASTRAY and decla...re the Sanatan Dharmik who believe in ONE SUPREMACY along with existence of demigods SHAYATIN i.e. evil.
The most interesting difference comes when we go through the Vedas, The Upanishads and Gita.
All the Holy Scriptures in Sanatan Dharm describe a far more standard than Heaven and Hell and that is MOKSHA. No other religion has even a bit of this knowledge. Moksha is far greater than so called Heaven and Hell and also that no singular sect but all the living beings have an option of Moksha, Heaven and Hell. According to Sanatan Dharm, whoever does good gets good, does bad gets bad and who does the best undoubtedly gets the best i.e. Moksha.

प्राप्य पुण्यकृतां लोकानुषित्वा शाश्वती: समा:।...
शुचीनां श्रीमतां गेहे योगभ्रष्टोsभिजायते॥

A man who walks on a path towards absolution and performs tasks to attain the same but with imperfection, due to several reasons, also achieves divine worlds (sanctified worlds) i.e. Heaven (and Brahmlok, Pitarlok etc.); remains (lives) there for years and takes birth (again) in the house(s) of good charactered (cultured) people.
Gita:6:41
योगभ्रष्ट पुरुष पुण्यवानों के लोकों को अर्थात् स्वर्गादि उत्तम लोकों को प्राप्त होकर, उनमें बहुत वर्षों तक निवास करके फिर शुद्ध आचरण वाले श्रीमान् पुरुषों के घर में जन्म लेता है॥४१॥ (गीता:6:41

प्राप्य पुण्यकृतां लोकानुषित्वा शाश्वती: समा:।...
शुचीनां श्रीमतां गेहे योगभ्रष्टोsभिजायते॥

A man who walks on a path towards absolution and performs tasks to attain the same but with imperfection, due to several reasons, also achieves divine worlds (sanctified worlds) i.e. Heaven (and Brahmlok, Pitarlok etc.); remains (lives) there for years and takes birth (again) in the house(s) of good charactered (cultured) people.
Gita:6:41
योगभ्रष्ट पुरुष पुण्यवानों के लोकों को अर्थात् स्वर्गादि उत्तम लोकों को प्राप्त होकर, उनमें बहुत वर्षों तक नि
वास करके फिर शुद्ध आचरण वाले श्रीमान् पुरुषों के घर में जन्म लेता है॥४१॥ (गीता:6:41

Let us know what do Vedas say about theism and Krishna. Is there any mentioning in Vedas that Lord Krishna is the Supreme? What do Vedas preach, Monotheism or Polytheism?

त्रीणि पदा वि चक्रमे विष्णुर्गोपा अदाभ्य:। अतो धर्माणि धारयन्।।
विश्वरक्षक, अविनाशी विष्णु तीनों लोकों में यज्ञादि कर्मों को पोषित करते हुए तीन चरणों में व्याप्त हैं अर्थात् शक्ति धाराओं (सृजन, पोषण, परिनर्तन) द्वारा विश्व का संचालन करते हैं।...
(ऋक्: भाग 1: प्रथम मन्डलम्: सूक्त: 22)
Eternal Lord (Vishnu), the protector/savior of the universe(s), funding (operating, sustaining or fostering) Yajnas, pervades by three steps (of His) in the world. With the three branches/divisions of power (or energy) i.e. power of Generation; power of Sustenance or Operation and Dispeller of negativity and bringing a godly/Dharmik change {=>GOD}, he controls (or manages or rules) the world(s).
(Rigveda: Part 1: 1st Mandalam: Sookta 22: Verse/Hymn 18)

We are aware of
G= Generator;
O= Operator
D= Destroyer or Dispeller of Negativity and bringer of godly change.
See all the powers reside or are in authority of Our Lord. See, The Vedas do preach Monotheism

Swaha to the vital breathings with their controlling lord, the soul.
To earth Swaha ! To Agni Swaha !
To Firmament Swaha !
To Vayu Swaha ! To Sky Swaha ! To Surya Swaha !...
Yajur Ved 39:1

