Showing posts with label ASTROPHYSICS.. Show all posts
Showing posts with label ASTROPHYSICS.. Show all posts

Monday, December 21, 2015

Shocking scientific inventions by ancient saints!

Shocking scientific inventions by ancient saints!
    Indian Scriptures have answers that 
modern science needs? 
 During the growth of the 
ancient civilizations, ancient 
  1. 1. Shocking Scientific Inventions by Ancient Saints! Our Rich Heritage !!!
  2. 2. Indian Scriptures have answers that modern science needs?  During the growth of the ancient civilizations, ancient technology was the result of incredible advances in engineering in ancient times.  These advances in the history of technology stimulated societies to adopt new ways of living and governance.  However, many ancient inventions were forgotten, lost to the pages of history, only to be re-invented millennia later.  Here are the best examples of ancient technology and inventions that demonstrate the ingenuity of our ancient ancestors.  So, get ready to be awed...
  3. 3. Saints or scientists?  The land of India is known to be the land of saints and Gods. It is filled with various types of unexplainable things.  In ancient times, various saints after doing years of hard meditation, their work and with their patience found the secrets hidden in the Vedas 1,000 years ago.  These inventions later came to be known as modern science.  Some of the saints came out with such amazing inventions that shocked the kings of those times as well.  Click on to know…
  4. 4. The Indian Sage who developed Atomic Theory 2,600 years ago  John Dalton (1766 – 1844), an English chemist and physicist, is the man credited today with the development of atomic theory.  However, a theory of atoms was actually formulated 2,500 years before Dalton by an Indian sage and philosopher, known as Acharya Kanad.  Acharya Kanad was born in 600 BC in Prabhas Kshetra (near Dwaraka) in Gujarat, India. His real name was Kashyap. It was Kanada who originated the idea that anu (atom) was an indestructible particle of matter.
  5. 5. The Indian Sage who developed Atomic Theory 2,600 years ago II  An interesting story states that this theory occurred to him while he was walking with food in his hand.  As he nibbled at the food in his hand, throwing away the small particles, it occurred to him that he could not divide the food into further parts and thus the idea of a matter which cannot be divided further came into existence.  He called that indivisible matter anu, i.e. molecule, which was misinterpreted as atom.  He also stated that anu can have two states - Absolute rest and a State of motion.
  6. 6. Newton’s Law… 1200 Years before Newton  “Objects fall on the earth due to a force of attraction by the earth. Therefore, the earth, planets, constellations, moon and sun are held in orbit due to this attraction.”  The meaning of these lines is parallel to that of Newton’s Law of Gravity.  But these lines are not said by the European scientist. They are said by an Indian - in Surya Siddhanta, dated 400-500 AD, the ancient Hindu astronomer Bhaskaracharya states these lines.  Approximately 1200 years later (1687 AD), Sir Isaac Newton rediscovered this phenomenon and called it the Law of Gravity.
  7. 7. Acharya Charak: Father of Medicine  Acharya Charak has been crowned as the Father of Medicine. His renowned work, the "Charak Samhita," is considered as an encyclopedia of Ayurveda.  His principles, diagnoses, and cures retain their potency and truth even after a couple of millennium.  When the science of anatomy was confused with different theories in Europe, Acharya Charak revealed through his innate genius and inquires the facts on human anatomy, embryology, pharmacology, blood circulation and diseases like diabetes, tuberculosis, heart disease, etc.
  8. 8. Charak Samhita  In the "Charak Samhita" he has described the medicinal qualities and functions of 100,000 herbal plants.  He has emphasized the influence of diet and activity on mind and body.  He has proved the correlation of spirituality and physical health contributed greatly to diagnostic and curative sciences.  He has also prescribed and ethical charter for medical practitioners two centuries prior to the Oath.  Through his genius and intuition, Acharya Charak forever remains etched in the annals of history as one of the greatest and noblest of rishi-scientists.
  9. 9. Sage Bharadwaj  In 1875, the Vymaanika- Shaastra, a fourth century BC text written by Maharshi Bhardwaj, was discovered in a temple in India.  The book dealt with the operation of ancient vimanas and included information on steering, precautions for long flights, protection of the airships from storms and lightning, and how to switch the drive to solar energy, or some other “free energy” source. Vimanas were said to take off vertically or dirigible.  Bharadwaj the Wise refers to no less than 70 authorities and 10 experts of air travel in antiquity.
  10. 10. Rishi Kanva  The science of wind has been explained by Sage Kanva in Rigveda sections 8/41/6 in Jagati meter of God wind.  Sage Kashyapa has described the features and properties of this substance in Rigveda 9/64/26 in the hymns of God Pavamana Soma in meter Gayatri.  Kanva was a great Rishi, a descendent of Sage Angirasa.  He looked after Shakuntala when she was abandoned by her mother and father (rishi vishwamitra). Bharat, the son of Shakuntala was also brought up by him.
  11. 11. Sage Kapil Muni: Author of the Sankhya Darshan  Kapil muni was born equipped with rare intellect, dispassion and spiritual powers.  He authored Sankhya Darshan that defined the term "Dhyaan or Meditation" as “the state of mind when remains without any subjectivity / objectivity i.e. without any thought (when the mind is away from worldly objects), is called the "Dhyaan or Meditation”.  He teaches that there is an unbroken continuity from the lowest inorganic to the highest organic forms.  The source of world according to him is Prakriti (fundamental nature).
  12. 12. Kapil Muni: Finding how the Universe was created  According to Kapil Muni, there are twenty-five principles responsible for the manifestation of the Creation (Samasara), out of which Purusha and Prakriti are eternal and independent of each other.  Kapila is not concerned to deny the reality of personal God or Maheshwara. Yet his assertion is that, no arguments can irrefutably establish God's reality.  Therefore, in his model of creation the Purusha (Spirit) and Prakrity (matter) are held solely responsible for creation, without acknowledging an Almighty and intelligent Creator, the God.
  13. 13. Patanjali: The Father of Yoga  The Science of Yoga is one of several unique contributions of India to the world.  It seeks to discover and realize the ultimate Reality through yogic practices.  Acharya Patanjali, prescribed the control of prana (life breath) as the means to control the body, mind and soul.  This subsequently rewards one with good health and inner happiness.  His 84 yogic postures effectively enhance the efficiency of the respiratory, circulatory, nervous, digestive and endocrine systems and many other organs of the body.
  14. 14. Aryabhatt  He was a master Astronomer and Mathematician, born in 476 CE in Kusumpur (Bihar).  In 499 CE, he wrote a text on astronomy and an unparallel treatise on mathematics called "Aryabhatiyam"  He formulated the process of calculating the motion of planets and the time of eclipses.  Aryabhatt was the first to proclaim that the earth is round, it rotates on its axis, orbits the sun and is suspended in space - 1,000 years before Copernicus published his heliocentric theory.
