Tuesday, March 31, 2015

Kumari Kandam in Puranas -Submerged city of India and Sri Lanka

References of Kumari Kandam in Puranas and Ancient Tamil Literature.
Last Post, for more information, please see Google, or your favorite library. Thanks to our fans that like these interesting articles, and our Page.
In Tamil literary works Aintiram, Silappadhikaram, Manimekhalai and SaivamPaayanam and in Sanskrit literary work Bhagavatha Purana, there are information about Tamil sage Mayan, who wrote one of the Tamil Sangam literary works Aintiram, and was part of Tamil Sangams and lived in Kumari Kandam.

This sage also wrote other Tamil literature Pranava Vedham (which is called by Vyasa as the predecessor of four Vedas in Bhagavatha Purana), MayaMatham (Book about Architecture, Sculptures and Vasthu) and SuriyaNool (Book about Astronomy and Astrology), one Tamil grammatical work, etc. According to Aintiram, Kumari Kandam was a land which has huge area and the PalThuli river (PalThuli – Divided grammatical form of Pahruli according to Tamil grammar which means many drops), one of the Kumari Kandam rivers, originated from PeruMalai(means big mountain – represents MeruMalai – Meru Mountain). It also tells that there were 49 lands in Kumari Kandam.

Tamil literary work SaivamPaayanam gives information about Kumari Kandam and its territories. It also mentions the existence of PeruMalai (MeruMalai – Meru Mountain) in Kumari Kandam.
•The Tamil literary work Manimekhalai, mentions about multiple Tsunamis in the ancient city of Poompuhar and was swallowed up by the sea. This event is supported by archeological finds of submerged ruins off the coast of modern Poompuhar.
•The Tamil poetic literature Tamil vidu thoothu describes the Topography of Kumari Kandam. It is also said that the Pahruli river was excavated to irrigate the mountain valley by the Pandiyan King Nediyon.
The third Sangam literary work Purananooru talks about Kumari Kandam and the river Pahruli which was there in Kumari Kandam.
•The Tamil Grammar work Nannool talks about the sunken country Kumari Kandam.
•The Tamil literature SiruKakkaip Paadiniyaar talks about the Kumari Kandam.
•There are references for Kumari Kandam present in Kantapuranam, which mentions it as one of the nine continents of old times, or one of the nine divisions of India and the only region not to be inhabited by barbarians.
•According to the Matsya Purana, Manu was the king of Dravidadesa (South Indian country) in Kumari Kandam.
•There are references for Kumari Kandam present in Garuda Puranam. Also, There are scattered references in Sangam literature, such as Kalittokai 104, to how the sea took the land of the Pandiyan Kings, after which they conquered new lands to replace those they had lost.
References of Kumari Kandam (Lemuria) in Chinese & Greek Literature
In some of the ancient Chinese chronicles, there are references to Pahruli river, Peru river and Meru Mountain (with 49 peaks) from where the Kumari River, Peru river and Pahruli river were originated (according to Tamil literature). It is said that Chinese laborers were employed by the Pandiyan King and when they went down the mines they appeared like a huge army of small ants. Therefore, they were called pon thondi erumbukal (Gold mining ants). This is also confirmed by ancient Chinese chronicles.
Megasthenes (ca. 350 – 290 BCE), a Greek ethnographer and explorer in the Hellenistic period, authored the work Indika, the account of his travels in India. In this work, he says that Taprobane (old name of Sri Lanka) was separated from the mainland (Indian Peninsula) by a river, which means that during the period of Megasthenes, Sri Lanka could have been connected to Indian Peninsula by a small landmass in between them and was divided by Thamirabarani River (Porunai River).
The current Thamirabarani River in Tamil Nadu flows into the sea suggests that the Thamirabarani River would have reached Sri Lanka through a now-submerged landmass existed between Indian Peninsula and Sri Lanka during the period of Megasthenes.

Archaeological Data supporting existence of Kumari Kandam.
The marine archeological findings at Poompuhar (Tamil Nadu) by marine archeological research conducted by the National Institute of Marine Archeology (Goa) reveals that much of the town of Poompugar (Tamil Nadu) was washed away by progressive erosion and a Tsunami around 300 BC.
•Ancient Pottery dating back to the 4th century BC have been discovered off shore by marine archeologists east of this town. The timeline of this Tsunami also coincides with the timeline (after the period of Megasthenes visit to India) of the submergence of landmass which was claimed to be existed between Indian Peninsula and Sri Lanka according to Megasthenes accounts
The geological survey reveals that most of the places in the land under the sea, where Kumari Kandam is claimed to be existed, has the maximum depth of the sea of 200 meters. In some of the places, the maximum depth of the sea is 2000 meters. Since, these areas has low sea depth, there are more possibilities to exists a now-submerged land in which people lived.

•Languages spoken by Australian tribes, African tribes, Andaman and Nicobar tribes and Lakshadweep tribes are identical to Tamil language. So, there are high possibilities that there might be a connecting land which exists in between India, Australia and Madagascar
•Types of plants, trees and animals present in Africa and Madagascar are identical with that of in India. So, there might be a connecting land which exists in between India and Madagascar.

According to th Kumari Kandam tradition, over a period of about just 11,000 years, the Pandyans, a historical dynasty of Tamil kings, formed three Tamil Sangams, in order to foster among their subjects the love of knowledge, literature and poetry. These Sangams were the fountain head of Tamil culture and their principal concern was the perfection of the Tamil language and literature. The first two Sangams were not located in what is now South India but in antediluvian Tamil land to the south which in ancient times bore the name of Kumari Kandam, literally the Land of the Virgin or Virgin Continent.
The First Sangam (Mutaṟcaṅkam) is described as having been held at the Pandiyan King’s capital city, Madurai (Kadal Konda Then Madurai – which means Southern Madurai which was submerged in the sea. The old Madurai was called as Southern Madurai to differentiate it with the capital city of Madurai of third Sangam), which lasted a total of 4440 years, and had 549 members, which supposedly included some gods of the Hindu pantheon such as Siva, Kubera and Murugan. A total of 4449 poets are described as having composed songs for this Sangam. There were 89 Pandiyan kings starting from Kaysina valudi to Kadungon were decedents and rulers of that period.
If credence is given to this commentary, then the beginning of first Sangam should be placed somewhere in 9000 B.C.
Most of the lands of Kumari Kandam were submerged in the sea during first devouring of the land by the sea. Then, the Pandiyan King and the remaining people migrated to the remaining land of Kumari Kandam and the king moved his capital to Kapatapuram. At the same time, the present location of Tamil Nadu was ruled by Chera, Chola, and 46 other small kingdoms.
The Second Sangam (Irandaam Caṅkam, Iṭaicaṅkam) was convened in Kapatapuram, the then capital city of Pandiyan King. This Sangam lasted for 3700 years and had 59 members, with 3700 poets participating. There were 59 Pandiyan kings starting from Vendercceliyan to Mudattirumaran were decedents and rulers of that period.

This city was also submerged in sea. Ramayana and Arthasastra of Kautalya corroborates the existence of a city named kavatapuram. There is a reference to a south Indian place called kavata by sugriva in a verse which runs something like ‘having reached Kavata suitable for Pandiya‘. The place kavata is also mentioned by Kautalya (also known as Acharya Chanakya) in Arthasastra.
Having lost the complete Kumari Kandam, the Pandiyan King conquered the part of lands belonging to the Chola and Chera kings (Silapathikaram, Maturaikkandam, verses 17-22) and made Korkai, a seaport on the southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula, as his capital and in later times moved his capital to the current city of Madurai.
The Third Sangam (Moondraam Caṅkam, Kaṭaicaṅkam) was purportedly located in the current city of Madurai, the then capital city of Pandiyan King, and lasted for 1850 years. There were 49 Pandiyan kings starting from Mudattirumaran (who came away from Kabadapuram to present Madurai) to Ukkirapperu valudi were decedents and rulers of that period.
The academy had 49 members, and 449 poets are described as having participated in the Sangam.

Hydrology of Ancient India

Ancient Vedic Science: Hydrology in Ancient India.
Ancient India vis-à-vis Modern Science.'s photo. Natural entities and forces, such as Sun, Earth, Rivers, Ocean, Wind, Water, etc. have been worshipped in India as Gods since time immemorial. Perhaps it is not a sheer coincidence that the King of these Gods is Indra, the God of Rain. Clearly, ancient Indians were aware of the importance of rain and other hydrologic variables for the society. The ancient Indian literature contains numerous references to hydrology and a reading of it suggests that those people knew the basic concepts of hydrological processes and measurements. Important concepts of modern hydrology are scattered in various verses of Vedas, Puranas, Meghmala, Mahabharat, Mayurchitraka, Vrhat Sanhita and other ancient Indian works.
Hydrologic Cycle
The Vedic texts which are more than 3,000 years old contain valuable references on hydrologic cycle. The most important concepts, on which the modern science of hydrology is founded, are scattered in Vedas in various verses which are in the form of hymns and prayers addressed to various deities. Likewise, other Sanskrit literature has valuable discourses regarding hydrology.
Atisthanteenam viveshnanam kashthanam madhyaey nihitam shareeram,
Bratrasya nidyam vi varantyapo deerghatam aashaydindrashatruha.
Ancient India vis-à-vis Modern Science.'s photo. Verse I, 32, 10 says that the water is never stationary, but it continuously gets evaporated and due to smallness of particles we cannot see the upgoing water particles.
In the Varahamihira’s Vraht Sanhita (550 A.D.), three Chapters are devoted to hydrometeorology comprising Pregnancy of clouds, Pregnancy of air and quantity of rainfall. Slokas 1 and 2 of Dakargelam (Chapter 54 of Vraht Samhita) state the importance of science of ground water exploration which helps man to ascertain the existence of water. These are as follows:
Dharmyam yashashyam va vadabhaytoham dakargalam yen jaloplabdhiha
Punsam yathagdeshu shirastathaiva chhitavapi pronnatnimnasanstha.
Ekayna vardayna rasayna chambhyashchyutam namasto vasudha vishayshanta
Nana rastvam bahuvarnatam cha gatam pareekshyam chhititulyamayva.
The water veins beneath the earth are like vein’s in the human body, some higher and some lower. The water falling from sky assumes various colours and tastes from differences in the nature of the earth.
In Linga Purana a full fledged chapter (I, 36) has been devoted to the science of hydrology. It scientifically explains evaporation, condensation, rainfall with suitable examples and says that the water cannot be destroyed, only its state is changed:
Dandhaymanayshu charachayshu godhoombhootastvabha nishkramantee
Ya ya oordhva mastraynayrita vai tastastvabhamyagnivayucha.
Ato dhoomagnivatanam sanyogstavamuchyatay
Vareeni varshteetyabhrambhrasyeshah sahastradrik.
i.e. “after being heated by sun, water contained in most of the materials on earth gets converted to smoke (vapour) and ascends to sky with the air and subsequently gets converted to cloud. Thus the combination of smoke, fire and air is the cause of cloud formation. These clouds cause rainfall under the guidance of Lord Indra, having thousand eyes.
Vayu (51. 14-15-16) states like this:
Aadityapateetam suryaganeha somam sankramatay jalam
Nadeebhirvayuyuktabhirlokadhanam pravartatay.
Yatsomatstravatay surya tadbhayshvavatishthatay
Megha vayunighatain visrajant jalam bhuvi.
Evamutikshapyatay chaiva patatay cham punarjalam
Na nashmu udkasyasti tadev parivartatay.
i.e. the water evaporated by sun ascends to atmosphere through the capillarity of air, and there gets cooled and condensed. After formation of clouds it rains by the force of air. Thus, water is not lost in all these processes but gets converted from one form to other continuously.
Ancient India vis-à-vis Modern Science.'s photo. Verses of Rigveda (I, 27.6; I, 32.8):
Vibhaktasi chitrabhano sindhoroorma upak aa
Sagho dashushay chharasi.
Nadam na bhinnamuya shayanam mano ruhana atim yantyapah
Yashchidwatro mahina paryatishthattasamhih patsutah shirbbhoova.
This verse explains that all water that goes to the sky with wind by the heat of Sun rays gets converted to clouds and then again after the penetration by sunrays it rains and gets stored into rivers, ponds, ocean, etc.
Surface Water
Efficient water use, lining of canals, construction of dams, tanks, essential requirements for the construction of good tanks, bank protection methods, spillways and other minor aspects were given due consideration in ancient times in India. Well organized water pricing system was prevalent during the time of Chanakya (mentor and prime minister of Chandragupta Maurya). Various references are available in the Vedas emphasizing the importance of efficient water use so as to reduce the intensity of water scarcity and drought, etc.
Verses (184. 15–17) of Mahabharata state that the plants drink water through their roots. The mechanism of water uptake by plants is explained by the example of water rise through a pipe. It is said that the water uptake process is facilitated by the conjunction of air. This clearly reveals the knowledge of capillary action of soil in the movement of water up and down the plant.
Two Mantras of Atharvaveda say that if the water source is on mountains, then the river formed will be perennial and will flow with high speed. It also say that the rivers originating from snowclad mountains will keep on flowing in summers also.
Ground Water
People also developed technique of knowing the slope of an area by means of a flowing river. Variation in the height of water table with place, hot and cold springs, ground water utilization by means of wells, well construction methods and equipment are fully described in 54th chapter of Vrhat Sanhita named as ‘Dakargala’. Sun rays, wind, humidity, vegetation, etc., as the major causes of evapotranspiration were well realized.
'Narmada Canal.