यान्ति देवव्रता देवान्पितृयान्ति पितृव्रताः।
भूतानि यान्ति भूतेज्या यान्ति मद्याजिनोऽपि माम् ॥
देवताओं को पूजने वाले देवताओं को प्राप्त होते हैं; पितरों को पूजने वाले पितरों को प्राप्त होते हैं; भूतों को पूजने वाले भूतों को प्राप्त होते हैं और मेरा पूजन करने वाले भक्त मुझको ही प्राप्त होते हैं। इसलिए मेरे भक्तों का पुनर्जनम नहीं होता ।
(गीता: 9: 25)
...
Only the Supreme can give supreme i.e. Moksha मोक्ष, liberation from the cycle of life and death. The 25th verse of the 9th chapter of the Gita clarifies that Krishna is the Almighty, the Supreme one and only one whom the Vedas, the Upanishads deal with and He is who, on attaining, bestowes to His worshippers liberation.
Glory to the Supreme Being, the YagyaPurusha, the Viraat Purush, the Manifest form of the Unmanifest.

Revealed by our Divine Creator, the VEDAS: the KNOWLEDGE, has everything required to be known. Already we have seen verses on creation, embryology, accounting, revolving of earth and rotation around sun, equator, being the extreme limit of earth.
Decimal system comes from Almighty, the Divine Creator, Who revealed that in Yajur Ved.
Millions and billions of bricks are used in the construction of a big house or a grand altar. The house and the altar strongly built are a sourc...e of comfort and happiness like the milch-kine. Daily performance of Havan is necessary to elevate our soul in this world and the world to come. God has in this verse preached the science of Arithmetical digits, which can be multiplied ad-infinitum.
They may be one, and ten, and ten tens, a hundred, and ten hundred, a thousand and ten thousand and a hundred thousand, a lac and ten lacs, a million, and ten millions, a crore, ten crores, hundred crores, thousand crores, its ten times Maha Padma, its ten times Shankh, its ten times Samudra, its ten times Madhya, its ten times Prardh. May these bricks of my altar be a source of happiness to me, like milch-kine in this world and the next world.
Yajur Ved 17:2
Ima me agna istakaa dhenbah santweka cha dasa cha dasa satang cha satang cha sahasrang cha sahasrang chajutang chajutang cha nijutang cha nijutang cha prajutang chaarbudang cha nyabudang samudrascha madhyang chantyascha paraardhaschyita me agna istaka dhenbah santyamutramusmilloke

IN THE BEGINING [all] this verily was Atman only, one and without a second. There was nothing else that winked. He bethought Himself: "Let Me now create the worlds".
-The Aitareya Upanishad: Part 1: Chapter 1: Verse 1

During the 'Waking' state of Soul (Ātman), Ātman is known by the technical name- Viśva or Vaiśvānara.-----The BRIHADĀRANYAKA UPANISHAD: 4: 2: 2
It uses various sense organs and Its instruments to experience the physical world. But, Waking, like Dreaming is Māyā. The real Self in either state remains unknown. The real Self remains unattached by whatever it experiences in a state.
"The self that functions in the "Dream" state is called 'Taijasa' (Taijasātman or Taijas-Ātman)"-----The Brihadāranyaka Upanishad: 4: 2: 3
NOTE:...
Ātman neither dreams nor wakes up. Ātman never changes. It remains the same. Ātman only witnesses all the experiences of a person in different states. So-----