  15. 15. Sushruta  Born to sage Vishwamitra, Sushruta is the father of surgery.  2600 years ago, he and health scientists of his time conducted complicated surgeries like cesareans, cataract, artificial limbs, Rhinoplasty (restoration of a damaged nose), 12 types of fractures, 6 types of dislocations, urinary stones and even plastic surgery and brain surgery.  Usage of anesthesia was well known in ancient India.  He is the author of the book "Sushruta Samhita", in which he describes over 300 surgical procedures and 125 surgical instruments.
  16. 16. Bhaskaracharya  He calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the sun hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart;  Time taken by earth to orbit the sun: (5th century) 365.258756484 days.  Born in the obscure village of Vijjadit (Jalgaon) in Maharastra, Bhaskaracharya's mathematical works called "Lilavati" and "Bijaganita" are considered to be unparalleled.  In his treatise "Siddhant Shiromani" he writes on planetary positions, eclipses, cosmography, mathematical techniques and astronomical equipment.  In the "Surya Siddhant" he makes a note on the force of gravity.
  17. 17. Varahamihira  Varahamihir's book "panch siddhant", noted that the moon and planets are lustrous not because of their own light but due to sunlight.  In the "Bruhad Samhita" and "Bruhad Jatak", he has revealed his discoveries in the domains of geography, constellation, science, botany and animal science.  In his treatise on botanical science, Varahamihir presents cures for various diseases afflicting plants and trees.
  18. 18. The galaxy is oval, Earth is spherical  Yajur Vedic verse: "Brahmaanda vyapta deha bhasitha himaruja..." describing Shiva as the one who is spread out in Brahmaanda.  Anda means an egg depicting the shape of the galaxy.  It was the middle east Europians and Greeks who wrongly believed that earth was flat.  But Indians, since long have always known that it was spherical.  In many scriptures, the word Bhoogola is used, Gola meaning round.
  19. 19. Existence of Atomic and Sub atomic particles  The world accounts discovery of atoms and sub atomic particles to Western scientists who coined these words and theories only in the early 17th century.  An excerpt from Lalitha Sahasranama, told by Hayagreeva to Agasthya muni, dating back to the distant ages of the past,describes the Goddess as the super consciousness/Brahman that pervades even the sub atomic particles within matter.  "Paranjyotih parandhamah paramanuh paratpara". The word "anuvu" means atom.  Paramanu is sub-atomic particle, finer than the finest of atom, meaning electrons and the others.
  20. 20. Ancient times and nuclear weapons  Radiation still so intense, the area is highly dangerous!  A heavy layer of radioactive ash in Rajasthan, India, covers a three-square mile area, ten miles west of Jodhpur.  For some time it has been established that there is a very high rate of birth defects and cancer in the area under construction.  Scientists have unearthed an ancient city where evidence shows an atomic blast dating back thousands of years, from 8,000 to 12,000 years, destroying everything most of the buildings and probably a half-million people.
  21. 21. Ancient times and nuclear weapons II  The Mahabharata clearly describes a catastrophic blast that rocked the continent.  "A single projectile charged with all the power in the Universe...An incandescent column of smoke and flame as bright as 10,000 suns, rose in all its splendor...  it was an unknown weapon, an iron thunderbolt, a gigantic messenger of death which reduced to ashes an entire race.”  Historian Kisori Mohan Ganguli says that Indian sacred writings are full of such descriptions.
  22. 22. Ancient ultrasound machines?  Using a variety of complicated instruments, gynecologists have gradually come to know how the embryo grows during the period of pregnancy.  But the Shrimad Bhagavatam, 3rd canto, 30th chapter, gives a vivid description of the growth of the embryo in the mother's womb.  If we compare the information given therein with the information given in a standard textbook such as the embryology section of Gray's Anatomy, there are striking similarities in the information obtained from the two sources.
  23. 23. Ancient science knows more than modern science?  The Vedas claim that there are living entities everywhere - even in fire.  Modern science, however, presumed that no life could exist in fire.  This presumption is in fact the basis for the process of sterilization.  But recent advancements in the field of medicine have shown that microbes called 'fire bacteria' survive even in fire.
  24. 24. The incredible powers of the ancient Siddharshi!  Siddharshi are a type of saint in India who are said to have had many powers and achieved a ‘god-like’ state through specific secret practices that were known only to them.  These powers spanned from controlling time and space, to transforming the body, manipulating matter at the molecular level and achieving immortality.  The Siddharshi were followers of the God Shiva and according to different texts there were 18 of them.  Their teachings and findings were written in the form of poems in the Tamil language.
  25. 25. Who were Siddharshi?  There is a debate as to who was the first Siddharshi.  Some legends talk about Sri Pathanjali, who was considered to be an incarnation of Adiseshan, the celestial five-headed snake associated with God Vishnu.  But the prevailing tradition refers to Agasthya (or Agasthyar) as the first Siddharshi, one of the seven sages (or Saptarshis) as mentioned in the Vedic texts, and he was the son of the god Brahma of the Hindu creation story.
  26. 26. Siddhas or scientists?  Agathiyar is considered to be the author of a lot of the first Siddha literature and he was supposed to have lived in the 7th century BC.  About 96 books are attributed to him and that includes writings in alchemy, medicine and spirituality.  Apart from the legends that exist, the beginnings of the Siddhars’ are lost in time.
  27. 27. Ashta Siddhis of Siddhas  The powers that the Siddhars possessed were separated in categories.  The main category included 8 powers called ashta siddhis:  To become tiny as the atom within the atom (Anima);  To become big in unshakeable proportions (Mahima);  To become as light as vapour in levitation (Laghima);  To become as heavy as the mountain (Garima);  To enter into other bodies in transmigration (Prapti);  To be in all things, omni-pervasive (Prakamya);  To be lord of all creation in omnipotence (Isatvam);  To be everywhere in omnipresence (Vasitvam)
  28. 28. Ten Siddhis of Siddhas  There are ten secondary siddhis as described in Bhagavata Purana that include the following:  Being undisturbed by hunger, thirst, and other bodily appetites;  Hearing things far away;  Seeing things far away;  Moving the body wherever thought goes (teleportation/astral projection);  Assuming any form desired;  Entering the bodies of others;  Dying when one desires;  Witnessing and participating in the past times of the gods;  Perfect accomplishment of one's determination;  Orders or commands being unimpeded
  29. 29. Ancient science and Siddhas  A famous Siddha was Tirumular, who was a Tamil mystic and writer of 6th century AD and was also one of the 18 Siddhas according to the Tamil Siddha tradition.  His main work is named “Tirumantiram”, a 3,000 verse text, which is the foundation of the Southern Shaiva Siddharta School of philosophy.  Another Siddha, Bhogar (Bhoganathar), who lived between the 3rd and 5th century AD is said to have discovered the elixir of immortality – one his main works is the Pharmacognosy.
  30. 30. The mystery remains…!  Due to the closely-guarded nature of the Siddhar records, the original knowledge of this enigmatic group of saints has remained shrouded in secrecy.  The question remains whether their powers were real and, if so, how they managed to attain them.  Manipulating space, time and matter would require knowledge far beyond what we have today.
  31. 31. Be Proud To Be An Indian Jai Bharatvarsh!!!

