Showing posts with label Sushruta Samhita. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Sushruta Samhita. Show all posts

Saturday, August 20, 2016

Plastic surgery and cataract surgery are many surgeries were invented in India- Sushrut

surgical achievements of Sushruta and how they have influenced the medical field.  Proud of the Vedic Hindu Civilization.

Cataract surgery was invented by Indian sage Sushrut-
Sentific proof of Vedic India Surgeries in Ancient India- Flying Machines of Ancient India- Ancient Tamil Civilization - Truths Hidden by The Indian Government New 5000 year old Flying Machine discovered In Afganistan- Ancient Documentary 2015: Ancient India and the Earliest Known Civilizations HD Ancient India's Contributions to the World (Full Documentary) The Discovery of 1,750,000 Year Old Man Made Bridge -Proof of Ram God-

Thursday, May 28, 2015

Ancient Indian Literature is full of Scientific Innnovations

 Mythology India
Vedas and ancient Indian science theories are often considered as the most advanced works in the world from their era. There are scientists taking who are fascinated by the knowledge of the ancient Indian scholars and dedicated their life researching on the ancient Indian Science.
The list here presents 13 greatest ever inventions of ancient Indian science.
1. They knew the existence of solar system long before.
vedas solar systemSource
Rig Veda 1.35.9
“The sun moves in its own orbit but holding earth and other heavenly bodies in a manner that they do not collide with each other through force of attraction.
2.  They Theorized gravity way before the western world.
gracity earth vedasSource
The verse 10.22.14 of Rig Veda says
“This earth is devoid of hands and legs, yet it moves ahead. All the objects over the earth also move with it. It moves around the sun”.
3. They knew the speed of light way before the rest of the world knew it.
A Vedic scholar by the name of Sayana discovered the speed of light back in the 14th century AD.
His quote  which translates to
“With deep respect, I bow to the sun, who travels 2,202 yojanas in half a nimesha.”
A yojana is approximately 9 miles; a nimesha is 16/75 of a second.
So,  2,202 yojanas x 9 miles x 75/8 nimeshas = 185,794 miles per second which is remarkably equal to the actual value of 186 282.397 miles per second.
4. They knew the science behind eclipses when the rest of the world was scared thinking eclipses are caused by some sort of black magic.
La foto por la que me odia el 99% de ASAAFSource
Rig Veda 5.40.5 has a phrase which translates to
“O Sun! When you are blocked by the one whom you gifted your own light (moon), then earth will be surprised by the sudden darkness.”
This is a remarkably accurate description of a solar eclipse.
The Vedas’ detailed descriptions of the universe, planets, and other phenomena demonstrates the vast knowledge of the people of those times far before modern civilization even started to exist.
5. They accurately predicted the distance between Sun and Earth.
“Yug sahasra yojana par bhanu,
leelyo taahi madhura phal jaanu” 
-Hanuman Chalisa
The above verse written by Tulasidas in Hanuman chalisa translates to how “The Surya, situated thousands of Yojanas(a unit of distance) away was swallowed by Hanuman thinking it to be a fruit”
1 Yuga = 12000 years
1 Sahsra Yuga = 12000000 years.
Also, 1 Yojan = 8 miles
So, Yug Sahsra Yojan(the first three words) would mean 12000*12000000*8 = 96000000 miles.
Converting it to kilometers, 96000000 X 1.6 = 153,600,000 kms
Actual distance from earth to sun = 152,000,000 kms(error of around 1%)
How cool is that??

6. They measured the circumference of the Earth.
Brahmagupta in the 7th century CE proposed that the circumference of the Earth to be 36,000 km, which is close to the actual figure of 40,075 km, with an error margin of 1%.

