Bhagavata Purana, composed around >35000 years ago, describes in detail, Stars, planets in our solar system, Sun, their dimensions, distances between them, climatic and karmic effects of their movement.
sa eṣa bhagavān ādi-puruṣa eva sākṣān nārāyaṇo lokānāṁ svastaya ātmānaṁ trayīmayaṁ karma-viśuddhi-nimittaṁ kavibhir api ca vedena vijijñāsyamāno dvādaśadhā vibhajya ṣaṭsu vasantādiṣv ṛtuṣu yathopa-joṣam ṛtu-guṇān vidadhāti. Translation : Original cause of the cosmic manifestation is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nārāyaṇa. When great saintly persons, fully aware of the Vedic knowledge, offered prayers to the Supreme Person, He descended to this material world in the form of the sun to benefit all the planets and purify fruitive activities. He divided Himself into twelve parts and created seasonal forms, beginning with spring. In this way He created the seasonal qualities, such as heat, cold and so on.
Srimad Bhagavatam, Canto 5, Chapter 22 describes our solar system in detail.
Translation : Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī clearly answered: When a potter’s wheel is moving and small ants located on that big wheel are moving with it, one can see that their motion is different from that of the wheel because they appear sometimes on one part of the wheel and sometimes on another. Similarly, the signs and constellations, with Sumeru and Dhruvaloka on their right, move with the wheel of time, and the antlike sun and other planets move with them. The sun and planets, however, are seen in different signs and constellations at different times. This indicates that their motion is different from that of the zodiac and the wheel of time itself.
The time that the passage of the sun takes moving through both the spheres above and below, speeding slow, fast or moderate, is in the descriptions of the scholars discussed as a samvatsara [a solar year], a parivatsara [one twelfth of a revolution of Jupiter], an idâvatsara [a day of the gods consisting of 360 solar days] an anuvatsara [a lunar year comprising twelve lunations] and a vatsara [a year to the ecliptic in terms of the 27 lunar mansions or nakshatras.
Translation : Sun lit Moon, who is placed a hundred thousand yojanas [astronomy: ± 385.000 km] above [the earth] and is moving much faster [than the sun], is so the passage of one year of the sun covered by the passage of two fortnights, is in two and a quarter of a day one solar month [or one twelfth of the sky] passed and is in only one day [the portion of] a fortnight of solar days passed.
(Modern astronauts estimated distance between Earth and Moon to be 384,400 km)
Translation : [More than] two hundred thousand yojanas behind [the moon], leaving Meru to the right are there, together with the many stars by the Controller attached to the wheel of time, the twenty-eight stars headed by Abhijit (Vega).
Translation : At a distance of two hundred thousand yojanas there about [about the star center or the sun; astronomy: at a distance of 107 million km] there is Us’anâ [Venus], the planet that can be seen going in front, behind and rotating along with the sun just as fast, slow or with a moderate speed. It is of all the planets the one considered to exert as good as always a favorable influence in the form of rainfall, it by its movements neutralizes the influence of planets that obstruct rainfall.
Translation : Another two hundred thousand yoyana’s behind Venus [astronomy: 57.9 million miles from the sun], so is explained, is there situated Mercury, the son of the moon; he is as good as always working auspiciously, but at the time he stands apart from the sun is there almost always an increase of fearful conditions like draughts, a closed sky, and stormy conditions.
ata ūrdhvam aṅgārako ’pi yojana-lakṣa-dvitaya upalabhyamānas tribhis tribhiḥ pakṣair ekaikaśo rāśīn dvādaśānubhuṅkte yadi na vakreṇābhivartate prāyeṇāśubha-graho ’gha-śaṁsaḥ.
Translation : Two hundred thousands yojanas outside of our orbit there is also Mars [astronomy: at about 228 million km from the sun]; in three by three fortnights does he, if he doesn’t make a curve, one after another pass through the twelve signs and in his approach he is as good as always an unfavorable planet giving trouble.
Translation : Two hundred thousand yojanas outside of Mars [astronomy: 778.3 million km from the sun] is there the most powerful planet Jupiter who, if he doesn’t run a curve, takes a year [parivatsara] to one after another move through one sign; to the brahmins in the universe he almost always turns out to be very favorable.
Translation : Two hundred thousand yojanas behind him is situated Saturn [astronomy: 1.43 billion km from the sun], who takes a period of thirty months to travel through each single sign and for sure is as slow as taking an equal number of years [anuvatsara’s] to pass through all of them; he indeed means almost always a lot of trouble to all.
tata uttarasmād ṛṣaya ekādaśa-lakṣa-yojanāntara upalabhyante ya eva lokānāṁ śam anubhāvayanto bhagavato viṣṇor yat paramaṁ padaṁ pradakṣiṇaṁ prakramanti.
Translation : 1.1 million yojanas beyond that one are situated all the great sages who verily always think of the good fortune of the inhabitants of all the worlds; leaving it to the right do they circumambulate the transcendental abode of the Supreme Lord Vishnu [the center of the stars]
In the field of particle physics, it has been established by many scientific experiments that the universe had a beginning in the remote past and it will have an eventual collapse in some remote future. In this context, the Second Law of Thermodynamics asserts that the processes occur in a certain direction but not in the reverse direction. A cup of hot coffee left on a table in an office, for example, eventually cools, but a cup of cold coffee on the same table never gets hot by itself, that is, the heat can only flow from hot to cold bodies. The science of thermodynamics deals with “equilibrium states” and it declares that a system, which is in equilibrium, experiences no changes when it is isolated from its surroundings. For example, a system is in thermal equilibrium if the temperature is same throughout the entire system. And in this state there are no unbalanced driving forces within the system. A reservoir that supplies energy in the form of heat is called a source and one that absorbs energy in the form of heat is called a sink. When source and the sink are both at the same temperature, there is no flow of energy and, therefore, there is no movement. In the same way we find that life is an effort to climb the slope that ‘matter’ descends. Matter moves increasingly toward a state of disorganization or of increasing randomness, and Consciousness or Life moves towards increasingly complex forms of purposeful organization or decreasing randomness. These are known as what the Bhagavad-Gita calls as the two cosmic tides of pravritti and nivritti, symbolically known as the ‘path of night’ and the ‘path of light’ or the ‘path of action’ and the ‘path of reflection’ respectively.
And, according to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the universe is slowly moving towards a state known as "heat death", that is, a state of existence when all the stars and galaxies will have dissipated their energy in the form of heat and radiation and the whole universe will attain one uniform temperature. This concept of Heat Death is very similar to the Hindu concept of pralaya or dissolution of the universe, and Lincoln Barnett describes it with rare clarity. In this state, the existence of the universe can be described as follows: “All space will be at the same temperature. No energy can be used because all of it will be uniformly distributed through the cosmos. There will be no light, no life, no warmth- nothing but perpetual and irrevocable stagnation. Time itself will come to an end. For entropy is a measure of randomness. When all system and order in the universe have vanished, when randomness is at its maximum, and entropy cannot be increased, where there no longer is any sequence of cause and effect- in short, when the universe has run down, there will be no direction to time, there will be no time. And there is no way of avoiding this destiny.”