Saturday, December 19, 2015

Ancient Indian Astrophysics and Time

"Temporal notions in Europe were overturned by an India rooted in eternity. The Bible had been the yardstick for measuring time, but the infinitely vast time cycles of India suggested that the world was much older than anything the Bible spoke of. It seem as if the Indian mind was better prepared for the chronological mutations of Darwinian evolution and astrophysics." 

He has commented on the wise division of life in India: "Here is a philosophy far removed from the grotesque refusal to grow old in the West, where wisdom has been replaced by cosmetic surgery and psychiatric help."

"The Indian tradition, on the other hand, is that men submit to nature and form part of it, there nature preserves its sacredness, lost in the West since the Industrial Revolution." He further states that the idea of feminism and ecology came from the 1968 movement, from the meeting between India and the West. He says: "There is hardly anything in European thought to predispose the West to reject virility, the respect for authority, the mastery over nature. India too has a warrior (khastriya) tradition of virility as exemplified in the Mahabharata, only it is secondary. First, comes the veneration of thousands of goddesses - for the Indians, India is above all Mother India. India's femininity and sexual ambiguity, is the very antithesis of Western virility. For example, when the British scaled earth's highest peak, the exploit was widely hailed as the "conquest of the Everest." It was not realized and is often not realized still, that the word "conquest" was totally out of place in the context of the peak which is considered an object of reverence by many.