7. They estimated the Length of an Year.

Surya Sidhhanta speaks of 4 ways to measure the length of an year namely “Nakshatra“, “Savana“, “Lunar” and “Saura“,  of these The Saura method accurately estimates the length of year to be 365 days, 6 hours 12 mins and 30 seconds. If you are still wondering how they could do it go and visit temples at Konark or Humpi where you will find the incredibly complex and technically correct architecture systems of the temples that use the sunlight to measure the length of the day and year.
8. They deduced Pi value.
Aryabhata worked on the approximation of value of pi (\pi) and came to the conclusion that \pi is irrational and is approximately 3.1416 in 499 CE when he was 23 years old.
He can be considered as one of the smartest brains of ancient India because  because the irrationality of pi was proved in Europe only in 1761 by Lambert.
Not to mention, he even derived the values of sine & cos and gave birth to the concept of trigonometry.
9. They Theorized that earth is a sphere.
Although the discovery of Earth being round  is credited to  Greek astronomers . Interestingly, Indian astronomers had already claimed that Sun is a star and that earth is spherical long before the Greeks. It is documented that various attempts had been made to measure the circumference of earth during the Vedic periods.  Aryabhatta deduced a formulation which proves that the Earth is  rotating on an axis. By estimating the value of pi to be 3.1416 he deduced the circumference of earth to be 39736 Kilometers which is only 100 kilometers below its true value.
In fact, in his book Aryabhatiya, he also asserts that the movement of heavenly bodies like the sun, the stars are all relative, and only earth is moving.
Just as a passenger in a boat moving downstream sees the stationary (trees on the river banks) as traversing upstream, so does an observer on earth see the fixed stars as moving towards the west at exactly the same speed (at which the earth moves from west to east.
-translated from Aryabhatiya Gola 9
10. They build the worlds first underground drainage system.
Indus valley civilization designed the worlds first Underground sanitation system back in 3300–1300 BCE which was adopted by the rest of the world centuries later. They are also the first civilization to create modern sanitation.
11. They theorized and actually implemented the concept of surgical procedures using surgical tools centuries before the rest of the world.
The Sushruta Samhita written by Sushruta is the earliest medical encyclopedia known to world being written during 1200BC containing 184 chapters contains descriptions of 1,120 illnesses, 700 medicinal plants, 64 preparations from mineral sources and 57 preparations based on animal sources. You name a disease and it has a chapter on it.
It was announced in a scientific journal that the oldest and the first  evidence for the drilling of human teeth of a living person was found in Mehrgarh. Eleven drilled molar crowns from nine adults were discovered in a graveyard in Mehrgarh that dates from 7,500–9,000 years ago. A few evidences of orthopedic surgeries were also found concluding that ancient India had the technology to implement surgical procedures.  Anesthesia was made using herbs in Ayurveda.
12.  They theorized the concept of cloning , test tube babies and surrogate mothers.

The epic Mahabharata describes Gandhari as a mother of 100 sons who were called Kauravas, the eldest of them being Dhuryodhana. The Kauravas were created by splitting the single embryo into 100 parts and growing each part in a separate kund (container).
The  birth story of Karna & the Pandavas shockingly  resembles the modern test tube baby concept. Being born from the “characteristics adopted from men of her choice”  
In other words, they not only had the concept of cloning, test-tube babies and embryo spliting but also had the dream to grow human fetuses outside the body of a woman something that is not known to modern science very recently.

13.  Nikola tesla took inspiration from Swamy vivenakanda and Indian vedas for his world acclaimed work.
Swami Vivekananda    tesla
After his lab was burned down and his life’s work had vanished. Nikola Tesla studied the concept of  Prana and Akasha to work on FORCE and MATTER. He developed a new perspective on the world and started viewing world in terms of frequencies and energy which resulted in him establishing his concepts on energy.

We intended to write this article not to take sides or argue against anyone’s beliefs but only to give a small idea on the intensity of the knowledge and imagination of our ancestors.
They even had the concept of sustainable energy, projectile science, and many others like Thrust, momentum, Thermodynamics , Astrophysics etc to name a few.

Wednesday, February 11, 2015

Ancient Indian inventions

Ancient Hindu Zero - BindhuZero (0)LINK to other article related to Aryabhatta’s Bhakshali manuscript mentions zero,which was translated by Arabic first then by Europeans.

Ancient Indians first made ink  by burning tar, pitch, bones. Carbon was the primary pigment.