Hymn of Creation
This very phenomenon is explained in the Rig Veda (verse X.129) in a famous hymn known as “Naasdeeya Sooktam” or the Hymn of Creation. This verse in Sanskrit describes the vision of the universe, as it existed before its creation. Many scholars and sages have translated the Naasdeeya Sooktam into English; however, I have selected the translation of Prof. Juan Mascaro.
naaseedra_jo no vyomaa paro yat
kimaa_vareevah ? Kuh ? kasya sharmann ?
ambhah kimaaseed_gahnam gabheeram ?
na mrityu_raasee_damritam na taarhi
na raatya ahna aaseet_praketah
aaneedavaatam svadhayaa tad_ekam
tasmaa_ddhanyan_na parah kim chanaas .....
...iyam visrishTiryat aab_bhoova
yadim vaa dadhe yadi vaa na
yo asyaadhyakshah parame vyoman
so aNga ved yadi vaa na ved.
(In the beginning…)
There was neither existence nor non-existence.
There was not then what is not, what is not.
There was neither sky nor any heaven beyond the sky.
What power was there? Where
Who was that power?
Was there an abyss of fathomless water?
There was neither death nor immortality then
No signs were there of night or day.
The One was breathing with its own power,
in deep space.
Only the One was:
And there was nothing beyond.
The darkness was hidden in darkness.
And all was fluid and formless.
Therein, in the void,
By the fire of fervor arose One.
And in the One arose love.
Love the first seed of the soul.
The truth of this the sages found in their hearts:
Seeking in their hearts with wisdom,
The sages found that bond of union
Between being and non-being
Between the manifest and the unmanifest
Who knows this truth?
Who can tell, when and how arose this universe?
The gods came after its creation.
Whether this universe was created or uncreated
Only the God who sees in the highest heaven:
He only knows, when came this universe
And, whether it was created or uncreated
He only knows or perhaps He knows not?
In this poem an attempt is made by the poet to describe the nature of the Ultimate Reality, and it is beautifully explained by Yogi Krishna prem. It says that in the beginning, the One without a second polarized itself or expanded itself to become Many. While it is absolutely absurd to attempt to explain how the polarization of parbrahman, the One without a second, occurs, it may be useful to make a few suggestions as to how we may conceive it as occurring. The manifestation of a Cosmos depends on the polarization of the One, the parbrahman, into the transcendental Subject, the shaant atman, and the transcendental Object, the mool prakriti. So, far beyond all thought or imagination is that One, Parbrahman, the causeless Cause or the First Cause of the Western thought. Since it cannot be known as an object of knowledge, therefore, “It” is only to be conceived as Darkness. Since it is unknown, therefore, it is called darkness and in that darkness was buried the potentiality of all existence and by the power of tapas, literally, heat or self-limitation arose the Atman or the Unitary Consciousness.
The modern day astronomers call this “darkness” as the dark matter and dark energy of the universe, and of which they have very little knowledge. As recently as February 2003, scientists using NASA’s Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), during a sweeping 12-month observation of the entire sky, have captured the new cosmic portrait, capturing the afterglow of the big bang, called cosmic microwave background. The WMAP team found that the universe is 13.7 billion years old and the contents of the universe include 4 percent atoms or the ordinary visible matter, 23 percent of an unknown dark matter and 73 percent of the mysterious dark energy. The measurements even shed light on the nature of the dark energy, which acts as a sort of an anti-gravity. This is what the Rig Veda means when it says: “The darkness is hidden in Darkness.”
The actual first impulse to creation, according to the Hindu scriptures, is forever hidden in that Darkness, and that is why even Buddha, the Enlightened One, when queried on this subject, remained silent and refused to go beyond desire. According to the Rig Veda, the gods who were in the levels of manifested consciousness came into being later. In other words, consciousness cannot penetrate to its own root. The first impulse to creation, therefore, can only be called the Lila the ‘divine spectacle’ or ‘divine sport’ of the Supreme. The ultimate root is, however, even beyond atman. Nor even for atman can Brahman be an object of knowledge, for to know It is to merge in It and in that merging the separate “knower” comes to an end. In this essay, only a few paragraphs of this hymn are tackled, as a full explanation of this cryptic hymn is beyond its scope.
Cosmos and the Yoga Sutra of Patanjali
On further analysis, one might ask how could the Vedic sages know the nature of the universe at the time of its origin, when they, themselves did not exist? The late Carl Sagan, the famous astronomer of Cornell University posed the same question during one of the episodes of the TV series “Cosmos” which was broadcast in the US during late Seventy’s. He once took his show to South India and showed how the Vedic seers accurately calculated the age of the universe without any radio-astronomy available to them. They discovered the cosmological truth not by scientific observations but through intuitive insight gained through the process of yoga, as explained in Yoga Sutra of Patanjali, that is, 1) through the process of pratyaahaar, 2) through dhyaan-yoga and finally 3) through samaadhi. Now, let us ask ourselves a question: what is Samaadhi? In the yoga-sutra, we are told that Samaadhi is the process of withdrawing the senses into mind, the mind into intellect, and the intellect into Sat or atman the pure consciousness, the substratum of the universe. In other words, Samaadhi is a state of reversal of creation, a return to the primordial or the “un-created” state. In this state the difference between ‘this’ and ‘that’ disappears and what remains is only the Absolute, the One without a second. The best description of Samaadhi is given us in the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad, verse VI.v.15, and it says that in the state of Samaadhi, there is no duality, and this concept is beautifully explained in the following poem translated by Prof. H. B. Phillips:
When everything has become the very Self, then
What should one see and through what? Then
What should one smell and through what? Then
What should one taste and through what? Then
What should one speak and through what? Then
What should one hear and through what? Then
What should one think and through what? Then
What should one touch and through what? Then
What should one know and through what? Then
Through what one should know “That”
By means of which all this is known?
It is difficult for anyone to write about cosmos without invoking the name of a famous immigrant, the lateDr.S.Chandrashekhar of the University of Chicago who received Nobel Prize in 1983 for his contribution to the knowledge of the collapse and the death of stars. He has shown that the stars collapse as a result of their gravitational force and the collapse in-turn, triggers thermonuclear explosion inside them. In that process hydrogen is converted into helium, and in case of heavy stars, even helium is converted into carbon and oxygen and eventually to iron, an element, which releases no energy and the nuclear reaction, stops there. Thus, this process of creation, from the Avaykta, the undifferentiated, or the unmanifest, the nirgun brahman and of destruction, or of srishti and pralaya, continues forever ...and without end. To honor Dr.Chandrashekhar, NASA has named its new observatory as Chandra X-ray observatory, which is simply known as Chandra which was put in the elliptical earth orbit, varying in distance from 9,200 miles to 82,000 miles, in July 1999 to observe X-rays from high-energy regions of the universe. It can also be said about samaadhi that in that state the consciousness goes beyond the dominion of space and time. To express it in the manner of the physicists, it is like saying that in this state a person can go beyond the event horizon of an astronomical black hole and return from it at will. We are also told that in his quest for perfection, Swami Ramakrishna Paramahansa, the 19th century yogi and the monk of Dakshineshwar, used to go in and out of samaadhi at his own free will.