"The Brahmins attached to knowledge and learning is what has helped the Indian civilization endure and allowed the arts to flourish. If comparisons have to be made, it may be said that the endurance of the Brahmins in India has kept her elite intact, whereas in neighboring China the anti-intellectualism of communist peasants has completely wiped out the intelligentsia of that country. The Brahmins kept knowledge and art alive in India, preserving not only their savant but also their popular forms. The Brahmin elite is perhaps egoistical and domineering, nonetheless it has preserved a sense of dignity and beauty that has disappeared from China where all that remains is vulgarity and crass ignorance."

"The more decentralized, diversified and ritualized a religion is the better it can withstand the onslaught of rationalist thought. Hinduism, derives its strength from the fact that it is not a single unified religion but the sum total of thousands of local faiths. Every village has its own cult, rooted in the local culture without any universalistic pretensions."

"India is a marvelous example of the art of living together at a time when Westerners are apprehensive about the future of their society."

"You cannot be a Hindu fundamentalist. It does not mean anything...The concept of fundamentalism does not exist in Hinduism." No one man embodies the spirit of universalism, it runs through the whole of India and there is a place for all religious groups and communities. The spiritual message of India is her capacity to let so many divergent practices coexist. The Enlightenment philosophers seemed to have grasped this profound originality...This the real message of India."

He says, "India has a strong cultural image in the west; unfortunately, it is not being commercially exploited." This should sink into the heads of those of us who are happy to be third-rate imitators of the US.

Sorman asserts that India is not a rogue state when he talks of the nuclear option. But there seem to be some Indians who are not so sure of their own country. He points out that "Nobody knows what is right. Each civilization...has its sense of the right. No one can impose his perception of right over others."

"Each Indian looks for God in his own way and worships one or several of the millions of deities who are the supposed reincarnation or expression of God, a Spirit or a Force. This has never led to a religious war. There have been communal clashes, but India has never had to face religious wars or crusades save those that were thrust on it from outside. The multiple revelation of the East has proved to be in many ways more advantageous than the single revelation of the West."

(source: The Genius of India - By Guy Sorman (Le Genie de l'Inde) Macmillan India Ltd. 2001. ISBN 0333 93600 0 p.195 , 122).

Saturday, February 7, 2015

Ancient Vedic astrology and cosmology

Astronomy-1: Newton told by bhaskaracharya before gravity theory

Eye of the Veda astronomy said, because the behavior of the entire srishtiyon period and period of planetary motion occurs. So since ancient times has been part of winged astronomy. In the Rigveda, shatpath brahrin chandramas, saurmas, Star, etc. grathon stool mass, season change, uttarayan, period of dakshinayan, akashchakra, the glory of the Sun, in terms of the measurement of Kalpa quotes are found. For the Sage used direct observation. Says the blind Sage dirghatmas, to study the Sun, Sage gritsmad the womb of the moon about the results. In chapter chalisven of the 18th Sept yajurved spells were told that due to the Moon's Lucent rays Sun. Instruments using Astro is to inspect the system.
Aryabhatta time today in more than 1,500 years ago was that the Observatory(Observatory) pataliputra using aryabhatta extracted many conclusions.
Bhaskaracharya theory says in the case of yantradhyay Shiromani treatise "CAL"knowledge of micro sections is not possible without instruments. So now I tell aboutinstruments. They nadivlay equipment, individual equipment, instruments, tools, instruments, plummeted cycle cone arc, describe turya, Panel etc.
Direct observation and kalganna of unmistakable planetary and 6000 years old history:-Mr dharampal has "Indian Science and Technology in the Eighteenth Century called" book is written. It is one of the eminent khagolgya John foreplay article "Remarks on the Astronomy of the brahmins" (published from 1790) is given. This article proves that more than 6,000 years ago in India and had knowledge of the astronomical calculations were used in the world here. The essence of that in his article in 1667 m. law. Labatt, which were in the Siamese Embassy, Bring your come back when an almanac. India sent two missionaries, a calendar, was from South India and one from Varanasi. Another Almanac m. d. Sent by lisle, who was from South India to narsapur. The ephemeris when that time came, the French mathematicians don't understand he sent to John foreplay Which were the Royal astronomer. The focus of another bizarre thing when he came to foreplay that was given in the ephemeris Siamese yamottar line-the meridian (the imaginary point in the sky from the high line) 180-15 ". In the West, and is not located on the Siamese. Surprise that it gets from the meridian of Banaras. This means that the Hindustan Siamese is the origin of the Almanac. Secondly, he writes, "a surprising is that all mentions of an sanvat Almanac that they consider the start of caughley. And the day of the commencement of the nakshatras caughley was, Describe your ephemeris calculate from there and in that period. The planetary positions at the time was what it explains. So it seems to be the big bizarre thing. Since the start of the 3,000-year-old ISA provided caughley thing.
(1) brahrinon count will be developed and the flawless and unmistakable pattern in the universe and the planets to draw brahrin from karnibhut terms of gravity were familiar.
(2) observe the sky brahrinon have scientific manner.