Ātman, while witnessing the experiences of a person while he is dreaming is called "Taijasa".
The Taijas Ātman, which functions during the dream state becomes Prājna during 'Dreamless' sleep.
The dreamer passes into profound sleep, and in this state Ātman is known by the technical name, "Prājna" (Prājnena-Ātman).
As Brahman has no origin one can never know Its origin, howsoever great one may be. Brahman is the source of everything. It is the Ultimate Cause.
In the Rigveda (Aitareya Upanishad) it is beautifully explained that the demigods and the entire universe are the parts of the Purusha (Ishvar) [The Supreme Cosmic Being], as is manifested by Ishvar during the Mahabharata (the Gita: Chapter 11).
The Katha Upanishad: 1: 2: 22
Atman is one with the Supreme Self i.e. Brahman.
Om Tat Sat
If the killer thinks he kills and if the killed man thinks he is killed, neither of them apprehend aright. The Self kills not, nor is It killed.
~~~~~The Katha Upanishad: 1: 2: 19
"Neither he who thinks that the Self is the slayer nor he who thinks the Self is killed apprehends aright because, in actuality, the Self kills not, nor is It killed"
~~~~~The Gita: 2: 19
Yama said to Nachiketā: "The goal which all the Vedas declare, which all austerities aim at, and which men desire when they lead the life of continence, I will tell you briefly: it is Om [Aum] (ॐ)".
-----The Katha Upanishad: 1: 2: 15
"It goes well with him who, of the two, takes the good, but he who chooses the sense pleasures misses the Self Knowledge which is the end of human effort."
"It is within the power of every man to choose either of the two ideals; but the majority cling to worldly pleasures. They are indeed short-sighted and devoid of judgement"
...
"Both the good and the pleasant present themselves to a man. The calm soul examines them well and discriminates between the Real and the Unreal and prefers the good to the pleasant; but the fool chooses the pleasant out of greed and avarice."
The MOST POPULAR part of the Katha Upanishad.
NOTE:
...
The jivatma is the embodied/individual soul under the influence of maya, bound by the senses, the objects and the mind. Sometimes it is also transliterated as "atman" (with a small 'a'). This "atman" must not be confused with "Atman" (with a capital 'A') which refers to the inmost essence, the 'Self' knowing which one attains Liberation (Emancipation).
HARIH AUM! "Aum", the word, is all this [i.e. the whole Universe]. All that is past, present and future is indeed, Aum. And whatever else there is , beyond the threefold division of time-----that also is truly AUM.
'Hari' is an epithet of Godhead. The invocation of Lord's name at the beginning of any undertaking is considered auspicious.
It is Om"-----The Katha Upanishad: 1: 2: 15
"This Om is the best support"-----The Katha Upanishad: 1: 2: 17
"The syllable 'Om' is the Supreme Brahman and also the other Brahman"-----The Prashna Upanishad: 5: 2
...
"Meditate on Atman as 'Om'; "Om, this word, is Brahman"-----The Taittiriya Upanishad: 1: 8: 1
Om is the symbol of both Brahman and Atman and also the means of realizing their true nature.
The EVIL that follows from lack of self-control:
"If the buddhi, being related to a distracted mind, loses its discrimination and therefore always remains impure, then the embodied soul never attains the goal, but enters into the rounds of births"
-----The Katha Upanishad: 1: 3: 7
...
A man lacking discrimination and inner serenity comes under the sway of his senses. When the senses remain unrestrained, a man commits sin, which in its turn pollutes the mind. This consequently results in Rebirth in this Samsara, contrary to the actual goal, Liberation [Emancipation] [Moksha]

"Holy Scriptures wishes you a very auspicious GURU PURNIMA".
Study the UPANISHADS-----SIT DOWN NEAR Guru to attain Brahmavidya [Self-Realization] and ultimately Liberation.
"Just try to learn the truth by approaching a spiritual master. Inquire from him submissively and render service unto him. The self-realized souls can impart knowledge unto you because they have seen the truth"...
----------The Gita: 4: 34

"In order to realize that Brahmavidya one must go to the Guru"
----------The Mundaka Upanishad: 2: 2: 12
In the beginning [all] this verily was Atman only, one and without a second. There was nothing that winked, nothing that was active. He [God] bethought Himself: "Let Me now create the worlds"
----------The Aitareya Upanishad: 1: 1: 1
आत्मा वा इदमेक एवाग्र आसीत्।
नान्यक्तिंचन मिषत्। स ईक्षत लोकान्नु सृजा इति।।
...
The phrase, "Atman-one and without a second" refers to the singularity of universe. In the beginning the universe existed as one without any differentiation of names and forms. Everything like planets, stars and galaxies existed in seed form together as one dense mass. They did not exist as separate entities.
Even according to the 'Big-Bang' theory, the universe existed as singularity, single dense mass.
Now the question is: "Does not That same non-dual Atman exist even now?"