In an effort to realize the Absolute through the process of Yoga, it is observed that these yoga disciplines, as described in the Yoga-Sutra of Patanjali, are also given us in the Bhagavad-Gita. Out of the eight yoga disciplines, only three are listed here and are described as: 1) pratyaahaar in verse 2.58, 2) dhyaan in verse 8:8 and 3) samaadhi in verse of the Bhagavad-Gita, and these are7:
1) Pratyahaar: Bhagavad-Gita, verse’ , says: “yadaa sanharte chaayam koormo-angaaneeve sarvashah…He who is unattached and when like a tortoise, which draws in its limbs from all directions, he withdraws his senses from the sense objects, he is a man of stable wisdom.”
2) Dhyaan: Bhagavad-Gita, verse’ 8:8, says: “abhyaasyo-yukten chetasaa naanya-gaaminaa…He who with his mind disciplined through yoga in the form of practice of meditation and thinking nothing else, is constantly engaged in contemplation of the Supreme attains the supremely effulgent Divine Being.”
3) Samaadhi: Bhagavad-Gita, verses’ 6:20-6:23 declare: “yatroparmate chittam nirudham yog sevayaa… When the mind, absolutely restrained by the practice of concentration, attains quietness, and when seeing the Self by the self, that Yogi beholding Atman by Atman, is satisfied in the Atman itself; when he feels that infinite bliss-which is perceived by the purified intellect and which transcends the senses and thus established therein he never departs from the Real state.”
The purified state, in these cryptic verses is described as that state of cognition when the purified intellect can grasp independent of the senses. When in meditation, the mind is deeply concentrated, the senses do not function and are resolved into their cause- that is, the mind; and when the later is steady, so that there, only the intellect is functioning, or in other words, cognition only exists; and the indescribable Self or the Atman realizes itself. And this is known as Samadhi.
Coming back to the theme of this essay, the question arises: “How do we know this knower?” This question is asked, over and over, in almost all the scriptures. “Who knows this truth? He only knows or perhaps He knows not?” This is how the Rig-Veda ends its poem, which was one of the favorite poems of another famous traveler from India during the last century, namely, Swami Vivekanand. This shows that the seer of the Rig-Veda even questions the highest knower or his knowledge. Thus the Vedic system of thought is not based on some blind faith or some sectarian dogma taught by a teacher but on scientific basis developed and known by what we call the dhyaan yoga or the knowledge developed through meditation or by the intuitive understanding of the seer. When that knowledge dawns, then the Great Being shines forth through every pore of our being as the blissful or the immortal. Thus, in the Rig Veda, began the scientific inquiry not only for the outer worlds of prakriti but also for the inner worlds of atman, the unchanging substratum of the universe, or the universal constant as we may call It. This Universal Constant proved too illusive even for Einstein when he declared: ‘God does not throw dice’ but after a lifetime of groping, he finally gave up trying to find the universal constant for his “too- too static” a view of the universe of names and forms, which the Hindu mystics had already figured out thousands of years before him, that this cosmos was nothing but a passing phantom show which veils from sight the true and the unchanging Eternal Reality that is forever unmanifest. However, the Bhagavad-Gita gives us the nature of this Universal Constant in verse when it says:
The self can never be cleft,
Nor can one dry or make him wet,
He is never combustible,
Present everywhere but stable
Is eternal and changes never,
Remains always the same forever
Maya and the Uncertainty Principle
Then came along Werner Heisenberg, a young German Physicist with his idea of the ‘uncertainty principle’ and with this ‘new understanding’ he stumbled onto the ancient vedantic truth that ‘the subjective decides the nature of the object’, that is, in a mystical sense, “the purity of the soul or consciousness of the scientist or that of the seer determines his outlook.” The same theme is expressed in the words of Vishnu Puraan, where it is stated: “As is God, so is His creation and as you are, so is your creation.” Thus, Werner Heisenberg found out about the maya of the electrons and in the same spirit, Stephen Hawking, the famous astro-physicist from Cambridge University, while intuitively realizing the deeper uncertainty of the nature of the Black Holes realized the Maya relating to the Cosmos and declared that: “God not only plays dice but also sometimes throws them where they cannot be seen”. Thus Hawking also intuitively stumbled onto the ancient Hindu concept of Maya, in the same way as Heisenberg had figured it out earlier. In this context Bhagavad-Gita verse’ says: “naasto vidyate bhaavo, na bhaavo vidyate satah…the unreal has no existence and the real never ceases to be.” Now that the word maya has some how crept up in this essay, let us find out what Saint Kabir, the 15th century mystic poet of Northern India says in one of his poems about maya which was translated by Gurudeva Shri Rabindra Nath Tagore (1861-1941) and it goes as follows:
Maya Taji Na Jaay
“Tell me, Friend, how can I renounce Maya?
When I gave up the tying of ribbons,
Still I tied my garments about me:
When I gave up tying my garment,
I still covered my body in its folds
So, when I gave up passion
I see that anger remains;
And when I renounce anger,
Greed is with me still;
And when greed is vanquished,
Pride and vainglory remain;
When the mind is detached and
Casts Maya away, still it
Clings to the letter
Kabir says, “Listen to me dear friend!
Yogis and Sanyaasis are disputing each other,
But the true path is rarely found.”
The philosophy taught by Krishna in the Bhagavad-Gita about the creation of the universe is the same as the concepts given us in the Hymn of Creation in the Rig-Veda. In the Bhagavad-Gita, the verse’ says: “ajo nitya shaashvato ayam puraano, na hanyate hanya maane shareere” in which Sri Krishna declares that Parbrahman, Parmatman or Atman is the substratum of the universe and it is neither born and nor does it ever die. The poetic rendition of this verse goes as follows:
No soul is ever born nor does he ever,
Once coming to being he ceases never;
According to the Bhagavad-Gita, verses’ 9:7 and 9:8, Parmaatman or the atman remained in a state of quiet throughout the duration of time known as the Night of Brahma, also known as the kalpa-antaya, with no objects, because as yet there is no modification. But resolving to create, or rather to emanate the universe, It formed a picture of what should be, and this at once was a modification willingly brought about in the previously wholly unmodified spirit; thereupon the Divine Idea was gradually expanded, coming forth into objectivity while the essence of parbrahman, the presiding deity or the essence of atman remained unmodified and became the perceiver of its own expanded idea. The essential nature or the svabhaav of the One as transcendent Subject, here called adhyaatma and declared in Bhagavad-Gita verse’ 8:3, separates out as it were, leaving the other aspect of Brahman, to stand as the eternal Object, the mool-prakriti. This mool-prakriti, the unmanifest basis of all the objectivity, is, from its very nature, the source of all the manifested Many. Reflecting as it does the Light of the One Atman; It is the root of all objectivity and all plurality. If the Brahman is to appear as an object at all, it is only as the mool-prakriti that it can so appear. This is how the One without a second, at the commencement of a kalpa known as kalpa-praarambh, chose to become Many.
The Orbits of the Planets
Srimad Bhagavatam Canto 5 Chapter 22: ‘The Orbits of the Planets’ text 1 to text 17 by His Divine Grace A.C Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
In this chapter the orbits of the planets are described. According to the movements of the moon and other planets, all the inhabitants of the universe are prone to auspicious and inauspicious situations. This is referred to as the influence of the stars.