The Hindu Vedas written in Ink are among some of the most ancient texts in the world
The Hindu Vedas written in Ink are among some of the most ancient texts in the world

 Sea Dock -Link to other articleIndia was the first nation to have a dock that dated back to 6000 BCE. Harappa Civilization were the first to build a dock in Lothal. This proves their oceanology and marine engineering. The Lothal Dock proves their precision and vast knowledge about tidal waves and hydrography.
Historic Lothal Dock

Diamond MiningDiamonds were first mined in India. Till 18th century, India was the only country where diamonds were found and exported to other countries. Various ancient books have mentioned the use of diamond as a tool and have also mentioned the exquisiteness of this sparkling stone
Some of the largest diamonds in the world were stolen from Hindu kings and now housed outside of India

Medical Vaccinations & Treatments (Ayurveda)Link to other articleLeprosy was first noticed by Indians and various ancient remedies are also mentioned in the Atharva Veda. Treatment for  stones was first introduced in India. Small Pox vaccinations were first cured in India and symptoms and ways of immunization against small pox were mentioned in 8 th century by Madhav.Ayurveda and Siddha are the two primitive methods of treatment that originated in India and are still used. Indian medical practitioner  Nobel Laureate Upendra Nath Bramhachari invented methods to treat Visceral Leishmaniasis or Kala Azar.
The ancient form of medical treatments & foods is called Ayurveda

Surgery Link to other articleAncient Indian physician Sushruta performed first Cataract surgery and plastic surgery back to >2000 BCE and his work were later translated to Arabic language and gradually passed on to European countries. He used a curved needle and removed the cataract by pushing the lens. People from far off countries came to India to seek treatment.
Surgery 1000s of years ago in Ancient India
Wool, Cotton, Plant (Natural Fibers)Natural fibers like wool, cotton and plant fiber originated from India. Evidences show that people of the Indus Valley used cotton and India pioneered the art of cotton spinning and used it in making fabric. Jute, a plant fiber, was cultivated in India since ancient times and was later exported to other countries. Cashmere wool, which is supposed to be the finest wool was first made in Kashmir and was used to make hand- made shawls. These shawls have maintained their richness and exclusivity even today.
Natural fibers from ancient India
ButtonsButtons are a major part of our clothing even today. Buttons were invented in India and various historical evidences and excavations prove that buttons were used by the people belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. Shells were given various shapes and were pierced into a hole. Earlier they were used more as an embellishment but were gradually used to fasten clothes
Buttons made of stone from Ancient India
Cotton Gin is a machine used to separate cotton from the seeds. The evidence of this machine was found through the carvings on Ajanta caves where the pictures of these machines were engraved. Dating back to 500 AD, this hand roller machine was locally called Charkha. This machine has undergone changes through the course of time but the most primitive form of cotton gin originated from India.
Cotton Gin origins from Ancient India
Crucible SteelHigh-quality steel has been produced in South India since ancient times. They used crucible technique toproduce high quality steel in Ancient India.. Pure wrought iron was first  mixed with glass and charcoal and was heated till the metal melted and absorbed the carbon.

Steel from ancient India
Steel from ancient India
Adopted from 

Saturday, February 7, 2015

Sushrut samhita and Ancient Surgery in India

Health Sciences-2: are we co-creators surgery!
Ayurveda medicine was of two types-(a) refining-Panchakarma, by these are-(1) fixing the blame by vomiting from vomiting-mouth, 2. catharsis-find fault, mainly rectal route (3) basti (enema) (4) raktamokshan-poison thing in blood or body cutting somewhere, then remove it. (V) nasya-nasal by snigdh thing off (b) mitigation-drugs by Medicare, Its perimeter was very prevalent. Eight types of therapies arrive, are described. (1) work medicine-General Medicine (2) comer (3) Ghost lore balrog bhrityam-medical-psychiatric medicine (4) shalakya tantra-urdhvang i.e. nose, ear, throat etc. medicine (5) surgical apparatus-surgical (6) agad tantra-venom therapy (VII) chemicals-chemotherapy (8) bajikran-patrushev multiplication drugs:-charaka is said, which is where, around the same medicines are giving the nature of diseases. So their surroundings plants, Upon inspection of the mangroves and were to use. A world of Acharya was gathered, discussions and phalashruti later as ' the code ' charaka. From the point of view of this code 177 pranijanya vanaspatijanya attended 341 births, drug, among the 64 minerals mentioned. Similarly, pranijanya and vanaspatijanya in the code up, sushrut 57 64 minerals using and describe methods of medicinal drugs. They powder, infusion, decoction, Avleh etc. were prepared in many forms in medicines. This anterior also works to get some wonderful description of the drugs. Such as balmiki Ramayana, RAM-Ravana war time when lax was traumatized and they become comatose IPO market as also on pranantak, Jamvant for the treatment of-ji by Hanuman in the Himalayas receive four described the rare drugs. Dead sanjeevani mortage chaiv vishalyakranimpi. Sandhani suvarnakranin chaiv f mahaushdhim || Yuddhakand 74-33 (1) vishalyakrani-body-remove (2) walked into a weapon to sandhani-healing-3 suvarnakrani-skin color right containing 4 mritsanjivni-resurrection after bauddhakal in charaka that Nagarjuna, vagbhatt etc. of the juice from the endeavours of many evolved. This mercury is extremely parinamkarak reduces the pure medicinal use. In addition, metals, As-iron, copper, gold, silver, and reheat