Image;  Yahoo.com' The Vishnu Purana (II, 5.3) classified the soils of subterranean region in seven categories, (i) Black (2) White or Yellowish (3) Blue or Red (4) Yellow (5) Gravelly (6) Hilly or boulder and (7) Golden hued. Regarding the occurrence of ground water, it says: “If there is a termite mound nearby to the east of a Jambu tree, plenty of sweet water, yielding for a long time occurs at a depth of two Purushas, at a distance of three hastas (cubit) to the south of the tree. Similarly, an Arjuna tree with a termite mound to the north shows water at a depth of 3.5 Purushas at a distance of 3 hastas to the west”.
In Vedic age, Indians had developed the concept that water gets divided into minute particles due to the effect of sunrays and wind. In various places in Puranas, it is stated that water cannot be created or destroyed, only its state is changed in various phases of the hydrologic cycle. Evaporation, condensation, cloud formation, precipitation and its measurement were well understood in India in Vedic times.
Effects of Yajna, forests, reservoirs, etc. on rainfall; classification of clouds, their colour, rainfall capacity, etc.; forecasting of rainfall on the basis of natural phenomena, such as colour of sky, clouds, wind direction, lightening, and the activities of animals; all these were well developed in India even before the 10th century B.C. Contrivance to measure rainfall was developed during the time of Chanakya (4th century B.C.) which had the same principle as that of modern hydrology except that the weight measure of Drona was adopted instead of modern depth measurement of rainfall.
The knowledge of monsoon winds and height of clouds along with the division of atmosphere was well developed in the Vedic age. “O cloud-bearing winds, your troops are rich in water, they are strengtheners of life, and are your strong bonds, they shed water and augment food, and are harnessed with waves that wander far and spread everywhere. Combined with lightning, the triple-group (of wind, cloud and lightning) roars aloud, and the water falls upon the earth.”
By the time of Chanakya (4th century B.C.), Indians had developed the method and instrumental devices for measuring rainfall. This raingauge was known as Varshaman. Chanakya describes its construction in these words “In front of the store house, a bowel (Kunda) with its mouth as wide as an aratni (nearly 18 inches) shall be set up as rain gauge”. Chanakya was acquainted with the distribution of rainfall in various areas. He furnishes a very accurate scientific description of the same with statistics. The quantity of rain that falls in the country of Jangala (desert countries) is 16 dronas (4 Adak = 1 drona and one adak equals nearly 7 lb, 11 oz), half as much in moist countries (the countries which are fit for agriculture), 13.5 dronas in the countries of Asmakas (Maharashtra); 23 dronas in Avanti, and an immense quantity in the western countries, the border of the Himalayas and the countries where water channels are used in agriculture. From this it is evident that the spirit of the methodology of the measurement of rainfall given by Chanakya is the same as we have today, the only difference is that he expresses it in weight measures while we use a linear measure nowadays.
Further discussing the geographical details of rainfall, he observes “when one third of the requisite quantity of rain falls both during the commencement and closing months of the rainy season, and two third in the middle, then the rainfall is considered very even.” Discussing the classification of clouds and interrelationship of rainfall and agriculture, the celebrated author adds “there are the clouds which continuously rain for seven days; eighty are they that pour minute drops; and sixty are they that appear with the sunshine”. When rain, free from wind and unmingled with sunshine falls so as to render three turns of ploughing possible, then the reaping of good harvest is certain.
The Vrhat Sanhita and Mayuracitraka by Varahamihira are two very important treatises which are replete with climatological and meteorological information, although they abound in astrological guesses, they contain sufficient scientific facts also. The Vrhat Samhita has three chapters (21st, 22nd, and 23rd_ on climatology and meteorology.
The Jains have made considerable contribution in the field of meteorology. The ‘Prajnapana’ and ‘Avasyaka Curnis’ provide outstanding studies of the various types of winds. This tradition must have been far older than these treatises. The ‘Prajnapana’ makes reference of snowfall and hailstorm.
The ‘Trilokasara’ of Nemichandra says that there are seven types of periodic clouds. They rain for seven days each in the rainy season. Then there are twelve species of white clouds. They also bring rain for seven days each. Thus the season of rainfall extends over 133 days in all.
Buddhists too, at least before 400 B.C., have attempted at a very scientific classification of clouds and four species mentioned by them can be compared with the most important four species enumerated in modern meteorology. So much of subtle observation at such an early date is an achievement of the finest order.
Water Purification
It is very interesting to learn that Varahamihira in as early as 550 AD presented a simple method for obtaining potable water from a contaminated source of water. Various plant materials along with solar heating, aeration, quenching of water with fire heated stones, gold, silver, iron or sand were suggested for this purpose. The change in the quality of water with the months of year and suitability of water from different sources for various uses were described.
End of article.
Source: Excerpted from the book “Hydrology and Water Resources in Ancient India”
Mystery of India