The sun-god, who controls the affairs of the entire universe, especially in regard to heat, light, seasonal changes and so on, is considered an expansion of Nārāyaṇa. He represents the three Vedas — Ṛg, Yajur and Sāma — and therefore he is known as Trayīmaya, the form of Lord Nārāyaṇa.
Sometimes the sun-god is also called Sūrya Nārāyaṇa. The sun-god has expanded himself in twelve divisions, and thus he controls the six seasonal changes and causes winter, summer, rain and so on.
Yogīs and karmīs following the varṇāśrama institution, who practice haṭha or aṣṭāṅga-yoga or who perform agnihotra sacrifices, worship Sūrya Nārāyaṇa for their own benefit. The demigod Sūrya is always in touch with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nārāyaṇa.
Residing in outer space, which is in the middle of the universe, between Bhūloka and Bhuvarloka, the sun rotates through the time circle of the zodiac, represented by twelve rāśis, or signs, and assumes different names according to the sign he is in.
For the moon, every month is divided into two fortnights. Similarly, according to solar calculations, a month is equal to the time the sun spends in one constellation; two months constitute one season, and there are twelve months in a year.
The entire area of the sky is divided into two halves, each representing an ayana, the course traversed by the sun within a period of six months. The sun travels sometimes slowly, sometimes swiftly and sometimes at a moderate speed. In this way it travels within the three worlds, consisting of the heavenly planets, the earthly planets and outer space. These orbits are referred to by great learned scholars by the names Saṁvatsara, Parivatsara, Iḍāvatsara, Anuvatsara and Vatsara.
The moon is situated 100,000 yojanas above the rays of the sunshine. Day and night on the heavenly planets and Pitṛloka are calculated according to its waning and waxing. Above the moon by a distance of 200,000 yojanas are some stars, and above these stars is Śukra-graha (Venus), whose influence is always auspicious for the inhabitants of the entire universe.
Above Śukra-graha by 200,000 yojanas is Budha-graha (Mercury), whose influence is sometimes auspicious and sometimes inauspicious. Next, above Budha-graha by 200,000 yojanas, is Aṅgāraka (Mars), which almost always has an unfavorable influence.
Above Aṅgāraka by another 200,000 yojanas is the planet called Bṛhaspati-graha (Jupiter), which is always very favorable for qualified brāhmaṇas. Above Bṛhaspati-graha is the planet Śanaiścara (Saturn), which is very inauspicious, and above Saturn is a group of seven stars occupied by great saintly persons who are always thinking of the welfare of the entire universe. These seven stars circumambulate Dhruvaloka, which is the residence of Lord Viṣṇu within this universe.
Translation: King Parīkṣit inquired from Śukadeva Gosvāmī: My dear lord, you have already affirmed the truth that the supremely powerful sun-god travels around Dhruvaloka with both Dhruvaloka and Mount Sumeru on his right. Yet at the same time the sun-god faces the signs of the zodiac and keeps Sumeru and Dhruvaloka on his left. How can we reasonably accept that the sun-god proceeds with Sumeru and Dhruvaloka on both his left and right simultaneously?
Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī clearly answered: When a potter’s wheel is moving and small ants located on that big wheel are moving with it, one can see that their motion is different from that of the wheel because they appear sometimes on one part of the wheel and sometimes on another.
Similarly, the signs and constellations, with Sumeru and Dhruvaloka on their right, move with the wheel of time, and the antlike sun and other planets move with them. The sun and planets, however, are seen in different signs and constellations at different times. This indicates that their motion is different from that of the zodiac and the wheel of time itself.
The original cause of the cosmic manifestation is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nārāyaṇa. When great saintly persons, fully aware of the Vedic knowledge, offered prayers to the Supreme Person, He descended to this material world in the form of the sun to benefit all the planets and purify fruitive activities. He divided Himself into twelve parts and created seasonal forms, beginning with spring. In this way He created the seasonal qualities, such as heat, cold and so on.
According to the system of four varṇas and four āśramas, people generally worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nārāyaṇa, who is situated as the sun-god. With great faith they worship the Supreme Personality as the Supersoul according to ritualistic ceremonies handed down in the three Vedas, such as agnihotra and similar higher and lower fruitive acts, and according to the process of mystic yoga. In this way they very easily attain the ultimate goal of life.
The sun-god, who is Nārāyaṇa, or Viṣṇu, the soul of all the worlds, is situated in outer space between the upper and lower portions of the universe. Passing through twelve months on the wheel of time, the sun comes in touch with twelve different signs of the zodiac and assumes twelve different names according to those signs.
The aggregate of those twelve months is called a saṁvatsara, or an entire year. According to lunar calculations, two fortnights — one of the waxing moon and the other of the waning — form one month. That same period is one day and night for the planet Pitṛloka. According to stellar calculations, a month equals two and one quarter constellations. When the sun travels for two months, a season passes, and therefore the seasonal changes are considered parts of the body of the year.
Thus the time the sun takes to rotate through half of outer space is called an ayana, or its period of movement [in the north or in the south].
The sun-god has three speeds — slow, fast and moderate. The time he takes to travel entirely around the spheres of heaven, earth and space at these three speeds is referred to, by learned scholars, by the five names Saṁvatsara, Parivatsara, Iḍāvatsara, Anuvatsara and Vatsara.
According to solar astronomical calculations, each year extends six days beyond the calendar year, and according to lunar calculations, each year is six days shorter. Therefore, because of the movements of the sun and moon, there is a difference of twelve days between the solar and lunar years.
As the Saṁvatsara, Parivatsara, Iḍāvatsara, Anuvatsara and Vatsara pass by, two extra months are added within each five years. This makes a sixth saṁvatsara, but because that saṁvatsara is extra, the solar system is calculated according to the above five names.
Above the rays of the sunshine by a distance of 100,000 yojanas [800,000 miles] is the moon, which travels at a speed faster than that of the sun. In two lunar fortnights the moon travels through the equivalent of a saṁvatsara of the sun, in two and a quarter days it passes through a month of the sun, and in one day it passes through a fortnight of the sun.
Purport: When we take into account that the moon is 100,000 yojanas, or 800,000 miles, above the rays of the sunshine, it is very surprising that the modern excursions to the moon could be possible. Since the moon is so distant, how space vehicles could go there is a doubtful mystery.
Modern scientific calculations are subject to one change after another, and therefore they are uncertain. We have to accept the calculations of the Vedic literature. These Vedic calculations are steady; the astronomical calculations made long ago and recorded in the Vedic literature are correct even now. Whether the Vedic calculations or modern ones are better may remain a mystery for others, but as far as we are concerned, we accept the Vedic calculations to be correct.
When the moon is waxing, the illuminating portions of it increase daily, thus creating day for the demigods and night for the pitās. When the moon is waning, however, it causes night for the demigods and day for the pitās.
In this way the moon passes through each constellation of stars in thirty muhūrtas [an entire day]. The moon is the source of nectarean coolness that influences the growth of food grains, and therefore the moon-god is considered the life of all living entities. He is consequently called Jīva, the chief living being within the universe.
Because the moon is full of all potentialities, it represents the influence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The moon is the predominating deity of everyone’s mind, and therefore the moon-god is called Manomaya. He is also called Annamaya because he gives potency to all herbs and plants, and he is called Amṛtamaya because he is the source of life for all living entities.