 in miscellaneous jast juices-the process of converting them from developed to consume. It consumed and padpajanya medicines also come to work in healing. Surgery-Surgeons of the past few years the world famous organization of fragrance has a calendar, removed It's by far the best surgeons (surgeon) were given pictures. It was the first picture by Acharya sushrut and was the world's first surgeon. The history of surgery in Indian tradition is very ancient. Indian medicine God dhanvantari is considered the progenitor of the surgical action. In antiquity the area had good progress by our nation's physicians. Several treatises were created. Such texts sushrut, creators of pushkalavat, goprakshit, banquet, kankayan, greg, galav videh, nimi, jivak, parvatak, hiranyaksh,, Kashyap, etc. names are remarkable. In addition to numerous ancient texts these creators in this field would have knowledge of the progress of the Indians. Rigveda and atharva disorders of the heart, stomach and details of vrikkon. A similar body has been navadvaron and description of the ten holes. Vedic period were accomplished brain surgeon surgical operation. Rigveda (8-86-2) according to the vimna and vishvak were udbhrant, Rishi The surgery was done away with by his disease. This treatise is also Sage narshad details. When they are completely deaf by their treatment by the ashwini cameron returned for the hearing had the power. Eye like soft organs were then doctor of medicine make efficiently. Rigveda (1-116-11) in the surgical operation of the flame by vandan Sage get back. In the Buddhist period in the area of the surgical action faster progress. According to pitak ' modestly ' rajgrih a shreshthi Sir were have bugs in them. Then from the surgical action jivak wagered only Remove bugs but it turned to fix wounds on drugs did the liniment. Our mythology also has been given enough information about the surgical action. According to Shiva purana ' ' when Shiva was hacked by-ji efficient of Sir cameron was imposed by their new head ashwini. Similarly the head of Ganesha-ji cut his torso was linked on the elephant's head. ' Ramayana ' and ' see ' the Mahabharata as a few examples. ' Ramayana ' is that there is a place called yajmane svake uddhrityavimna netre dadau."That is the eye of a man if need be by removing the other was imposed. (E. RA.-2-16-5) anything said in the House of ' Mahabharata ' feast and narada dialog to get the 8 parts of the surgery. A valid strong Singh bhati says sushrut gurushishya surgical training in the code of tradition was through. Murdon and discontinuation of ravanas are dismantled by practical knowledge was given. Through various instruments and trained for fire shalyagya's actions were concluded. Raconteurs patient blood was also crucified. To use the tool sharp edge was shiravedh. Eight types of surgical actions-by sushrut The name of the operation described actions (1) chedya (for accidental perforation) (ii) (iii) vulnerability (for penetration) time (to separate) (4) vedhya (body