He [Atman/ GOD] created these worlds [spheres]: Ambhah (the sphere of water bearing clouds i.e. sky), Marichi (the sphere of solar rays or inter-space), Mara (the sphere of mortals), and Ap (the sphere of waters). Ambhah is beyond Dyuloka, above the heaven and heaven is its support, Marichis are the inter-space, Mara is earth and what is underneath is Ap, the nether worlds and underground water.
----------The Aitareya Upanishad: 1: 1: 2
स इमाँल्लोकानसृजत। अम्भो मरीचीर्मरमापोs...दोsम्भ: परेण दिवं द्यौ:प्रतिष्ठान्तरिक्षं मरीचय:। पृथिवी मरो या अधस्तात्ता आप:।।
So, the Aitareya Upanishad enlists FOUR spheres created by Atman [GOD].
According to Geography too, earth has been categorized into FOUR spheres just the categorization is a bit different but mostly identical at the same time.
Lithosphere is earth's crust.
Hydrosphere is earth's water. (rivers, lakes, oceans etc)
Biosphere is where living beings live.
Atmosphere is air and sky.
When we correlate, Ambhah consists of clouds i.e. sky like Atmosphere;
Marichi consists of the solar rays similar to Atmosphere, i.e. air blanket surrounding the earth where the rays of sun fall directly on earth.
Mara consists of living beings identical to the Biosphere.
Ap consists of the nether worlds and underground water identical to the Lithosphere together with a small portion of the Hydrosphere i.e. hard land + underground water.
He [Atman/ Brahman/ God] bethought Himself: "Here now are the worlds. Let Me now create world-guardians ." Right from the waters He drew forth the Cosmic Person [Viraat PURUSHA] [विराट् पुरुष] in the form of a lump and gave Him a shape.
----------The Aitareya Upanishad: 1: 1: 3
स ईक्षतेमे नु लोका लोकपालान्नु सृजा इति ।
सोsद्भय एव पुरुषं समृद्धृत्यामूर्छयत् ।।
...
NOTE:
This Cosmic Person and an ordinary man are not the same thing. Here the Cosmic Person refers to the first manifestation of Unmanifest Brahman i.e. Saguna Brahman. This Cosmic Person is what Krishna shows Arjuna prior to the battle of Mahabharata i.e. the Universal form or Viraat [विराट् रूप].
This Cosmic Person is the totality of everything in universe, every deity, every place and every tangible thing. All the deities and tangible things are a part of Him as manifested by Krishna during the Mahabharata.
The PURUSHA SUKTA of the Rigveda presents an elucidating description about the Purusha. The Yajurveda: 31st chapter also has the same. The Gita and the Upanishads are filled with an elaborate discussion over PURUSHA.
Evolution of different deities from various parts of Virat [Cosmic Being/Person] [विराट् पुरुष].
He [Atman/Brahman] brooded over [through tapas (तपस्) i.e. austerities or by intense thinking in case of Atman] the lump with which He gave a gross shape to His first manifestation, the Cosmic Person (पुरुष).
1. First the mouth was separated out, from mouth, speech and from speech-----FIRE (अग्निदेव) [the deity presiding speech (mouth)]....
2. Then the nostrils were separated out, from them, breath [prana] [प्राण]; from breath-----AIR (वायुदेव) [the deity presiding breath].
3. Then the eyes were separated out; from eyes, sight and from sight-----SUN (सूर्यदेव) [the deity presiding sight (eyes)].
4. Then the ears were separated out; from ears, hearing [shrota] (श्रोत) and from hearing-----the quarters of space or cardinal points (DISHAH) [दिशा] [the deity presiding hearing (ears)].
5. Then the skin was separated out, from the skin, hairs, from hairs, plants, trees and herbs etc and from them-----The deity of Forests.
6. Then the heart was separated out; from heart, the mind (manas) [मनस्] and from the mind-----MOON (चन्द्रदेव) [the deity presiding mind (heart)].
7. Then the navel was separated out; from the navel, APANA, and from APANA-----DEATH (Yama) [यम] [the deity presiding APANA (navel)].
8. Then the generative organ was separated out; from the generative organ, semen and from semen-----WATERS (वरुणदेव) [the deity presiding the generative organ]

----------The AITAREYA Upanishad: 1: 1: 4
NOTE:
The evolution of only a few deities is enlisted here and not all the deities. Only the deities presiding respective organs are enlisted here. The presiding deity (devata) [देवता] or the conscious element is the one which animates the organ. The presiding deity or a Devata is [just] an (one) aspect of the all-pervading Consciousness (Brahman) associated with its respective organ. The presiding deity is the guardian of that particular organ.
The deities presiding different organs and elements evolve from various parts of Virat [the Universal Cosmic Being who is also known as Purusha] (विराट् पुरुष).