The moon pleases the demigods, pitās, human beings, animals, birds, reptiles, trees, plants and all other living entities. Everyone is satisfied by the presence of the moon. Therefore the moon is also called Sarvamaya [all-pervading].
There are many stars located 200,000 yojanas [1,600,000 miles] above the moon. By the supreme will of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, they are fixed to the wheel of time, and thus they rotate with Mount Sumeru on their right, their motion being different from that of the sun. There are twenty-eight important stars, headed by Abhijit.
The stars referred to herein are 1,600,000 miles above the sun, and thus they are 4,000,000 miles above the earth.
Some 1,600,000 miles above this group of stars is the planet Venus, which moves at almost exactly the same pace as the sun according to swift, slow and moderate movements. Sometimes Venus moves behind the sun, sometimes in front of the sun and sometimes along with it. Venus nullifies the influence of planets that are obstacles to rainfall. Consequently its presence causes rainfall, and it is therefore considered very favorable for all living beings within this universe. This has been accepted by learned scholars.
Mercury is described to be similar to Venus, in that it moves sometimes behind the sun, sometimes in front of the sun and sometimes along with it. It is 1,600,000 miles above Venus, or 7,200,000 miles above earth.
Mercury, which is the son of the moon, is almost always very auspicious for the inhabitants of the universe, but when it does not move along with the sun, it forbodes cyclones, dust, irregular rainfall, and waterless clouds. In this way it creates fearful conditions due to inadequate or excessive rainfall.
Situated 1,600,000 miles above Mercury, or 8,800,000 miles above earth, is the planet Mars. If this planet does not travel in a crooked way, it crosses through each sign of the zodiac in three fortnights and in this way travels through all twelve, one after another. It almost always creates unfavorable conditions in respect to rainfall and other influences.
Situated 1,600,000 miles above Mars, or 10,400,000 miles above earth, is the planet Jupiter, which travels through one sign of the zodiac within the period of a Parivatsara. If its movement is not curved, the planet Jupiter is very favorable to the brāhmaṇas of the universe.
Situated 1,600,000 miles above Jupiter, or 12,000,000 miles above earth, is the planet Saturn, which passes through one sign of the zodiac in thirty months and covers the entire zodiac circle in thirty Anuvatsaras. This planet is always very inauspicious for the universal situation.
Situated 8,800,000 miles above Saturn, or 20,800,000 miles above earth, are the seven saintly sages, who are always thinking of the well-being of the inhabitants of the universe. They circumambulate the supreme abode of Lord Viṣṇu, known as Dhruvaloka, the polestar.
Śrīla Madhvācārya quotes the following verse from the Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa:
jñānānandātmano viṣṇuḥ śiśumāra-vapuṣy atha ūrdhva-lokeṣu sa vyāpta ādityādyās tad-āśritā
“Lord Viṣṇu, who is the source of knowledge and transcendental bliss, has assumed the form of Śiśumāra in the seventh heaven, which is situated in the topmost level of the universe. All the other planets, beginning with the sun, exist under the shelter of this Śiśumāra planetary system.”
From- Bhaktivedanta purports of the Fifth Canto, Twenty-second Chapter, of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, entitled “The Orbits of the Planets.”
described by Indian sages two millions year ago? Various stages of embryo development are
discussed in details in many ancient texts, some of which predates as much as
thousands of years. One of the best descriptions on embryo development was
presented by Lord kapila two millions year ago. Lord kapila,Son of
Kardama Muni and Devahuti , is believed to be the incarnation of lord Krishna
Similarities of ancient embryology with modern science
There are striking similarities between the information presented by lord
kapila and any modern standard book on embryology like Gray's Anatomy. It
describes all the stages of embryo development starting from conception and
ending with the birth of the child. One may imagine how the ancient sages were
able to see the microscopic events happening inside the embryo of a pregnant
lady. Were they more advance than the current generation? Certainly Yes but
unlike our modern scientists, they were spiritually advanced and not
materialistically advanced. They were able to see all the unseen happenings
of this materialistic world through their divine consciousness.
Details of embryology in bhagavad purana Having said that, Let us see the various verses that details out the
embryology in Bhagavad Purana. All of the below stats taken from Bhagavad
Purana are proved by modern scientists in scientific laboratories. 1st month According to Bhagavad Purana, the sperm that entered the ovum on the first
night turns into a big bubble.
of these thousands of sperms forms a bubble This bubble increases gradually to form a plum at the tenth night and then
slowly develops to take a form of an egg or lump of flesh. Head of the baby
develops in this egg at the end of one month. This is in sync with scientific
estimate of 30-32 days for the formation of head inside the embryo of the
2nd month Bhagavad Purana states the development of hands, feet and limbs. Depression
of Olfactory placodes stimulates the development of olfactory pits
during the fifth month of pregnancy. Then, Maxillary and lateral processes
convert olfactory pits into nasal cavities. 3rd month In third month of pregnancy, other parts of the body primarily the lower
and upper extremities develops inside the embryo. Toes, fingers, Nails, hair,
bones, skin and other apertures in the body like Mouth, Anus, ears, nostrils,
and eyes appear by the end of third month. Two
function of each sensory organ? Not only Bhagavad Purana states the formation of
body organs, it also states the sequence of development of these body organs.
First the mouth is formed, then nostrils followed by eyes and then ears.
Science normally associate only one function to ears i.e hearing sound but
Bhagavad Purana attributes two functions to ears, first is the recognition of
sound and second is of finding directions. These two functions of ears are also
mentioned in Aitereya Upanishad (7000-6000 BC). In 1936, Tait and Ross proved
with their research that directions are recognized by the labyrinth, an organ
situated very close to internal ears. Similarly, two functions are also
attributed to all other four sensory organs. Nose smells and performs the breathing
process. Eyes see and maintain the luster of energy. Modern science does
not talk about the energy storage capability of eyes though it can be
scientifically proved. We don’t have to ask science to confirm these facts.
Just look at the eyes of any energetic or intelligent person. Shine in their
eyes reflects the amount of energy stored in them. On the other side, check for
the shine of the eyes in an ill or dull person. Tongue
along with its muscles and Laryngo-tracheal tube develops in the respiratory
and Larynx organs. Modern science proves the Bhagavad Purana view of
simultaneous development of tongue, palate, nostrils and larynx post the
establishment of mouth. Further, Bhagavad Purana talks about the development
of heart after the development of anus and both extremities. Using
ultrasonic Doppler experiment, Dr. H.P.Robinson proved the formation of heart
at the end of third month. Shockingly, Bhagavad Purana also talks about the
sexual organs. After the formation of genitals, Linga(Anus) is formed and
then main sexual organ, penis(for male) or Utero-vaginal canal(for female) are
formed at the end of third month
4th month Bhagavad Purana states the formation of seven dhatus(tissues) by the end of
fourth month. These seven tissues are Rakta (blood), Rasa (tissue fluids),
Asthi (bones), Snayu (muscles), Shukra(reproductive tissue), Majja (nervous
tissue) and Meda (fatty tissue). 5th month Bhagavad Purana states the development of hunger and thirst at the end of 5th
month. Fetus gradually grows consuming the nourishment provided by the mother
embryo. Modern science does not confirm this fact but do talk about the
nourishment taken from the mother embryo as follows.