Conclusion end foreplay foreplay says two things
(1) it is proven that in the year 3000 BC from years ago India was astronomy, anddescribed the position of the Sun at kaliyugarambh and was based on the actualinspection Chandra.
(2) it is a neutral foreign analysis gives us some inspiration. Mr. dharampal has its corresponding written in the book that the then british Army General of Bengal, who later became a member of the British Parliament, wrote an article in 1777 by Sir Robertbarker Bramins observatory at Banaras (Varanasi Observatory) are highlighted. In1772, he inspected the Observatory. At that time it was freaked out because there wasno use for a long time. After the Observatory was the instrument and instrument left,he studied closely by Mr. barker. Their inspection was an important point in mind that these tools were designed almost 400 years ago.
Some previews of ancient astronomy
(1) the speed of light:-knowledge of what our ancestors did to the speed of light? The above questions are a time Governor of Gujarat, Shri k. Shah Mysore UniversityPhysics Professor Pro. L. Shivayya asked. Mr. shivayya were both Sanskrit and scienceWiz. He immediately replied, "ya know."Evidence, he explained that the first system is the Rigveda richaen-
Psycho-not yoऽdhvan: vasva: atk satra suro ishe i.e. were able to mind like fleet arealone on the path the Sun late. (1-71-9)
("Tarnirvishvadarshato jyotikridsi Sun vishvamabhasirochnam" sarvasundar o Sun, and light the explosive and donor and jagat are supposed to unfold. (1.50.9)
Dve dve yojnanan sahasre dveshte f yojne. Akin nimishardhen cameramannamoऽstute..
That is half the light margakraman of the 2202 nimesh Yojana you greet. There are 1Yojana-9 miles 160 yards, namely 1 Yojana-9.11 miles 1 day night-810000 seminishesh so 1 seconds-9.41 semi nimesh thus 2202 x 9.11-20060.22 20060.22 x 9.41-semi nimesh per mile and 188766.67 miles per second. Modern expert

!! Astronomy-2: reconstructed by astrophysicist aryabhatta!!
Lilavati asks his father that father, I see around the Earth is flat, then why do you saythat the Earth is round. Then bhaskaracharya says daughter, what we see is not alwaysthe same truths. You pull a large circle, then look at his perimeter hundredths, you'll see it in a straight line. But in fact he is not, the curve. Similarly, large parts of the Earth's sphere we see, he is flat. In fact the Earth is round.
Samo typically syatparidhe: shatansh:
Earth nitran Earth taniyan f. Narashch tatprishthagtasya tasya pratibhatyat: samevkutsna SA || 13 ||
Sherman goladhyay-bhuvnakosh principle
The Earth is not static: in the 15th century is the notion that by the time of galileanEarth imposes his round steady and Sun, but today was 1,500 years ago byaryabhatta, land moves its axis, its details are as follows-
Anulomgatinaunsth: pashyatyachlam vilomang yadvat. Achlani bhani tadvat even pashchimgani lankayam ||
Aryabhattiya golpad-9
Namely the boat trip on the edges that shy in the direction against the rock, tree andsees the same fixed star Lanka scrabbled towards from East to West directly can be seen. Similarly, prithudak owner, who wrote the doctrine of vrahmagupt vrahmasphut gloss, is used to refer to an aryabhatta Arya-
I daivisikau revavrityavritya prati sthiro panjar: geo. Udyastamyau sampadyatinakshtragrahanam ||
Namely, the star system is stable and roam the Earth at a speed of nakshatras and their daily planets will rise and sunset. In his treatise called the dashgitika episode aryabhattiya written in clear-aryabhatta prane naitiklambhu: namely a vitality revolves a Earth in Arts (a day are 21600 lives) sunrise-sunset-land round due to being rekhantar diverse cities in different places at different times are Sunrise and sunset. Itwas known by aryabhatta, he writes-
Udyo yo sostamay lankayan:
Saviturev siddhapure.
Madhyahno yavkotyan syat romak vishyeऽrdharatra: ||
(Aryabhattiya golpad-13)
I.e. When is sunrise at sunset in Sri Lanka gets siddhapur. Yavkoti is in the Meridian and romak midnight. Lunar-solar eclipse-aryabhatta said Rahu Ketu reason but Earth and Lunar Eclipse is due to shadow. Namely, the Earth's shadow when the Moon is at the Lunar Eclipse. Similarly, when the Earth comes between the Sun and Lunar, solar eclipse happens. Various planets the distance of the planets from the Sun by aryabhatta-diverse told about. He resembles today's measurement is. Nowadays the Earth Distance from Sun (15 million KMS). It AU (Astronomical unit) is called. This ratio is based on the following list is created.
Vrahmand expands-
The immensity of the vrahmand also had experience by our ancestors. Nowadays the immensity of the vrahmand unit of measure to use for light years. A second is run at a speed of 3 million kilometers. A year shy of the speed as the distance light will decide itis called light years. This scale of modern science tells us that our fabulos that Milki called way, the length of one million light years and width is ten thousand light years. At the top of this fabulos androulla called fabulos this fabulos 20 million 20,000 light years away and there are millions of sky gangaen in vrahmand.
Shrimadbhagvat King ask, vrahmand mahamuni is tested shukdeo inter vyap of what?Interpretation refers to the expansion of the vrahmand in shukdeo inter-
Our ten times older than him who vrahmand cover-up is matted. Each cover uptenfold and seven cover I know. Including all it looks like nuclear and vrahmand that there are millions of vrahmand, he is the cause of all causes.‘
It seems to be some inexplicable thing IQ-c. But we generate everything from a powerwhich was the God-driven names a name of infinite rank vrahmand hero's. This namewhere vrahmandon tells infinity, the sensation of having this analysis is also scientific.Thus this overview, we can say that time calculations and astronomy is bright in Indiaof tradition. In previous centuries it was something blocking the stream c. Inspire him again today to pursue the anterior are giving today's generation of Acharya.
खगोल विज्ञान-१ : न्यूटन से पहले भास्कराचार्य ने बताया था गुरुत्वाकर्षण का सिद्धान्त