The Cosmic Person, PURUSHA, [VIRAT] who is the totality of the world-guardians [deities] [Devatas] [demigods or gods] is non other than BRAHMAN.
As we learnt from the 1st Chapter of the Aitareya Upanishad that in the beginning the planets, galaxies, stars and everything that exist did not exist as separate entities but altogether as one dense mass. At this time Brahman's MAYA [the illusionary power of Brahman] was inactive because of which there was no differentiations of na...mes and forms.
The many things in this universe and the universe itself that we know, with all different names and forms [like water is different from table both in name and form] are all illusion superimposed upon Brahman through Maya.
BRAHMAN Himself has projected Himself as the whole universe by His illusionary power, MAYA. BRAHMAN has manifested Himself as the universe through His power of MAYA.
Similarly, there is no difference between BRAHMAN and PURUSHA. Both are one God and the same. The only difference is that Brahman has projected Himself as PURUSHA through MAYA i.e. Purusha is the effect of Maya whereas Brahman's Ultimate form is beyond Maya. PURUSHA is the manifestation of the unmanifest, formless Brahman superimposed through MAYA.
PURUSHA is the totality, the aggregate of all the Deities [Devatas] [everything in the universe]. Devatas are body parts of Purusha. So, if one worships Purusha one is actually worshiping all the Devatas at the same time. Worshiping Purusha means worshiping Brahman and all the Deities at the same time.
Let us worship Purusha. Let us worship Brahman. Let us worship all the Deities put together leaving no one left out.
Brahman subjected the deities (Devatas) [देवता] to 'Hunger' and 'Thirst'. The deities said to Brahman-----"Find out an abode for us wherein being established we may eat food"
The Deities chose Human Body as their abode and, on the command of Brahman, entered into it:
FIRE became the speech and entered the mouth. AIR became breath and entered the nostrils. The SUN became sight and entered the eyes. The QUARTERS of SPACE (CARDINAL POINTS) became hearing and entered the ears. Lo...rd of Forest (sometimes classified as AIR) became hair and entered the skin. The MOON became the mind and entered the heart. DEATH became the Apana and entered the navel. The waters became the semen and entered the genital organ.
Both the organs and their presiding (controlling) deities entered the body. The text indicates an interrelationship between man and nature, and the various Cosmic Forces which control them.
----------The Aitareya Upanishad: Part 1: Chapter 2

The best way to respect everything and everyone in the universe is by respecting [worshiping] Brahman.
आकाशात् पतितं तोयं यथा गच्छति सागरं ।
सर्व देव नमस्कार केशवं प्रति गच्छति ॥
...
As the rain drops falling from the clouds (sky) ultimately go [merge] in the ocean,
Devotion to any Deity goes to Brahman [Iśvar].
As we have learnt from the 1st Chapter of the Aitareya Upanishad that the Deities are the body parts of Brahman [VIRAT PURUSHA], we may say that devotion to any deity [a portion of Brahman] goes to [a portion of] Brahman Himself. Similarly, devotion to Brahman [complete body, aggregation of all the body parts] automatically goes to all the deities [parts of the body, VIRAT PURUSHA = Brahman].
Let us take a small illustration:
We have different body parts: hands, legs, belly, back etc. Now, if we pour water only on our belly we can say that water touches our body. Similarly, if we pour water on our back, again, we can say that water touches our body. Although water, in this case, touches only a part of our body not the entire body but still it is correct that water touches our body as the part of our body that water touches is not different from our body. The body-part is an integral part of our body itself. So, anything related to the parts of our body is directly related to the entire body.
Similarly, devotion to any Deity, which is a body part of VIRAT PURUSHA [Brahman], verily goes to Brahman [the entire body].
Now, if we pour water on the entire body, automatically water would touch all the parts of the body.
Thus, devotion to Brahman [the entire body] automatically goes to all the deities [the body parts].
Having entered the body, Atman [thus embodied] has three abodes therein.
----------The Aitareya Upanishad: 1: 3: 12
What are the three abodes of Atman as jivātmā [individual soul] in the body of a Jiva?????
...
1. The Right Eye-----Atman dwells in the right eye during the waking state-----Vaiśvānara;
2. The Mind-----Atman dwells in the mind during the dream state-----Taijasa;
3. The Heart-----Atman dwells in the space [ākāśa] in the heart during deep sleep-----Prājnena.
----------The Māndukya Upanishad: 3, 4 and 5
also,
In the beginning all this manifested universe was non-existent. From it was born what exists. That [i.e. Brahman described as non-existent] created Itself by Itself; therefore it is called 'Self-Made' [Sukritam] [सुकृतम्]
That which is Self-made is flavour [rasa (रस) or essence]; for truly, on obtaining the flavour one becomes blissful.