The sqamous epithelial cells and Lanugo hairs present inside the meconium
(fecal matter), broadly spread across the gut right from Duodenum to Rectum, continuously
strive to reach the intestine of the fetus. Only way for sqamous epithelial
cells and Lanugo hairs to arrive at the intestine of the fetus is by the
consumption of amniotic fluid that lies outside the fetus. Lanugo hairs and
sqamous epithelial cells falls from the covering of the fetus into the amniotic
fluid and after the drinking of amniotic fluid by the baby in the fetus, these
cells and hairs reaches the intestine of the fetus. Drinking of amniotic
fluid by the fetus indicates the feeling of hunger and thirst.
6th month Fetus, enclosed within the amnion (coverings) rotates inside the womb to
finally reach the right side of the mother abdomen. 7th
month At this stage, bhagavata purana states something
that the science may never be able to confirm. It states that the soul (baby
inside the embryo) remembers all his past lives and receives knowledge about
the present life in the seventh month of pregnancy. This sound like
absolute nonsense and you may be starching your head by now but may be in
future, Electro-encephalographic experimentation of the embryo may reveal this
verse as true just like the other verses of bhagvata purana has been proven
true. This fact is further reinstated in Mahabharata where the mighty
warrior abhimanyu learns the skill of military warfare (chakravyuh) narrated by
father ‘Arjuna’, while he was inside the womb of his mother in the seventh
month of pregnancy. Furthermore,
Bhagavad purana states the functioning of brain at the end of seventh month.
Also, it states that fetus lies in the dirt created by urine and feces of its
own inside the uterus 8th month Nothing is stated about the eight month in details except that the fetus
lies with the back and legs in total flexion of its head. 9th month
bhagavata purana states ‘Fetus inside the body do not respire, instead it
takes oxygen and nourishment from the mother’. This is scientifically true
as the fetus does not breathe and takes nourishment from the amniotic fluid. 10th month Kapil muni states that at the start of tenth month, fetus is forced down by
Prasooti Vayu(air pushed by mother through her internal passage). Because of
lot of pain and troubles, fetus (soul) loses its past memory remembered at the
seventh month of pregnancy (discussed above). Science cannot confirm this
fact but do say that at the time of delivery, the head of the baby is
compressed so much that the brain (if have some memory) will lose all its
memory. It’s a scientific fact that the compression and concussion of an
adult brain results in memory loss.
Below is the extract of kapil muni instructions on movement of souls, including
its movements inside the mother embryo. Below verse also depicts the
relationship of each soul with the supreme divine. Srimad
Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 1 śr ī-bhagav ān uv āca
karmaṇ ā daiva-netreṇa
striy āḥ praviṣṭa udaraṁ
puṁso retaḥ-kaṇ āśrayaḥ Translation The Personality of Godhead said: Under the
supervision of the Supreme Lord and according to the result of his work, the
living entity, the soul, is made to enter into the womb of a woman through the particle
of male semen to assume a particular type of body. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 2 kalalaṁ tv eka-r ātreṇa
pa ńca-rātreṇa budbudam
da śāhena tu karkandh ūḥ
pe śy aṇḍaṁ v ā tataḥ param Translation On the first night, the sperm and ovum mix, and on the fifth night the
mixture ferments into a bubble. On the tenth night it develops into a form like
a plum, and after that, it gradually turns into a lump of flesh or an egg, as
the case may be. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 3 mâsena tu �iro dvâbhy âṁ
liṅga-cchidrodbhavas tribhiḥ Translation In the course of a month, a head is formed, and
at the end of two months the hands, feet and other limbs take shape. By the end
of three months, the nails, fingers, toes, body hair, bones and skin appear, as
do the organ of generation and the other apertures in the body, namely the
eyes, nostrils, ears, mouth and anus. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 4 caturbhir dh ātavaḥ sapta pa
ṣaḍbhir jar āyuṇ ā v ītaḥ
kukṣau bhr āmyati dakṣiṇe Translation Within four months from the date of conception,
the seven essential ingredients of the body, namely chyle, blood, flesh, fat,
bone, marrow and semen, come into existence. At the end of five months, hunger
and thirst make themselves felt, and at the end of six months, the fetus,
enclosed by the amnion, begins to move on the right side of the abdomen. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 5 m ātur jagdh ānna-p ān ādyair
edhad-dh ātur asammate
śete viṇ-m ūtrayor garte
sa jantur jantu-sambhave Translation Deriving its nutrition from the food and drink taken by the mother, the
fetus grows and remains in that abominable residence of stools and urine, which
is the breeding place of all kinds of worms. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 6 kṛmibhiḥ kṣata-sarv āṅgaḥ
saukum āry āt pratikṣaṇam
m ūrcch ām āpnoty uru-kle śas
tatratyaiḥ kṣudhitair muhuḥ Translation Bitten again and again all over the body by the hungry worms in the abdomen
itself, the child suffers terrible agony because of his tenderness. He thus
becomes unconscious moment after moment because of the terrible condition. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 7 kaṭu-t īkṣṇoṣṇa-lavaṇa-
r ūkṣ āml ādibhir ulbaṇaiḥ
m ātṛ-bhuktair upaspṛṣṭaḥ
sarv āṅgotthita-vedanaḥ Translation Owing to the mother's eating bitter, pungent foodstuffs, or food which is
too salty or too sour, the body of the child incessantly suffers pains which
are almost intolerable. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 8 ulbena saṁvṛtas tasminn
antrai� ca bahir âvṛtaḥ
âste kṛtv â �iraḥ kukṣau
bhugna-pṛṣṭha-œirodharaḥ Translation Placed within the amnion and covered outside by
the intestines, the child remains lying on one side of the abdomen, his head
turned towards his belly and his back and neck arched like a bow. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 9 akalpaḥ
œakunta iva pañjare
tatra labdha-smṛtir daivât
smaran d�rgham anucchvâsaṁ
œarma kiṁ nâma vindate Translation The child thus remains just like a bird in a
cage, without freedom of movement. At that time, if the child is fortunate, he
can remember all the troubles of his past one hundred births, and he grieves
wretchedly. What is the possibility of peace of mind in that condition? Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 10 ārabhya saptam ān m ās āl
labdha-bodho ’pi vepitaḥ
naikatr āste s ūti-v ātair
viṣṭh ā-bh ūr iva sodaraḥ Translation Thus endowed with the development of consciousness from the seventh month
after his conception, the child is tossed downward by the airs that press the
embryo during the weeks preceding delivery. Like the worms born of the same
filthy abdominal cavity, he cannot remain in one place. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 11 n ātham āna ṛṣir bh ītaḥ
sapta-vadhriḥ kṛt āńjaliḥ
stuv īta taṁ viklavay ā
v āc ā yenodare ’rpitaḥ The living entity in this frightful condition of life, bound by seven
layers of material ingredients, prays with folded hands, appealing to the Lord,
who has put him in that condition. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 12 jantur uv āca
tasyopasannam avituṁ jagad icchay ātta-
n ān ā-tanor bhuvi calac-caraṇāravindam
so ’haṁ vraj āmi śaraṇaṁ hy akuto-bhayaṁ me
yenedṛśī gatir adar śy asato’nur ūp ā Translation The human soul says: I take shelter of the lotus feet of the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, who appears in His various eternal forms and walks on
the surface of the world. I take shelter of Him only, because He can give me
relief from all fear and from Him I have received this condition of life, which
is just befitting my impious activities. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 13 yas tv atra baddha iva karmabhir āvṛt ātm ā
bh ūtendriy āśayamay īm avalambya m āy ām
āste vi śuddham avik āram akhaṇḍa-bodham
ātapyam āna-hṛdaye ’vasitaṁ nam āmi Translation
I, the pure soul, appearing now bound by my
activities, am lying in the womb of my mother by the arrangement of maya. I
offer my respectful obeisances unto Him who is also here with me but who is
unaffected and changeless. He is unlimited, but He is perceived in the
repentant heart. To Him I offer my respectful obeisances. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 14 yaḥ pañca-bhûta-racite rahitaḥ �ar�re
cchanno ’yathendriya-guṇârtha-cid- âtmako ’ham
tenâvikuṇṭha-mahimânam ṛṣiṁ tam enaṁ
vande paraṁ prakṛti-pûruṣayoḥ pumâṁsam Translation I am separated from the Supreme Lord because of
my being in this material body, which is made of five elements, and therefore
my qualities and senses are being misused, although I am essentially spiritual.