Hinduism in Italy

Ancient India vis-à-vis Modern Science.'s photo.Hinduism in Italy. Goddess Lakshimi in the ancient city of Pompeii, this statue survived the volcano explosion in 79 AC.
In 1939, Italian archeologist Prof Maiuri, discovered an artifact in the ruins of ancient Pompeii, that had a very Indian origin. This ivory statuette which survived the disaster and lasted all these 2000 years was identified by Prof Maiuri as that of the Goddess Lakshmi and dated to around 1AD. It has since then been quoted as the ‘Goddess Lakshmi statue in Pompeii’ in many books & articles.
The statue portrays Lakshmi, Indian divinity of feminine beauty and fertility. It wears scanty, transparent clothing that accentuates the contours of her body and sharply contrasts with her abundant jewelry. Her body is adorned with heavy jewels: a diadem on her forehead, a necklace on her chest and large and numerous rings on her ankles and wrists. Her long hair, also richly embellished, flows over her shoulders down to her waist. In this respect she compares closely with female figures sculpted on Buddhist monuments at prominent monastic sites such as Bharhut (late 2nd c. BCE.) and Sanchi (50-25 BCE) in central India as well as Karle (50-75 CE) in western India.
Ancient India vis-à-vis Modern Science.'s photo. She seems to raise her left hand in order to support the enormous weight of the conical earring in her left ear. Similar earrings are depicted on terracotta figurines that circulated in eastern India during the 3rd-2nd centuries B.C.E. and a shell example has been discovered at the site of Kausambi in northern India.
A heavy, multi-chained necklace with a triangular pendant shaped like a lotus blossom falls in between her breasts, while two more lotus forms protrude from the necklace immediately below each shoulder. In ancient Indian mythology, lotuses were considered to be symbols of the cyclical nature of creation and perfect embodiments of the cosmos.
The letter ‘si’, which is inscribed on the statuette’s base in kharoshthi (a script commonly used in northwest India), together with the emphasis on adornment may lead us to identify this figure as Sri Lakshmi, the goddess of beauty, prosperity, and abundance.
Richly adorned female figures were particularly popular subjects in ancient Indian art and literature. By the 2nd century B.C.E. portable figurines and plaques made of terracotta, bone, and ivory featuring bejewelled female figures were produced and widely distributed throughout India. Similar figures were sculpted in stone, either independently or paired with male figures, and placed on exterior walls, gateways, and railings of Buddhist monuments all over the Indian subcontinent. Additionally, in secular texts composed during the first half of the first millennium C.E., notably in Vatsayana’s Kamasutra, ideal images of beauty were prescribed for both men and women.
The heavily ornamented female figure at the center of this portable ivory statuette found in a residence on the Via della Abbondanza in Pompei clearly belongs to this genre of images from the Indian subcontinent.
The figure’s exact identity is quite unclear. However in terms of iconography and technique, the closest comparisons can be made with ivory figurines recovered from the central and northwestern parts of the sub-continent and datable to the 1st century A.D. Two of these examples were found at the sites of Bhokardan and Ter in central India and a third was excavated in Begram, Afghanistan along with a large cache of ivory, bone, glass, and metal objects.
Although these four figurines are not perfect matches, their shared iconographic and compositional features suggest that they may have been produced in the same region (probably central India) before being distributed to other regions.
This small, rare sculpture, found in a modest dwelling in Pompeii, represents nonetheless an important indication of a trade relations that existed already by the 1st century A.D. between the Roman Empire and India.
The Romans imported many goods from India and at the same time set up their own trading stations in the country. A particularly famous one was at Arikamedu (near modern Pondicherry), where Roman coins, amphoras and roman glass have been found.
Moeller (The wool trade of ancient Pompeii Walter O. Moeller Pg 76) feels that there existed a trade of dye stuff between Indian and Pompeii based on the fact that the building next door to the one that housed the statuette was a dye house. So he feels that the statue perhaps came together with a shipment of Indigo dyes.
Researcher K. V. Ramakrishna Rao feels that the statue is much older. He contends in his paper (Ganges Valley Civilization to Indus Valley Civilization to Saraswati Valley civilization) that the statuette could perhaps be dated to an older pre-Mauryan period i.e., before 300 BCE.
Amazing! This little statue survived the intense heat of the lava, the disaster and is now a testament to the trade relations between the ancient Rome & India dating back over 2000 yeaRS.
Mystery of India.com

Sunday, March 29, 2015

Shiva lingam in Vatican City

shiva lingam etruscan museum vatican cityThis Siva Lingam is exhibited in Gregorian Etruscan Museum Vatican City.
This has the most important Etruscan collection in Rome, starting with early Iron Age objects from the 9th century BC.
Encyclopedia Britannica mentions under the headings “Etruria” and “Etruscan” that between the 2nd and 7th centuries BC, northern Italy was known as Etruria.
During archaeological excavations many such “meteoric stones mounted on carved pedestals(Siva Lingas on Bases)” are discovered in Italy.
This Siva Lingam was dug-up from Vatica City itself. Many more must be lying buried in the Vatican’s massive walls and numerous cellars.
The word ‘Vatican‘ itself is derived from sanskrit word ‘Vatika or Vatica‘, which means vedic cultural or religious centers.
In sanskrit Vatika word is used to describe a place, such as Ananda-Vatika, Ashrama-Vatika, Yagna-Vatika etc.
Such words and discoveries prove that the Vatican was a Hindu (Vedic) religious center before its incumbent was forced to accept Christianity from 1st century AD.