स्वास्थ्य विज्ञान -२ : सर्जरी के सर्जक हम ही हैं!
आयुर्वेद चिकित्सा दो प्रकार से की जाती थी- (अ) शोधन-पंचकर्म द्वारा, ये निम्न हैं- (१) वमन- मुंह से उल्टी करके दोष दूर करना, (२) विरेचन-मुख्यत: गुदा मार्ग से दोष निकालना, (३) बस्ति (एनीमा) (४) रक्तमोक्षण-जहरीली चीज काटने पर या शरीर में खराब रक्त कहीं हो, तो उसे निकालना। (५) नस्य- नाक द्वारा स्निग्ध चीज देना (ब) शमन- औषधि द्वारा चिकित्सा, इसकी परिधि बहुत व्याप्त थी। आठ प्रकार की चिकित्साएं बताई गई हैं। (१) काय चिकित्सा-सामान्य चिकित्सा (२) कौमार भृत्यम्‌-बालरोग चिकित्सा (३) भूत विद्या- मनोरोग चिकित्सा (४) शालाक्य तंत्र- उर्ध्वांग अर्थात्‌ नाक, कान, गला आदि की चिकित्सा (५) शल्य तंत्र-शल्य चिकित्सा (६) अगद तंत्र-विष चिकित्सा (७) रसायन-रसायन चिकित्सा (८) बाजीकरण-पुरुषत्व वर्धन औषधियां:- चरक ने कहा, जो जहां रहता है, उसी के आसपास प्रकृति ने रोगों की औषधियां दे रखी हैं। अत: वे अपने आसपास के पौधों, वनस्पतियों का निरीक्षण व प्रयोग करने का आग्रह करते थे। एक समय विश्व के अनेक आचार्य एकत्रित हुए, विचार-विमर्श हुआ और उसकी फलश्रुति आगे चलकर ‘चरक संहिता‘ के रूप में सामने आई। इस संहिता में औषधि की दृष्टि से ३४१ वनस्पतिजन्य, १७७ प्राणिजन्य, ६४ खनिज द्रव्यों का उल्लेख है। इसी प्रकार सुश्रुत संहिता में ३८५ वनस्पतिजन्य, ५७ प्राणिजन्य तथा ६४ खनिज द्रव्यों से औषधीय प्रयोग व विधियों का वर्णन है। इनसे चूर्ण, आसव, काढ़ा, अवलेह आदि अनेक में रूपों औषधियां तैयार होती थीं। इससे पूर्वकाल में भी ग्रंथों में कुछ अद्भुत औषधियों का वर्णन मिलता है। जैसे बाल्मीकी रामायण में राम-रावण युद्ध के समय जब लक्ष्मण पर प्राणांतक आघात हुआ और वे मूर्छित हो गए, उस समय इलाज हेतु जामवन्त ने हनुमान जी के पास हिमालय में प्राप्त होने वाली चार दुर्लभ औषधियों का वर्णन किया। मृत संजीवनी चैव विशल्यकरणीमपि। सुवर्णकरणीं चैव सन्धानी च महौषधीम्‌॥ युद्धकाण्ड ७४-३३ (१) विशल्यकरणी-शरीर में घुसे अस्त्र निकालने वाली (२) सन्धानी- घाव भरने वाली (३) सुवर्णकरणी-त्वचा का रंग ठीक रखने वाली (४) मृतसंजीवनी-पुनर्जीवन देने वाली चरक के बाद बौद्धकाल में नागार्जुन, वाग्भट्ट आदि अनेक लोगों के प्रयत्न से रस शास्त्र विकसित हुआ। इसमें पारे को शुद्ध कर उसका औषधीय उपयोग अत्यंत परिणामकारक रहा। इसके अतिरिक्त धातुओं, यथा-लौह, ताम्र, स्वर्ण, रजत, जस्त को विविध रसों में डालना और गरम करना-इस प्रक्रिया से उन्हें भस्म में परिवर्तित करने की विद्या विकसित हुई। यह भस्म और पादपजन्य औषधियां भी रोग निदान में काम आती हैं। शल्य चिकित्सा- कुछ वर्षों पूर्व इंग्लैण्ड के शल्य चिकित्सकों के विश्व प्रसिद्ध संगठन ने एक कैलेण्डर निकाला, उसमें विश्व के अब तक के श्रेष्ठ शल्य चिकित्सकों (सर्जन) के चित्र दिए गए थे। उसमें पहला चित्र आचार्य सुश्रुत का था तथा उन्हें विश्व का पहला शल्य चिकित्सक बताया गया था। वैसे भारतीय परम्परा में शल्य चिकित्सा का इतिहास बहुत प्राचीन है। भारतीय चिकित्सा के देवता धन्वंतरि को शल्य क्रिया का भी जनक माना जाता है। प्राचीनकाल में इस क्षेत्र में हमारे देश के चिकित्सकों ने अच्छी प्रगति की थी। अनेक ग्रंथ रचे गए। ऐसे ग्रंथों के रचनाकारों में सुश्रुत, पुष्कलावत, गोपरक्षित, भोज, विदेह, निमि, कंकायन, गार्ग्य, गालव, जीवक, पर्वतक, हिरण्याक्ष, कश्यप आदि के नाम विशेष उल्लेखनीय हैं। इन रचनाकारों के अलावा अनेक प्राचीन ग्रंथों से इस क्षेत्र में भारतीयों की प्रगति का ज्ञान होता है। ऋग्वेद तथा अथर्ववेद में दिल, पेट तथा वृक्कों के विकारों का विवरण है। इसी तरह शरीर में नवद्वारों तथा दस छिद्रों का विवरण दिया गया है। वैदिक काल के शल्य चिकित्सक मस्तिष्क की शल्य क्रिया में निपुण थे। ऋग्वेद (८-८६-२) के अनुसार जब विमना और विश्वक ऋषि उद्भ्रान्त हो गए थे, तब शल्य क्रिया द्वारा उनका रोग दूर किया गया। इसी ग्रंथ में नार्षद ऋषि का भी विवरण है। जब वे पूर्ण रूप से बधिर हो गए तब अश्विनी कुमारों ने उपचार करके उनकी श्रवण शक्ति वापस लौटा दी थी। नेत्र जैसे कोमल अंग की चिकित्सा तत्कालीन चिकित्सक कुशलता से कर लेते थे। ऋग्वेद (१-११६-११) में शल्य क्रिया द्वारा वन्दन ऋषि की ज्योति वापस लाने का उल्लेख मिलता है। शल्य क्रिया के क्षेत्र में बौद्ध काल में भी तीव्र गति से प्रगति हुई। ‘विनय पिटक‘ के अनुसार राजगृह के एक श्रेष्ठी के सर में कीड़े पड़ गए थे। तब वैद्यराज जीवक ने शल्य क्रिया से न केवल वे कीड़े निकाले बल्कि इससे बने घावों को ठीक करने के लिए उन पर औषधि का लेप किया था। हमारे पुराणों में भी शल्य क्रिया के बारे में पर्याप्त जानकारी दी गई। ‘शिव पुराण‘ के अनुसार जब शिव जी ने दक्ष का सर काट दिया था तब अश्विनी कुमारों ने उनको नया सर लगाया था। इसी तरह गणेश जी का मस्तक कट जाने पर उनके धड़ पर हाथी का सर जोड़ा गया था। ‘रामायण‘ तथा ‘महाभारत‘ में भी ऐसे कुछ उदाहरण मिलते हैं। ‘रामायण‘ में एक स्थान पर कहा है कि ‘याजमाने स्वके नेत्रे उद्धृत्याविमना ददौ।‘ अर्थात्‌ आवश्यकता पड़ने पर एक मनुष्य की आंख निकालकर दूसरे को लगा दी जाती थी। (बा.रा.-२-१६-५) ‘महाभारत‘ के सभा पर्व में युधिष्ठिर व नारद के संवाद से शल्य चिकित्सा के ८ अंगों का परिचय मिलता है। वैद्य सबल सिंह भाटी कहते हैं कि सुश्रुत संहिता में शल्य चिकित्सा का प्रशिक्षण गुरुशिष्य परम्परा के माध्यम से दिया जाता था। मुर्दों तथा पुतलों का विच्छेदन करके व्यावहारिक ज्ञान दिया जाता था। प्रशिक्षित शल्यज्ञ विभिन्न उपकरणों तथा अग्नि के माध्यम से तमाम क्रियाएं सम्पन्न करते थे। जरूरत पड़ने पर रोगी को खून भी चढ़ाया जाता था। इसके लिए तेज धार वाले उपकरण शिरावेध का उपयोग होता था। आठ प्रकार की शल्य क्रियाएं- सुश्रुत द्वारा वर्णित शल्य क्रियाओं के नाम इस प्रकार हैं (१) छेद्य (छेदन हेतु) (२) भेद्य (भेदन हेतु) (३) लेख्य (अलग करने हेतु) (४) वेध्य (शरीर में हानिकारक द्रव्य निकालने के लिए) (५) ऐष्य (नाड़ी में