खगोल विज्ञान को वेद का नेत्र कहा गया, क्योंकि सम्पूर्ण सृष्टियों में होने वाले व्यवहार का निर्धारण काल से होता है और काल का ज्ञान ग्रहीय गति से होता है। अत: प्राचीन काल से खगोल विज्ञान वेदांग का हिस्सा रहा है। ऋग्वेद, शतपथ ब्राहृण आदि ग्रथों में नक्षत्र, चान्द्रमास, सौरमास, मल मास, ऋतु परिवर्तन, उत्तरायन, दक्षिणायन, आकाशचक्र, सूर्य की महिमा, कल्प का माप आदि के संदर्भ में अनेक उद्धरण मिलते हैं। इस हेतु ऋषि प्रत्यक्ष अवलोकन करते थे। कहते हैं, ऋषि दीर्घतमस् सूर्य का अध्ययन करने में ही अंधे हुए, ऋषि गृत्स्मद ने चन्द्रमा के गर्भ पर होने वाले परिणामों के बारे में बताया। यजुर्वेद के 18वें अध्याय के चालीसवें मंत्र में यह बताया गया है कि सूर्य किरणों के कारण चन्द्रमा प्रकाशमान है। यंत्रों का उपयोग कर खगोल का निरीक्षण करने की पद्धति रही है।
आर्यभट्ट के समय आज से 1500 से अधिक वर्ष पूर्व पाटलीपुत्र में वेधशाला (Observatory) थी, जिसका प्रयोग कर आर्यभट्ट ने कई निष्कर्ष निकाले।
भास्कराचार्य सिद्धान्त शिरोमणि ग्रंथ के यंत्राध्याय प्रकरण में कहते हैं, "काल" के सूक्ष्म खण्डों का ज्ञान यंत्रों के बिना संभव नहीं है। इसलिए अब मैं यंत्रों के बारे में कहता हूं। वे नाड़ीवलय यंत्र, यष्टि यंत्र, घटी यंत्र, चक्र यंत्र, शंकु यंत्र, चाप, तुर्य, फलक आदि का वर्णन करते हैं।
प्रत्यक्ष निरीक्षण एवं अचूक ग्रहीय व कालगणना का 6000 वर्ष से अधिक पुराना इतिहास :- श्री धर्मपाल ने "Indian Science and Technology in the Eighteenth Century" नामक पुस्तक लिखी है। उसमें प्रख्यात खगोलज्ञ जॉन प्लेफेयर का एक लेख "Remarks on the Astronomy of the brahmins" (1790 से प्रकाशित) दिया है। यह लेख सिद्ध करता है कि 6000 से अधिक वर्ष पूर्व में भारत में खगोल का ज्ञान था और यहां की गणनाएं दुनिया में प्रयुक्त होती थीं। उनके लेख का सार यह है कि सन् 1667 में एम.लॉ. लाबेट, जो स्याम के दूतावास में थे, जब वापस आये तो अपने साथ एक पंचांग लाए। दो पंचांग मिशनरियों ने भारत से भेजे, जो एक दक्षिण भारत से था और एक वाराणसी से। एक और पंचांग एम.डी. लिस्ले ने भेजा, जो दक्षिण भारत के नरसापुर से था। वह पंचांग जब उस समय के फ्रेंच गणितज्ञों की समझ में न आया तो उन्होंने वह जॉन प्लेफेयर के पास भेज दिया, जो उस समय रॉयल एस्ट्रोनोमर थे। उन्होंने जब एक और विचित्र बात प्लेफेयर के ध्यान में आई कि स्याम के पंचांग में दी गई यामोत्तर रेखा-दी मेरिडियन (आकाश में उच्च काल्पनिक बिन्दु से निकलती रेखा) 180-15"। पश्चिम में है और स्याम इस पर स्थित नहीं है। आश्चर्य कि यह बनारस के मेरिडियन से मिलती है। इसका अर्थ है कि स्याम के पंचांग का मूल हिन्दुस्तान है। दूसरी बात वह लिखता है, "एक आश्चर्य की बात यह है कि सभी पंचांग एक संवत् का उल्लेख करते हैं, जिसे वे कलियुग का प्रारंभ मानते हैं। और कलियुग के प्रारंभ के दिन जो नक्षत्रों की स्थिति थी, उसका वर्णन अपने पंचांग में करते हैं तथा वहीं से काल की गणना करते हैं। उस समय ग्रहों की क्या स्थिति थी, यह बताते हैं। तो यह बड़ी विचित्र बात लगती है। क्योंकि कलियुग का प्रारंभ यानि ईसा से 3000 वर्ष पुरानी बात।
(1) ब्राहृणों ने गिनती की निर्दोष और अचूक पद्धति विकसित की होगी तथा ब्रह्मांड में दूर और पास के ग्रहों को आकर्षित करने के लिए कारणीभूत गुरुत्वाकर्षण के नियम से ब्राहृण परिचित थे।
(2) ब्राहृणों ने आकाश का निरीक्षण वैज्ञानिक ढंग से किया।