Mayan City Yaxchilan (Yaksha-Sila), in Mexico – Indian Connection

yaxchilan city mexico
Yaxchilan LintelMayan City Yaxchilan is an ancient city located on the bank of the Usumacinta River in Chipas, Mexico.
Epigraphers think that the ancient name for the city was probably the same as that of its’ realm, Pa’ Chan, meaning “Cleft (or broken) Sky“.
The lintels of Yaxchilan Temples are decorated with carvings that can be connected to carvings ofYakshas in India.
In Sanskrit PaShan (पाषण) also means stone and this could be distorted as Pa’Chan.
In Ancient India, Yakshas(यक्ष) are a class of benevolent spirits or super-natural guards who are the custodians of treasures that are hidden in the earth and in the roots of trees.
Kubera (lord of wealth) was leader of Yakshas, who left Lanka to his cousin brother Raavan and migrated to other place.
Maya, who built mystical and phenomenal structures for Yakshas and Asuras was also a Yaksha and we can related him as origin of Mayan civilization, that thrived in mexico and south america.
Yaksha Yakshini stone carvingSila (शिला) means stone or stone-sculpture or stone plate in sanskrit.
Yaksha-Sila (यक्षशिला) are the Yaksha’s stone-lintels in Mexico and thus the name Yaxchilan (distorted version of Yaksha-Sila).
Yakshas are mentioned in Hindu, Buddhist and Jain traditions.
In Indian art, male yakṣhas are portrayed either as fearsome warriors or as portly, stout and dwarf-like. Female yakṣhas, known as yakṣhiṇīs, are portrayed as beautiful young women with happy round faces and full breasts and hips.

Yaxchilan Lintel in Mexico & Yaksha with Yakshini stone carving in India

Yakshas in Buddhism

Yakshas (Thai: ยักษ์, Yak) are an important element in Thai temple art and architecture, as they are the guardians of all Buddhist temple gates.
Yakshas and their female counterparts are common in the Buddhist literature of Thailand. As ogres, giants and ogresses yakshas are popular as well in Thai folklore.
yaksha guarding wat phra kaew  temple in bangkok

Yakshas in Jainism

Jains mainly worship idols of Arihants and Tirthankaras, who have conquered the inner passions and attained God-consciousness status. Some Jains also believe that Yaksha and Yakshini look after the well-being of Tirthankaras. Usually, they are found in pair around the idols of Jinas as male (yaksha) and female (yakshini) guardian deities. Yaksha is generally on the right-hand side of the Jina idol and Yakshini on the left-hand side. In earlier periods, they were regarded mainly as devotees of Jina, and have supernatural powers. They are also wandering through the cycles of births and deaths just like the worldly souls, but have supernatural powers. Over time, people started worshiping these deities as well.
Some Yaksa were and are known for bestowing fertility and wealth upon their devotes. Therefore, they had become very popular and their idols had been placed in Jain temples and Jains worship them. Jains offer them different things in favor of boons for children, wealth or freedom from fears, illness or disease.
Since ancient times, Yaksha-Gaana (Song of the Yakshas), the musical presentation of the Yaksha folklore, which is equivalent to the popularity of the Opera in the West, famous in India.
Mahabharata mentions an episode where one Yaksha captures 4 brothers of Yudhishtira and asks Yaksha-Prasnas (Yaksha’s questions). Yudhishtira answers all of them to prove his worth as future king and gets is brothers released.

Dreams and Sleep explained in Prasnopanishad

sleep dreams mind explained in Prasnopanishad
sleep dreams mind explained in Prasnopanishad
Prasna Upanishad consists of six questions (prasnas) and their answers. It is also associated with the Atharva Veda
Six students (Sukesha, Satyakama, Sauryayanee, Bhargava, Kabandhi) interested in knowing divinity or Brahman come to sage Pippalada and request him to clarify their spiritual doubts.
The fourth question asked by Souryayanee Gargya is concerned with dream world of human beings.
Sauryayanee Gargya asks
“atha hEnam souryayanee gargya papraccha |
bhagavannEtasmin purushE kaani svapanti kaanyasmin jaagrati katar yEsha dEva |
swapnaan pashyati kasyaitata sukham bhavati kasminnu sarvE sampratishTitaa bhavanteeti |”
Translation : Sauryayani, belonging to the family of Garga, asked: “Sir, what are they that sleep in man and what are they that remain awake in him ? Which deity is it that sees dreams ? Whose is the happiness ? In whom, again, are all these gathered together ?

Sage Pippalada replied “O Gargya, As all the rays of the sun, when it sets, are gathered up in that disc of light, and as they, when the sun rises again and again, come forth, so is all this (all the senses) gathered up in the highest faculty (deva), the mind. Therefore at that time that man does not hear, see, smell, taste, touch, he does not speak, he does not take, does not enjoy, does not evacuate, does not move about. He sleeps, that is what People say.
The prana fires remain awake in this city (body) during sleep/dream. Apana is the Garhapatya Fire and vyana, the Anvaharyapachana Fire. And prana is the Ahavaniya Fire, so called from being taken—since it is taken from the Garhapatya Fire.
Samana is so called because it distributes equally the two oblations, namely, the out—breathing and the in—breathing; it is the priest. The mind, verily, is the sacrificer. Udana is the fruit of the sacrifice, because it leads the sacrificer every day, in deep sleep, to Brahman.
There, in dreams, that god, the mind, experiences glory. Whatever has been seen he sees again; whatever has been heard he hears again; whatever has been experienced in different countries and quarters, he experiences again. Whatever has been seen or not seen, heard or not heard and whatever is real or not real—he sees it all. He sees all, himself being all.
When the jiva is overcome by light he sees no dreams; at that time, in this body, arises this happiness.
As a bird goes to a tree to roost, even so, O friend, all this rests in the Supreme Atman : Earth and its subtle counterpart, water and its subtle counterpart, fire and its subtle counterpart, air and its subtle counterpart, akasa and its subtle counterpart, the eye and what can be seen, the ear and what can be heard, the nose and what can be smelt, the taste and what can be tasted, the skin and what can be touched, the organ of speech and what can be spoken, the hands and what can be grasped, the organ of generation and what can be enjoyed, the organ of excretion and what can be excreted, the feet and what is their destination, the mind (manas) and what can be thought, the intellect (buddhi) and what can be comprehended, the ego (ahamkara) and the object of egoism, the memory (chitta) and its object, knowledge (tejah) and its object, prana and what is to be supported.
He, verily, it is who sees, feels, hears, smells, tastes, thinks and knows. He is the doer, the intelligent self, the purusha. He is established in the Highest, the imperishable Atman.
He who knows that indestructible being, obtains (what is) the highest and indestructible, he without a shadow, without a body, without colour, bright,yes, O friend, he who knows it, becomes all-knowing, becomes all.
He, who knows that indestructible being wherein the true knower, the vital spirits (pranas), together with all the powers (deva), and the elements rest, he, being all-knowing, has penetrated all.”