घाव ढूंढने के लिए) (६) अहार्य (हानिकारक उत्पत्तियों को निकालने के लिए) (७) विश्रव्य (द्रव निकालने के लिए) (८) सीव्य (घाव सिलने के लिए) सुश्रुत संहिता में शस्त्र क्रियाओं के लिए आवश्यक यंत्रों (साधनों) तथा शस्त्रों (उपकरणों) का भी विस्तार से वर्णन किया गया है। आजकल की शल्य क्रिया में ‘फौरसेप्स‘ तथा ‘संदस‘ यंत्र फौरसेप्स तथा टोंग से मिलते-जुलते हैं। सुश्रुत के महान ग्रन्थ में २४ प्रकार के स्वास्तिकों, २ प्रकार के संदसों, २८ प्रकार की शलाकाओं तथा २० प्रकार की नाड़ियों (नलिका) का उल्लेख हुआ है। इनके अतिरिक्त शरीर के प्रत्येक अंग की शस्त्र-क्रिया के लिए बीस प्रकार के शस्त्रों (उपकरणों) का भी वर्णन किया गया है। पूर्व में जिन आठ प्रकार की शल्य क्रियाओं का संदर्भ आया है, वे विभिन्न साधनों व उपकरणों से की जाती थीं। उपकरणों (शस्त्रों) के नाम इस प्रकार हैं- अर्द्धआधार, अतिमुख, अरा, बदिशा, दंत शंकु, एषणी, कर-पत्र, कृतारिका, कुथारिका, कुश-पात्र, मण्डलाग्र, मुद्रिका, नख शस्त्र, शरारिमुख, सूचि, त्रिकुर्चकर, उत्पल पत्र, वृध-पत्र, वृहिमुख तथा वेतस-पत्र। आज से कम से कम तीन हजार वर्ष पूर्व सुश्रुत ने सर्वोत्कृष्ट इस्पात के उपकरण बनाये जाने की आवश्यकता बताई। आचार्य ने इस पर भी बल दिया है कि उपकरण तेज धार वाले हों तथा इतने पैने कि उनसे बाल को भी दो हिस्सों में काटा जा सके। शल्यक्रिया से पहले व बाद में वातावरण व उपकरणों की शुद्धता (रोग-प्रतिरोधी वातावरण) पर सुश्रुत ने इतना जोर दिया है तथा इसके लिए ऐसे साधनों का वर्णन किया है कि आज के शल्य चिकित्सक भी दंग रह जाएं। शल्य चिकित्सा (सर्जरी) से पहले रोगी को संज्ञा-शून्य करने (एनेस्थेशिया) की विधि व इसकी आवश्यकता भी बताई गई है। ‘भोज प्रबंध‘ (९२७ ईस्वी) में बताया गया है कि राजा भोज को कपाल की शल्य-क्रिया के पूर्व ‘सम्मोहिनी‘ नामक चूर्ण सुंघाकर अचेत किया गया था। चौदह प्रकार की पट्टियां- इन उपकरणों के साथ ही आवश्यकता पड़ने पर बांस, स्फटिक तथा कुछ विशेष प्रकार के प्रस्तर खण्डों का उपयोग भी शल्य क्रिया में किया जाता था। शल्य क्रिया के मर्मज्ञ महर्षि सुश्रुत ने १४ प्रकार की पट्टियों का विवरण किया है। उन्होंने हड्डियों के खिसकने के छह प्रकारों तथा अस्थि-भंग के १२ प्रकारों की विवेचना की है। यही नहीं, उनके ग्रंथ में कान संबंधी बीमारियों के २८ प्रकार तथा नेत्र-रोगों के २६ प्रकार बताए गए हैं। सुश्रुत संहिता में मनुष्य की आंतों में कर्कट रोग (कैंसर) के कारण उत्पन्न हानिकर तन्तुओं (टिश्युओं) को शल्य क्रिया से हटा देने का विवरण है। शल्यक्रिया द्वारा शिशु-जन्म (सीजेरियन) की विधियों का वर्णन किया गया है। ‘न्यूरो-सर्जरी‘ अर्थात्‌ रोग-मुक्ति के लिए नाड़ियों पर शल्य-क्रिया का उल्लेख है तथा आधुनिक काल की सर्वाधिक पेचीदी क्रिया ‘प्लास्टिक सर्जरी‘ का सविस्तार वर्णन सुश्रुत के ग्रन्थ में है। आधुनिकतम विधियों का भी उल्लेख इसमें है। कई विधियां तो ऐसी भी हैं जिनके सम्बंध में आज का चिकित्सा शास्त्र भी अनभिज्ञ है। संक्षेप में यह कहा जा सकता है कि प्राचीन भारत में शल्य क्रिया अत्यंत उन्नत अवस्था में थी, जबकि शेष विश्व इस विद्या से बिल्कुल अनभिज्ञ था। 