प्लेफेयर के निष्कर्ष अंत में प्लेफेयर दो बातें कहते हैं-
(1) यह सिद्ध होता है कि भारत वर्ष में एस्ट्रोनॉमी ईसा से 3000 वर्ष पूर्व से थी तथा कलियुगारम्भ पर सूर्य और चन्द्र की वर्णित स्थिति वास्तविक निरीक्षण पर आधारित थी।
(2) एक तटस्थ विदेशी का यह विश्लेषण हमें आगे कुछ करने की प्रेरणा देता है। श्री धर्मपाल ने अपनी इसी पुस्तक में लिखा है कि तत्कालीन बंगाल की ब्रिाटिश सेना के सेनापति, जो बाद में ब्रिटिश पार्लियामेंट के सदस्य बने, सर रॉबर्ट बारकर ने 1777 में लिखे एक लेख Bramins observatory at Banaras (बनारस की वेधशाला) पर प्रकाश डाला है। सन् 1772 में उन्होंने वेधशाला का निरीक्षण किया था। उस समय इसकी हालत खराब थी क्योंकि लंबे समय से उसका कोई उपयोग नहीं हुआ था। इसके बाद भी उस वेधशाला में जो यंत्र व साधन बचे थे , उनका श्री बारकर ने बारीकी से अध्ययन किया। उनके निरीक्षण में एक महत्वपूर्ण बात यह ध्यान में आई कि ये साधन लगभग 400 वर्ष पूर्व तैयार किए गए थे।
प्राचीन खगोल विज्ञान की कुछ झलकियां
(1) प्रकाश की गति :- क्या हमारे पूर्वजों को प्रकाश की गति का ज्ञान था? उपर्युक्त प्रश्न एक बार गुजरात के राज्यपाल रहे श्री के.के.शाह ने मैसूर विश्वविद्यालय के भौतिकी के प्राध्यापक प्रो. एल. शिवय्या से पूछा। श्री शिवय्या संस्कृत और विज्ञान दोनों के जानकार थे। उन्होंने तुरंत उत्तर दिया, "हां जानते थे।" प्रमाण में उन्होंने बताया कि ऋग्वेद के प्रथम मंडल में दो ऋचाएं है-
मनो न योऽध्वन: सद्य एत्येक: सत्रा सूरो वस्व ईशे अर्थात् मन की तरह शीघ्रगामी जो सूर्य स्वर्गीय पथ पर अकेले जाते हैं। ( 1-71-9)
("तरणिर्विश्वदर्शतो ज्योतिकृदसि सूर्य विश्वमाभासिरोचनम्" अर्थात् हे सूर्य, तुम तीव्रगामी एवं सर्वसुन्दर तथा प्रकाश के दाता और जगत् को प्रकाशित करने वाले हो। ( 1.50.9)
योजनानां सहस्रे द्वे द्वेशते द्वे च योजने। एकेन निमिषार्धेन क्रममाण नमोऽस्तुते।।
अर्थात् आधे निमेष में 2202 योजन का मार्गक्रमण करने वाले प्रकाश तुम्हें नमस्कार है। इसमें 1 योजन- 9 मील 160 गज अर्थात् 1 योजन- 9.11 मील 1 दिन रात में- 810000 अर्ध निषेष अत: 1 सेकेंड में - 9.41 अर्ध निमेष इस प्रकार 2202 x 9.11- 20060.22 मील प्रति अर्ध निमेष तथा 20060.22 x 9.41- 188766.67 मील प्रति सेकण्ड। आधुनिक विज्ञान को मान्य प्रकाश गति के यह अत्यधिक निकट है।
(2) गुरुत्वाकर्षण: "पिताजी, यह पृथ्वी, जिस पर हम निवास करते हैं, किस पर टिकी हुई है?" लीलावती ने शताब्दियों पूर्व यह प्रश्न अपने पिता भास्कराचार्य से पूछा था। इसके उत्तर में भास्कराचार्य ने कहा, "बाले लीलावती, कुछ लोग जो यह कहते हैं कि यह पृथ्वी शेषनाग, कछुआ या हाथी या अन्य किसी वस्तु पर आधारित है तो वे गलत कहते हैं। यदि यह मान भी लिया जाए कि यह किसी वस्तु पर टिकी हुई है तो भी प्रश्न बना रहता है कि वह वस्तु किस पर टिकी हुई है और इस प्रकार कारण का कारण और फिर उसका कारण... यह क्रम चलता रहा, तो न्याय शास्त्र में इसे अनवस्था दोष कहते हैं। लीलावती ने कहा फिर भी यह प्रश्न बना रहता है पिताजी कि पृथ्वी किस चीज पर टिकी है? तब भास्कराचार्य ने कहा,क्यों हम यह नहीं मान सकते कि पृथ्वी किसी भी वस्तु पर आधारित नहीं है।..... यदि हम यह कहें कि पृथ्वी अपने ही बल से टिकी है और इसे धारणात्मिका शक्ति कह दें तो क्या दोष है? इस पर लीलावती ने पूछा यह कैसे संभव है। तब भास्कराचार्य सिद्धान्त की बात कहते हैं कि वस्तुओं की शक्ति बड़ी विचित्र है।4