Because the Supreme Personality of Godhead is transcendental to material nature
and the living entities, because He is devoid of such a material body, and
because He is always glorious in His spiritual qualities, I offer my obeisances
unto Him. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 15 yan-m āyayoru-guṇa-karma-nibandhane ’smin
s āṁs ārike pathi caraṁs tad-abhiœrameṇa
naṣṭa-smṛtiḥ punar ayaṁ pravṛṇīta lokaṁ
yukty ā kay ā mahad-anugraham antareṇa Translation
The human soul further prays: The living entity
is put under the influence of material nature and continues a hard struggle for
existence on the path of repeated birth and death. This conditional life is due
to his forgetfulness of his relationship with the Supreme Personality of
Godhead. Therefore, without the Lord's mercy, how can he again engage in the
transcendental loving service of the Lord? Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 16 jñânaṁ yad etad adadhât katamaḥ sa devas
trai-kâlikaṁ sthira-careṣv anuvartitâṁœaḥ
tâpa-trayopa�amanâya vayaṁ bhajema Translation No one other than the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, as the localized, the partial representation of the Lord, is directing
all inanimate and animate objects. He is present in the three phases of time --
past, present and future. Therefore, the conditioned soul is engaged in
different activities by His direction, and in order to get free from the
threefold miseries of this conditional life, we have to surrender unto Him
Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 17 dehy anya-deha-vivare jaṭharâgninâsṛg-
icchann ito vivasituṁ gaṇayan sva-mâsân nirvâsyate
kṛpaṇa-dh�r bhagavan kadâ nu Translation Fallen into a pool of blood, stool and urine
within the abdomen of his mother, his own body scorched by the mother's gastric
fire, the embodied soul, anxious to get out, counts his months and prays,
"O my Lord, when shall I, a wretched soul, be released from this
confinement?" Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 18 yenedṛśīṁ gatim asau da�a-mâsya
saṅgrâhitaḥ puru-dayena bhavâdṛœena
svenaiva tuṣyatu kṛtena sa d�na-nâthaḥ
ko nâma tat-prati vinâñjalim asya kuryât Translation My dear Lord, by Your causeless mercy I am
awakened to consciousness, although I am only ten months old. For this
causeless mercy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the friend of all fallen
souls, there is no way to express my gratitude but to pray with folded hands. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 19 paœyaty ayaṁ dhiṣaṇayâ nanu sapta-vadhriḥ
śārîrake dama-úarîry aparaḥ sva-dehe
yat-sṛṣṭayâsaṁ tam ahaṁ puruṣaṁ purâṇaṁ
paœye bahir hṛdi ca caityam iva pratîtam Translation The living entity in another type of body sees only by instinct; he knows
only the agreeable and disagreeable sense perceptions of that particular body.
But I have a body in which I can control my senses and can understand my
destination; therefore, I offer my respectful obeisances to the Supreme
Personality of Godhead, by whom I have been blessed with this body and by whose
grace I can see Him within and without. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 20 so ’haṁ vasann api vibho bahu-duḥkha-vâsaṁ
garbhân na nirjigamiṣe bahir andha-kûpe
yatropayâtam upasarpati deva-mâyâ
mithyâ matir yad-anu saṁsṛti-cakram etat Translation Therefore, my Lord, although I am living in a terrible condition, I do not
wish to depart from my mother's abdomen to fall again into the blind well of
materialistic life. Your external energy, called devamaya, at once captures the
newly born child, and immediately false identification, which is the beginning
of the cycle of continual birth and death, begins. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 21 tasm ād ahaṁ vigata-viklava uddhariṣya
ātm ānam āśu tamasaḥ suhṛd ātmanaiva
bh ūyo yath ā vyasanam etad aneka-randhraṁ
m ā me bhaviṣyad upas ādita-viṣṇu-p ādaḥ Translation Therefore,
without being agitated any more, I shall deliver myself from the darkness of
nescience with the help of my friend, clear consciousness. Simply by keeping
the lotus feet of Lord Vishnu in my mind, I shall be saved from entering into
the wombs of many mothers for repeated birth and death. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 22 kapila uv āca
evaṁ kṛta-matir garbhe
da śa-m āsyaḥ stuvann ṛṣiḥ
sadyaḥ kṣipaty av āc īnaṁ
pras ūtyai s ūti-m ārutaḥ Translation Lord Kapila continued: The ten-month-old living entity has these desires
even while in the womb. But while he thus extols the Lord, the wind that helps
parturition propels him forth with his face turned downward so that he may be
born. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 23 ten āvasṛṣṭaḥ sahas ā
kṛtv āv āk śira āturaḥ
viniṣkr āmati kṛcchreṇa
nirucchv āso hata-smṛtiḥ Translation Pushed downward all of a sudden by the wind, the child comes out with great
trouble, head downward, breathless and deprived of memory due to severe agony. Srimad
Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 24 patito bhuvy asṛṅ-miœraḥ viṣṭhâ-bhûr
rorûyati gate jñâne
vipar�tâṁ gatiṁ gataḥ Translation The child thus falls on the ground, smeared with
stool and blood, and plays just like a worm germinated from the stool. He loses
his superior knowledge and cries under the spell of maya. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 25 para-cchandaṁ na viduṣâ
puṣyamâṇo janena saḥ
pratyâkhyâtum an īśvaraḥ Translation After coming out of the abdomen, the child is given to the care of persons
who are unable to understand what he wants, and thus he is nursed by such
persons. Unable to refuse whatever is given to him, he falls into undesirable
circumstances. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 26 śāyito ’śuci-paryaṅke
jantuḥ svedaja-d ūṣite
neœaḥ kaṇḍūyane ’ṅg ān ām
āsanotth āna-ceṣṭane Translation Laid down on a foul bed infested with sweat and germs, the poor child is
incapable of scratching his body to get relief from his itching sensation to
say nothing of sitting up, standing or even moving. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 27 tudanty āma-tvacaṁ daṁśā
ma śak ā matkuṇādayaḥ
rudantaṁ vigata-j ńānaṁ
kṛmayaḥ kṛmikaṁ yathā Translation In his helpless condition, gnats, mosquitoes, bugs and other germs bite the
baby, whose skin is tender, just as smaller worms bite a big worm. The child,
deprived of his wisdom, cries bitterly. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 28 ity evaṁœaiœavaṁ bhuktvâ
duḥkhaṁ paugaṇḍam eva ca
iddha-manyuḥ �ucârpitaḥ Translation In this way, the child passes through his
childhood, suffering different kinds of distress, and attains boyhood. In
boyhood also he suffers pain over desires to get things he can never achieve.