The syllable OM, called the UDGITHA, should be meditated upon; for people sing the Udgitha, beginning with OM.
----------The Chandogya Upanishad: 1: 1: 1
The syllable Om is uttered at the beginning and the end of a hymn. The same Om is a symbol and the dearest name of the Supreme Self. The text describes its symbolic nature.
UDGITHA is a hymn of the Samaveda. A part of the ritualistic worship laid down in the Samaveda, this hymn is sung at the time of a sacrifice. Om, again, is a part of the Udgitha hymn.
The essence of all these beings is earth; the essence of earth is water; the essence of water is plants; the essence of plants is a person; the essence of a person is speech; the essence of speech is the Rigveda; the essence of the Rigveda is the Samaveda; the essence of the Samaveda is the UDGITHA [which is OM {AUM} (ॐ)]
----------The Chandogya Upanishad: 1: 1: 2
एषां भूताना पृथिवी रसः पृथिव्या आपो रसः। अपामोषध यो रस ओषधीनां पुरुषो रसः पुरुषस्य वाग्रसो वाच ऋग्रस ऋचः साम रसः ...साम्न उद्गीथो रसः॥
The word, "रस" in the text is explained in different ways-----as essence, origin, support, end cause, and effect. Rasa (रस) originally means the sap of trees. That sap may be conceived either as the essence extracted from the tree, or as what gives vigour and life to a tree. In the former case, it might be transferred to the conception of effect, in the latter to that of cause.
In our sentence it has sometimes the one, sometimes the other meaning.
Earth is the support of all beings; water pervades the earth; plants arise from water; man lives by plants; speech is the best part of man; the Rik (Rigveda) is the best part of speech; the Saman (Samaveda) is the best extract from the Rik and the UDGITHA i.e. OM ॐ is the crown of even the Saman (Samaveda), the highest of all.
"I [God] am OM"-----Shri Krishna [the Gita: 7: 8, 9: 17, 10: 25]
"He who meditates on OM with the intention-'I shall attain Brahman' does verily attain Brahman [Liberation] [मोक्ष]"-----The Taittiriya Upanishad: 1: 8: 1
...
NOTE: The eight position in the verse is in relation to the series of 7 essences in verse 2 [previous post]. It means the Ultimate i.e. the Supreme position. In the end of all the essences the Ultimate and the Supreme One we reach in the end is OM i.e. Brahman.
स एष रसानाँ रसतमः परमः परार्ध्योsष्टमो यदुद्गीथः।----------छान्दोग्य उपनिषद्:१: १: ३
By the means of this [syllable] [OM] [ॐ] the threefold knowledge proceeds [the Samaveda, the Rigveda and the Yajurveda]. When the [adhvaryu] priest gives an order [in a sacrifice], he says OM. When the [hotri] priest recites [the hymn], he says OM. When the [udgatri] priest [sings] the Saman, he says OM. All this is done for the glory of the Imperishable Atman [Brahman] by the greatness of That syllable [ॐ] and by Its essence."
----------The Chandogya Upanishad: 1: 1: 9
तेनेयं त्रयी विद्या वर्तत ओमित्याश्रावत्योमिति शॅ सत्योमित्यु़ढ्गायत्येतस्यैवाक्षरस्यापचित्यै महिम्ना रसेन ॥ १: १: ९ ॥
This syllable OM is used to give assent, for wherever one assents to something, one says OM (yes).Now, what is assent is gratification. He who knows this and meditates on the syllable OM, the Udgitha, indeed, obtains all his desires.
---
When a man has mastered the Rigveda he loudly utters "OM" [ॐ]; he does the same when he has mastered the Samaveda and the Yajurveda. The SVARA is the symbol 'ॐ'; it is immortal and fearless. The gods, by entering it [i.e. by meditating upon It], became immortal and fearless.
----------The Chandogya Upanishad: 1: 4: 4
-------The Chandogya Upanishad: 1: 1: 8
One should meditate on the Udgitha [OM] [ॐ] as the VYANA. That which one breathes out is the PRANA and that which one breathes in is the APANA. That which is the junction of the PRANA and the APANA is the VYANA. This VYANA is speech. Therefore, when one utters speech one stops the PRANA and the APANA.
----------The Chandogya Upanishad: 1: 3: 3
Speech is uttered by means of VYANA. People neither breathe in nor breathe out when they speak.
This [Prana] and that [Sun] are the same. This is warm and that is warm. This [Prana] they call, "Svara" [स्वर] (what goes out), and that [sun] they call, "Pratyasvara" [प्रत्यास्वर] (what returns). Therefore one should meditate on Udgitha [OM] as this [Prana] and that [sun].
----------The Chandogya Upanishad: 1: 3: 2
When the vital breath [prana] "goes out" at the time of death, it never returns to the corpse, but the sun, after having set, "returns" the next day.