Thus, it can be understood that humans and other living beings live like Brahma, the creator.
They absorb everything into themselves during sleep and when they wakeup, they re-create everything including themselves.
The supreme god exists in all of us, making us go through the process of creation and absorption everyday.

Tachyons, Ultra-voilet, Infra-red bands, Nuclear Energy and Blacks Holes in Mundakopanishad

Tachyon MundakopanishadMundakopanishad written around 6000 BCE in ancient india, is associated with the Atharvaveda.
It describes about Tachyons (particles that travel faster than light), Ultra-Violet band, Infra-Red band, Nuclear Energy and Black Holes in the space.
Mundakopanishad might have derived its name from ‘munda‘ (shaven head of a monk).
It has three chapters and each chapter is divided into sub chapters which are called “Khanda“. In total this Upanishad has 64 Mantras.
This Upanishad divides all knowledge into two categories. The knowledge that leads to Self Realization is called Para Vidya (Great or Divine Knowledge) and everything else is called Apara Vidya or Knowledge of Material world (wordly knowledge).
Another important feature of this upanishad is its lauding of Sarva Karma Sannyasa or Renouncement of All Action. Thus encourages the opinion that monkhood is good way for attaining self-realization.
In 1st chapter, 2nd section, it has a mantra which describes seven flickering tongues of the fire(light/energy).
Those are Kaali (black one), Karaali (terrific one), Manojava (swift as the mind), Sulohita (the deep red), Sudhumravarna (the smoke-coloured), Sphulligini (sparkling) and the Viswa-Rupi or the Viswaruchi (having all forms).
Whoever performs his Karmas (Agnihotra etc.), when these flames are shining and in proper time, then these oblations lead him through the rays of the sun to where the one lord of the Deva dwells.
The properties described for Manojava are same as for Tachyon, which travels faster than light and its speed is equal to that of human mind.
In modern science, Tachyon, (pron.: /ˈtæki.ɒn/) (term in use since 1967) is a hypothetical faster-than-light particle.
In the 1967 paper that coined the term, Gerald Feinberg proposed that tachyonic particles could be quanta of a quantum field with negative squared mass.
The descriptions of Sulohita is similar to Infra-red rays, of Sudhumravarna is similar to ultra-violet rays, Sphulligini same as nuclear energy and Viswaruchi same as Black Hole in space that can absorb everything.

Gravitational force, Apana Vayu in Prasnopanishad, Ancient Indian Scriptures

gravitational force prasnopanishadIssac Newton discovered universal gravitation in 16th century when he observed an apple fall from a tree.
But Prasnopanishad(6000 BC) described the force that pulls objects down and keeps us grounded on earth without floating.
In Prashnopanishad chapter 3 while describing the panchapranas, the apana vayu is said to be residing in the anus and genitals – paayoopasthepaanam.
It is responsible for throwing out from the body faeces, urine, semen, menstrual blood and foetus. Further, the upanishad says : prithivyaam yaa devataa saisha purushasya apaanamavashatabhyaantaraa
The devata that is in earth she supports this apana. She helps apana for throwing out from the body. Space travellers face difficulty in excretion due to absence of gravitational force there. The link between apana and the earth aiding it is quite clear in this upanishad.
Further in his commentary to this upanishad, Adi Shankara ( 8th century AD ) says
‘tathaa prithivyaam abhimaaninee yaa devataa prasiddhaa saishaa purushasya apaanavrithimavashtabhyaakrishya vasheekrityaadha evapakarshanenanugraham kurvati vartata ityarthaha. anyathaa hi shareeram gurutvat patetsavakashe vaa udagacheta’.
This devata blesses by supporting apana by pulling in the downward direction. Or else, the body would have floated up.

Size of soul,Atma decoded

None of us have seen actual soul(spirt) that lives in our body with our naked eye.
The Svetasvatara Upanishad (श्वेताश्वतरनोपनिषद् or Śvetāśvataropaniṣad) explains the actual dimension or size of soul.
Śvetāśvataropaniṣad is associated with the Krishna Yajurveda and contains 113 mantras in 6 chapters. It is estimated to have been composed around 4th century BCE.
Most of this Upanishad is attributed to Sage Svetasvatara (Sveta-Asvatara i.e the one owing a white mule).
Other commentators are Adi Sankaracharya, Vijnanatma, Shankarananda and Narayana Tirtha.
Śvetāśvataropaniṣad is the earliest textual exposition of a systematic philosophy of Saivism, for the first time elevating Rudra to the status of Īśa (Lord), a god with cosmological functions such as those later attributed to Siva.
balagra sata bhagasya
satadha kalpitasya ca
bhago jivah sa vijneyah
sa canantyaya kalpate || Svetasvatara Upanishad (5.9)
Translation : When the upper tip of a hair follicle is divided into one hundred parts and again each of such parts is further divided into one hundred parts, each such part is the measurement of the dimension of the spirit soul.