Sunday, December 28, 2014

The Sushruta Samhita and Plastic Surgery in Ancient India

A statue dedicated to Sushruta at the Patanjali Yogpeeth institute in Haridwar
A statue  Sushruta at Patanjali Yogpeeth in Haridwar. Wikimedia,

The Sushruta Samhita and Plastic Surgery in Ancient India, 6th century B.C.

The Sushruta Samhita is commonly dated to the 6th century B.C., and is attributed to the physician Sushruta (meaning ‘very famous’ in Sanskrit). The Sushruta Samhita’s most well-known contribution to plastic surgery is the reconstruction of the nose, known also as rhinoplasty. The process is described as such:
The portion of the nose to be covered should be first measured with a leaf. Then a piece of skin of the required size should be dissected from the living skin of the cheek, and turned back to cover the nose, keeping a small pedicle attached to the cheek. The part of the nose to which the skin is to be attached should be made raw by cutting the nasal stump with a knife. The physician then should place the skin on the nose and stitch the two parts swiftly, keeping the skin properly elevated by inserting two tubes of eranda (the castor-oil plant) in the position of the nostrils, so that the new nose gets proper shape. The skin thus properly adjusted, it should then be sprinkled with a powder of licorice, red sandal-wood and barberry plant. Finally, it should be covered with cotton, and clean sesame oil should be constantly applied. When the skin has united and granulated, if the nose is too short or too long, the middle of the flap should be divided and an endeavor made to enlarge or shorten it.
 Other contributions of the Sushruta Samhita towards the practice of plastic surgery include the use of cheek flaps to reconstruct absent ear lobes, the use of wine as anesthesia, and the use of leeches to keep wounds free of blood clots.
It may also be pointed out that the Sushruta Samhita is also one of the foundational texts of the Ayurveda, the traditional medical system of India. Therefore, the Sushruta Samhita contains more than just the description of plastic surgery procedures. The Sushruta Samhita, in its existing form, is said to consist of 184 chapters containing descriptions of 1,120 illnesses, as well as several hundred types of drugs made from animals, plants and minerals. Furthermore, the Sushruta Samhita also contains 300 surgical procedures divided into 8 categories, and 121 different types of surgical instruments.
In addition, Sushruta taught that in order to be a good doctor, one should possess medical knowledge in both its theoretical and practical forms. To this end, he devised various experimental modules (these can also be found in the Sushruta Samhita) for his students to practice the different surgical procedures contained in his medical text. For instance, ‘incision’ and ‘excision’ were to be practiced on vegetables and leather bags filled with mud of different densities, ‘probing’ on moth-eaten wood or bamboo, and ‘puncturing’ on the veins of dead animals and lotus stalks.
During the 8th century A.D., the Sushruta Samhita was translated into Arabic by a person known as Ibn Abillsaibial. This Arabic translation, known as the Kitab Shah Shun al-Hindi or the Kitab i-Susurud, eventually made its way to Europe by the end of the medieval period. In Renaissance Italy, the Branca family of Sicily, and the Bolognese doctor, Gasparo Tagliacozzi, were familiar with the surgical techniques found in the Sushruta Samhita. Nevertheless, European mastery of plastic surgery, and surgery in general, only came several centuries later. Meanwhile, in India the Suhruta Samhita has made Indian physicians highly skilled in surgical practice. In 1794, an account was published in the Gentleman’s Magazine of London describing the use of plastic surgery used to reconstruct the nose of a Maratha cart-driver mutilated by the soldiers of Tippu Sultan. The procedure was similar to that taught by Sushruta, though instead of grafting skin from the cheek, skin from the forehead was grafted instead. In a way, this shows that medical knowledge in India was not a dead subject, and that innovations could be made to further refine surgical techniques from the 6th century B.C. Thus, Sushruta’s procedure for rhinoplasty was introduced to the West in this manner.
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