Sunday, November 30, 2014

YAJURVED SLOK 40.9

Yajurveda 40.9
andham tamah pravishanti ye asambhutim upasate
tato bhuya ive te tamo ya u sambhutyam ratah.
अन्धं तमः प्रविशन्ति ये‌‍‌ऽसंभुतिमउपासते
ततो भूय इव ते तमो य उ सम्भुत्याम्रताः
Enter into the darkness those (fools) who engage into the activities of destruction (by creating conflict based on ideology, likes, race or origin), yet enter into greater darkness those who engage into (selfish ) the lust of material gatherings.
Or
Enter into the darkness those who renounce the world or disregard this material existence but yet enter into more darkness those who deeply indulge into material lust.
This meaning appears most suitable. What this shloka says is one of the core principles ofSanatan Dharma. Vedas and all other scriptures tell human to follow the Karma and renounce only the fruits of the karma and not the karma. Human should renounce the lust, the greed and the fruits of Karma. Karma can never be renounced. In Shrimad Bhagvad Gita, Bhagvan Shri Krishna very clearly given this principle fo Sanyas and Karma Yoga by explaining that Karma is the core of living existence and material body has its own significance. One should renounce the fruits of actions and not the actions itself. Rather this very principle is called as “Sanyas” Please find the following references:
na karmanam anarambhan naiskarmyam puruso ‘snute
Not by merely abstaining from work can one achieve freedom from reaction, nor by renunciation alone can one attain perfection.
Ch18:Sh5
yajna-dana-tapah-karma na tyajyam karyam eva tat
yajno danam tapas caiva pavanani manisinam
Sacrifice,charity, austerity and penance are not to be given up but are to be performed. Yajna(Making sacrifice), charity and performing penance even purifies a wise men.
Ch18:Sh2(Line1)
sri-bhagavan uvaca
kamyanam karmanam nyasam sannyasam kavayo viduh
Shri Bhagvan Said
Giving up activities that are based on the material desire is called the Sanyas.
The material world, The karma can never be renounced but then one should not be attached to it either. One should do all his material duty but renounce just the fruits of the same. This is called Sanyas and Sanyas is the core principle of Sanatan Dharma.
The above shloka of Yajurveda#40.9 tells the same thing. A human should never disregards the material body or existence(Asambhooti : असम्भूति) but he should not develop lust to material world and engage into amassing wealth, gathering material objects either(Sambhooti:सम्भूति). Such is the path of sorrow, the Darkness.
Truth is the biggest way to counter lies and hence we should all be well informed.
“Om Shanti Shanti Shanti “

"na tasya pratima asti
"There is no image of Him."
[Yajurveda 32:3]5

"shudhama poapvidham"
"He is bodyless and pure."
[Yajurveda 40:8]6

"Andhatama pravishanti ye asambhuti mupaste"
"They enter darkness, those who worship the natural elements" (Air, Water, Fire, etc.). "They sink deeper in darkness, those who worship sambhuti."
[Yajurveda 40:9]7

Try to use brain which is down in your feet and read the below full verse and their meanings

"Na Tasya Pratima Asti, Yasya Nam Mahadyash
Hiranyagarbh Ityesha Ma Ma Hinsidityesha Yasmanna Jat Ityesha"
The supreme god who is described in verses like Hiranyagarbh, Yasmanna Jat, Ma Ma Hinsit, whose name and glory is extremely broad buthe/she does not have any pattern - (which means, he does not have any specific pattern but by your meditational intellectual u can imagine his pattern) To be noted that the word Pratima here doesnt mean image but it means pattern
[Yajurveda 32:3]

"Sa Paryagaachukramkayamvranmasnaveer shuddhampapviddham