Similar description has been made in Chaitanya Charitamrita by Swami Prabhupada.
jīvaḥ sūkṣma-svarūpo ‘yaṁ
saṅkhyātīto hi cit-kaṇaḥ || Chaitanya Charitamrita; Madhya Lila; 19.140
That means, a hair tip has to be divided into ten thousand parts and one such part is Cit-Kana (particle of spirit).
Which means that the individual particle of spirit soul is a spiritual atom smaller than the material atoms, and such atoms are innumerable.
Bhagavad Gita also states that soul is imperishable and cannot be seen with naked eye.
avinasi tu tad viddhi
yena sarvam idam tatam
vinasam avyayasyasya
na kascit kartum arhati || Bhagavad Gita 2.17
Translation : That which pervades the entire body you should know to be indestructible. No one is able to destroy that imperishable soul.
Mundakopanishad further explains the places where soul resides in human body.
eso ’nur atma cetasa veditavyo
yasmin pranah pancadha samvivesa
pranais cittam sarvam otam prajanam
yasmin visuddhe vibhavaty esa atma || Mundaka Upanishad (3.1.9)
Translation : The soul is atomic in size and can be perceived by perfect intelligence. This atomic soul is floating in the five kinds of air (prana, apana, vyana, samana and udana), is situated within the heart, and spreads its influence all over the body of the embodied living entities. When the soul is purified from the contamination of the five kinds of material air, its spiritual influence is exhibited.
Also Prana (Life) moves between Eye, Heart and Throat while we are awake, sleeping and dreaming (3 states of mind explained as Tri-Puras)

Genesis and Adam,Eve decoded

Adam Eve story from Upanishads
Adam Eve story from Upanishads
Many are aware of the story of Adam and Eve which belongs to the Hebrew tradition.
According to the Old Testament, is the first man, created by God on the sixth day of creation. Eve is the first woman not born but created by God to be the wife of Adam.
Adam actually is derived from Adamah meaning earth (They call him Aadmi in hindi)
Few scholars say that Adam is associated with the Assyrian ‘Adaman’ meaning ‘make‘ or ‘produce‘ and so ‘Adam‘ means maker or producer.
Eve in Hebrew is ‘Havah‘ and is associated with the root ‘hayah‘ or ‘hay‘ meaning life.
Adam and Eve lived with child like innocence in the Garden of Eden enjoying, God’s bliss. They were told that they could eat freely the fruit of every tree in the garden except that of the true knowledge of good and evil.
However, tempted by the serpent, Eve ate the fruit of knowledge tree and gave it to Adam.
As a result, they became conscious of their nakedness and sin, covered themselves with aprons of fig leaves.
To prevent from eating the fruit of tree of life, God banished them from Eden; and they were obliged to till the ground to obtain food. Eve’s further punishment was decreed in the following words-“I will multiply thy sorrow and thy conception, in sorrow, shalt thou bring forth children..
In this story, it is said that ‘the God prepared man on the 6th day’ etc., it is evident that the writer of the story did not have the real knowledge of the Genesis of the world.
It is not told in the story who prepared the serpent and how the serpent became equal and opposite to the God.
Even the ‘GOD‘ who created man and woman was not described clearly how he got the power to create and why did he create ?
The original story of Adam & Eve is however described as story of two birds in Mundakopanishad.
The initial process of creation from two forces was explained inPrasnopanishad 1/4, written around 6000 BCE.
Story of Rayi and Prana in Prasnopanishad : Kabandhi, a student asked the sage named as Pippalada, “From where all these things and animals come into existence?” .
Sage Pippalada replied, “The originator(creator) thought of producing different things and he performed Tapa and produced a couple, Rayi and Prana; and said that these two will produce variety of things and animals.
Ignorants may think Rayi is female because it sounds feminine and Prana is male because it sounds masculine.
But sage pippalada used the word Rayi to depict matter, and Prana to depict energy.
This is clear from the very next statement of the sage that the Sun is Prana and the Moon is Rayi, not only the Moon but any form is Rayi.(1/5).
Further he states that the Sun supports and maintains all the life by his rays. (1/6)
Excerpts from Prasnopanishad : Prana acts on Rayi. Various forms are manifested.
It is the intermingling of these two that gives rise to the world of diverse forms.
The one is active, positive and is the male principle; the other is passive, negative and is the female principle.
Prana belongs to the conscious side of creation, while Rayi or matter belongs to the form side of creation.
Matter is the universal form. Prana is life or consumer.
The body is upheld by the Prana or life principle.
Prajapati was desirous of offspring. From this desire a pair sprang forth, viz., matter or the universal form and Prana, life, or consumer.
As life and matter, Prajapati is, gradually, the sun and the moon, the year in its two halves, day and night.
Prana, Aditya (sun), day, Amurta (formless), life, spirit, northern path, invisibility, belong to the life side.
Rayi, the moon, the night, Murta (with form), matter, southern path, visibility, belong to the matter side.
Everyone who believes in modern science will agree that sun maintains life on earth.
So, sage pippalada disclosed this information thousands of years ago.
Now, the question about eating of the fruit and falling in trouble…
This is explained with story of two birds in Mundakopanishad 3-1-1 .
Excerpts from Mundakopanishad :
Two birds, inseparable companions, dwell upon one and the same tree. One of them eats the sweet fruit, the other one looks on without eating.
The two birds are Jiva (the individual soul) and Isvara (the Lord).
Having known Truth thus, one goes beyond death. There is no other road to salvation.
The Jivatman is limited by Avidya or ignorance. Therefore, he is bound by body, mind and work.
The Lord is conditioned by Maaya, but Maaya is under His control. Therefore, He is free, omnipotent and omniscient.
Tree here means the body. A tree can be cut or destroyed. The body also can be cut or destroyed. So the body is compared to a tree.
The reflection of the Parmatman in the mind-mirror is the Jivatman or the individual soul.
The Jiva tastes, from ignorance, the fruits of his Karmas, viz. happiness and misery.
The Atman is always the silent witness. It is non-doer or non-enjoyer. Enjoyment and agentship are superimposed on the Jiva by the mind.
When ignorance is destroyed, when the heart is purified, when knowledge of the Self dawns, the knots of the heart are rent asunder, all Karmas perish, the ideas of doer and enjoyer are annihilated. One becomes identified with the supreme Self and attains liberation.
Being seated on the same tree, the Jiva immersed in ignorance, and deluded, grieves, on account of helplessness. But when he sees the other, the Lord who is adored by all, and His glory, then he becomes free from grief.
Someone who was not conversant with the high philosophy, just took the stories from these upanishads and rewrote them in his own way.
Adim’ means the first, primitive, or original, which may have turned into Adam. Shakti is called as ‘E‘. This ‘E‘ may have converted into Eve.
Both the Prasna and Mundaka are the Upanishads of Atharva Veda, which is believed to have been spread in the west by travellers.