And thus, due to ignorance, he becomes angry and sorry. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 29 saha dehena m ānena
vardham ānena manyun ā
karoti vigrahaṁ k ām ī
k āmiṣv ant āya c ātmanaḥ Translation With the growth of the body, the living entity, in order to vanquish his
soul, increases his false prestige and anger and thereby creates enmity towards
similarly lusty people. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 30 bh ūtaiḥ pa ńcabhir ārabdhe
dehe dehy abudho ’sakṛt
ahaṁ mamety asad-gr āhaḥ
karoti kumatir matim Translation By such ignorance the living entity accepts the material body, which is
made of five elements, as himself. With this misunderstanding, he accepts
nonpermanent things as his own and increases his ignorance in the darkest region.
Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 31 tad-arthaṁ kurute karma
yad-baddho yâti saṁsṛtim
yo ’nuyâti dadat kle�am
avidyâ-karma-bandhanaḥ Translation For the sake of the body, which is a source of
constant trouble to him and which follows him because he is bound by ties of
ignorance and fruitive activities, he performs various actions which cause him
to be subjected to repeated birth and death.
Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 32 yady asadbhiḥ pathi punaḥ
âsthito ramate jantus
tamo vi�ati pûrvavat Translation If, therefore, the living entity again
associates with the path of unrighteousness, influenced by sensually minded
people engaged in the pursuit of sexual enjoyment and the gratification of the
palate, he again goes to hell as before. Srimad
Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 33 satyaṁœaucaṁ dayâ maunaṁ
œamo damo bhagaœ ceti
yat-saṅgâd yâti saṅkṣayam Translation He becomes devoid of truthfulness, cleanliness,
mercy, gravity, spiritual intelligence, shyness, austerity, fame, forgiveness,
control of the mind, control of the senses, fortune and all such opportunities.
Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 34 teṣv a śānteṣu mûḍheṣu
saṅgaṁ na kuryâc chocyeṣu
yoṣit-kr�ḍâ-mṛgeṣu ca Translation
One should not associate with a coarse fool who is bereft of the knowledge of
self-realization and who is no more than a dancing dog in the hands of a woman.
Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 35 na tathâsya bhaven moho
yoṣit-saṅgâd yathâ puṁso
yathâ tat-saṅgi-saṅgataḥ Translation The infatuation and bondage which accrue to a
man from attachment to any other object is not as complete as that resulting
from attachment to a woman or to the fellowship of men who are fond of women. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 36 prajâpatiḥ svâṁ duhitaraṁ
rohid-bhûtâṁ so ’nvadhâvad
ṛkṣa-rûp� hata-trapaḥ Translation At the sight of his own daughter,Brahma was
bewildered by her charms and shamelessly ran up to her in the form of a stag
when she took the form of a hind. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 37 tat-sṛṣṭa-sṛṣṭa-sṛṣṭeṣu
ko nv akhaṇḍita-dh�ḥ pumân
ṛṣiṁ nârâyaṇam ṛte
yoṣin-mayyeha mâyayâ Translation Amongst all kinds of living entities begotten by
Brahma, namely men, demigods and animals, none but the sage Narayana is immune
to the attraction of maya in the form of woman.
Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 38 balaṁ me pa�ya
yâ karoti padâkrântân
bhrûvi-jṛmbheṇa kevalam Translation Just try to understand the mighty strength of My maya in the shape of
woman, who by the mere movement of her eyebrows can keep even the greatest
conquerors of the world under her grip. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 39 saṅgaṁ na kuryât pramadâsu jâtu
yogasya pâraṁ param ârurukṣuḥ
vadanti yâ niraya-dvâram asya Translation One who aspires to reach the culmination of yoga and has realized his self
by rendering service unto Me should never associate with an attractive woman,
for such a woman is declared in the scripture to be the gateway to hell for the
advancing devotee. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 40 yopayâti �anair
tâm �kṣetâtmano mṛtyuṁ
tṛṇaiḥ kûpam ivâvṛtam Translation The woman, created by the Lord, is the representation of maya, and one who
associates with such maya by accepting services must certainly know that this
is the way of death, just like a blind well covered with grass. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 41: yâṁ manyate patiṁ mohân
str�tvaṁ str�-saṅgataḥ prâpto
vittâpatya-gṛha-pradam Translation A living entity who, as a result of attachment to a woman in his previous
life, has been endowed with the form of a woman, foolishly looks upon maya in
the form of a man, her husband, as the bestower of wealth, progeny, house and
other material assets. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 42 tâm âtmano vijân�yât
mṛgayor gâyanaṁ yathâ Translation A woman, therefore, should consider her husband, her house and her children
to be the arrangement of the external energy of the Lord for her death, just as
the sweet singing of the hunter is death for the deer. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 43 dehena j�va-bhûtena
lokâl lokam anuvrajan
bhuñjâna eva karm âṇi
karoty avirataṁ pumân Translation Due to his particular type of body, the materialistic living entity wanders
from one planet to another, following fruitive activities. In this way, he
involves himself in fruitive activities and enjoys the result incessantly. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 44 j�vo hy
tan-nirodho ’sya maraṇam
âvirbh âvas tu sambhavaḥ Translation In this way the living entity gets a suitable body with a material mind and
senses, according to his fruitive activities. When the reaction of his
particular activity comes to an end, that end is called death, and when a
particular type of reaction begins, that beginning is called birth.
Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 45 & 46 dravyopalabdhi-sthânasya
dravyekṣâyogyat â yadâ
tat pañcatvam ahaṁ-mânâd
tadaiva cakṣuṣo draṣṭur
draṣṭṛtvâyogyatânayoḥ Translation When the eyes lose their power to see color or form due to morbid
affliction of the optic nerve, the sense of sight becomes deadened. The living
entity, who is the seer of both the eyes and the sight, loses his power of
vision. In the same way, when the physical body, the place where perception of
objects occurs, is rendered incapable of perceiving, that is known as death.
When one begins to view the physical body as one's very self, that is called
birth. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 47 tasmân na kâryaḥ santrâso
na kârpaṇyaṁ na sambhramaḥ
mukta-saṅgaœ cared iha Translation Therefore, one should not view death with horror, nor have recourse to
defining the body as soul, nor give way to exaggeration in enjoying the bodily
necessities of life. Realizing the true nature of the living entity, one should
move about in the world free from attachment and steadfast in purpose. Srimad Bhagvatam, chapter 31, verse 48 samyag-dar�anayâ
caren nyasya kalevaram Translation Endowed with right vision and strengthened by devotional service and a
pessimistic attitude towards material identity, one should relegate his body to
this illusory world through his reason. Thus one can be unconcerned with this