King Mahabali went to Patala Loka (South America)

vamana bali sukracaryaPuranas have defined 7 various lokas and in Bhagavata Purana and Padma Purana, they are called Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Talatala, Mahatala, Rasatala and Patala.
Vishnu Purana narrates a story in which Vishnu’s 5th avatar (incarnation), Vamana asked for land from Daitya King Mahabali and how Bali left India to settle in South America.

Vamana asking 3 quarters of land from Bali

Hiranyakasipu was a Daitya(son of Diti, not a demon). Diti was second daughter of Daksha (first was Aditi, who gave birth to Devas). Diti married to Kashyapa, a seer and had sons named as Hiranyaksha and Hiranyakasipu.
Hiranyaksha and Hiranyakasipu.
Hiranyaksha drowned the single super-continent Pangea into single global ocean, Panthalassa.
He was killed by Vishnu’s 3rd avatar Varaha and present ‘Sweta Varaha Kalpa‘ started.
Later Vishnu also killed Hiranyakasipu during his 4th avatar of Narasimha (Half Lion, Half Man) and made his son Prahlada as king.
Prahlada’s son was Virochana (Viracocha in Inca Mythology) and his son was Bali (Mahabali).
When Bali was performing Yagna under supervision of his guru Sukracharya, Vishnu came as Vamana(dwarf or kid) and asked for donation of ‘three pada Bhoomi.
This is wrongly interpreted as 3 foot land.
Infact it is 3 quarters of Land (pada here is similar to nakshatra pada in vedic astrology, where each nakshatra is divided into 4 padas [quarters]).
At that time, Bali was ruling over Asia, Europe and Africa. So he donated these 3 human inhabitated lands to Vamana and decided to leave.
Vamana was satisfied with Bali and gave him a boon of becoming next Indra, but until then he has to settle in Patala loka and perform yagnas.
Bali travelled towards east in a ship with his men in same path as described by Sugreeva in Ramayana and settled in South America.
On this path he discovered Sutala (Islands in South East Asia and Australia), Talatala (Antarctica) and Patala (South America).
His men created settlements even in Mahatala (North America).
atala vitala sutala mahatala rasatala patala talatala
People residing in these places were known as ‘Talatalak’. This name corrupted to ‘Toltec’.
Toltecs still exist in Mexico of South America. Maya (founder of Mayan Calendar) was an engineer, who built three cities for Bali.
Maya built 3 cities for his king Bali and thus Bali was called as ‘tribhuvanak‘ (lord of 3 cities). This word later got corrupted toTiahuanaco in Mexico.
The Nazca Lines in USA are supposed to be air plane landing markings made by Bali.
Patala was later inhabitated by people called as ‘Sarpa’, who went there on behest of Waman to keep
watch on Bali’s activities. Total seven colonies were new, therefore they were called as ‘Navatala’. Nava means new and Tala means colony. This word ‘Navatala’, in a corrupt form as ‘Nahuatl’, still exists in the South America. People residing in Mexico and around are known as ‘Nava’ and their language is called as ‘Nahuatl’.
Earlier, sons of King Sagara from Ikshwaku dynasty encroached there and were burnt live by sage Kapila.
They were brought back to life by Bhagiratha, who brought down Akasa Ganga.
In Mahabharata, Sarpa (snake) race were massacred in India at the time of Janamejaya, who ruled after 3100 BC.
This ‘Sarpa Yagam’ was done to avenge his father (Parikshit) death, which was caused by a sarpa called Takshaka.
These people were saved by one seer named as ‘Astika’. When the slaughter was on and after it many people of that race returned back to South America. They felt that Astika gave them rebirth and so they supposed themselves to be the sons of seer Astika and so called them to be Astek (meaning ‘of Astika’). These descendents still reside there and call themselves Aztec.
Indra was supposed to be the master of east. There would have been a conflict between Indra and Bali resulting from
boundary. Hence Vishnu decided to fix the limit of east. For that purpose both Daityas and Adityas built a signpost to limit their boundary. That signpost is the Trident at Peru.
In Ramayana, Rama said that Moola Nakshatra was the Kula Nakshatra of Daityas. It shows that the Daitya dynasty began when the Vernal equinox was at Moola Nakshatra. This period is more ancient than 17000 BC or even older.
Patala Loka is described to be exactly below earth (then India) and one has to go 70000 yojanas deeper in earth to reach to reach there.
Mexico and Brazil are exactly below India and one has to dig a hole(tunnel) of that distance to travel vertically.
In Ramayana, Hanuman travelled to Patala (Brazil) to rescue Rama, Lakshmana from Mahiranava.
Bali was originally ruling the area between East to South India and his 6 sons Even today, people in Kerala assume that their king Mahabali will return to their kingdom once every year and they celebrate ‘ONAM’ festival on that day.
This Bali had 6 sons, who later went onto establish races and kingdoms in between East to South India.
They were Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Sumha, Pundra, Andhra.
Kingdoms on these names were formed between Coast of Bengal and Andhra Pradesh.