मरुच्लो भूरचला स्वभावतो यतो विचित्रावतवस्तु शक्त्य:।। सिद्धांत शिरोमणी गोलाध्याय-भुवनकोश (5)
आगे कहते हैं-
आकृष्टिशक्तिश्च मही तया यत् खस्थं
गुरुस्वाभिमुखं स्वशक्तत्या।
आकृष्यते तत्पततीव भाति समेसमन्तात् क्व पतत्वियं खे।। सिद्धांत शिरोमणी गोलाध्याय-भुवनकोश- (6)
अर्थात् पृथ्वी में आकर्षण शक्ति है। पृथ्वी अपनी आकर्षण शक्ति से भारी पदार्थों को अपनी ओर खींचती है और आकर्षण के कारण वह जमीन पर गिरते हैं। पर जब आकाश में समान ताकत चारों ओर से लगे, तो कोई कैसे गिरे? अर्थात् आकाश में ग्रह निरावलम्ब रहते हैं क्योंकि विविध ग्रहों की गुरुत्व शक्तियां संतुलन बनाए रखती हैं। आजकल हम कहते हैं कि न्यूटन ने ही सर्वप्रथम गुरुत्वाकर्षण की खोज की, परन्तु उसके 550 वर्ष पूर्व भास्कराचार्य ने यह बता दिया था।
!! खगोल विज्ञान-२ : आर्यभट्ट ने खंगाला खगोल !!
लीलावती अपने पिता से पूछती है कि पिताजी, मुझे तो पृथ्वी चारों ओर सपाट दिखाई देती है, फिर आप यह क्यों कहते हैं कि पृथ्वी गोल है। तब भास्कराचार्य कहते हैं कि पुत्री, जो हम देखते हैं वह सदा वैसा ही सत्य नहीं होता। तुम एक बड़ा वृत्त खींचो, फिर उसकी परिधि के सौवें भाग को देखो, तुम्हें वह सीधी रेखा में दिखाई देगा। पर वास्तव में वह वैसी नहीं होता, वक्र होता है। इसी प्रकार विशाल पृथ्वी के गोले के छोटे भाग को हम देखते हैं, वह सपाट नजर आता है। वास्तव में पृथ्वी गोल है।
समो यत: स्यात्परिधे: शतांश:
पृथ्वी च पृथ्वी नितरां तनीयान्‌। नरश्च तत्पृष्ठगतस्य कुत्स्ना समेव तस्य प्रतिभात्यत: सा॥ १३ ॥
सिद्धांत शिरोमणी गोलाध्याय-भुवनकोश
पृथ्वी स्थिर नहीं है:-पश्चिम में १५वीं सदी में गैलीलियों के समय तक धारणा रही कि पृथ्वी स्थिर है तथा सूर्य उसका चक्कर लगाता है, परन्तु आज से १५०० वर्ष पहले हुए आर्यभट्ट, भूमि अपने अक्ष पर घूमती है, इसका विवरण निम्न प्रकार से देते हैं-
अनुलोमगतिनौंस्थ: पश्यत्यचलम्‌ विलोमंग यद्वत्‌। अचलानि भानि तद्वत्‌ सम पश्चिमगानि लंकायाम्‌॥
आर्यभट्टीय गोलपाद-९
अर्थात्‌ नाव में यात्रा करने वाला जिस प्रकार किनारे पर स्थिर रहने वाली चट्टान, पेड़ इत्यादि को विरुद्ध दिशा में भागते देखता है, उसी प्रकार अचल नक्षत्र लंका में सीधे पूर्व से पश्चिम की ओर सरकते देखे जा सकते हैं। इसी प्रकार पृथुदक्‌ स्वामी, जिन्होंने व्रह्मगुप्त के व्रह्मस्फुट सिद्धान्त पर भाष्य लिखा है, आर्यभट्ट की एक आर्या का उल्लेख किया है-
भ पंजर: स्थिरो भू रेवावृत्यावृत्य प्राति दैविसिकौ। उदयास्तमयौ संपादयति नक्षत्रग्रहाणाम्‌॥
अर्थात्‌ तारा मंडल स्थिर है और पृथ्वी अपनी दैनिक घूमने की गति से नक्षत्रों तथा ग्रहों का उदय और अस्त करती है। अपने ग्रंथ आर्यभट्टीय में आर्यभट्ट ने दशगीतिका नामक प्रकरण में स्पष्ट लिखा-प्राणे नैतिकलांभू: अर्थात्‌ एक प्राण समय में पृथ्वी एक कला घूमती है (एक दिन में २१६०० प्राण होते हैं) सूर्योदय-सूर्यास्त-भूमि गोलाकार होने के कारण विविध नगरों में रेखांतर होने के कारण अलग-अलग स्थानों में अलग-अलग समय पर सूर्योदय व सूर्यास्त होते हैं। इसे आर्यभट्ट ने ज्ञात कर लिया था, वे लिखते हैं-
उदयो यो लंकायां सोस्तमय:
सवितुरेव सिद्धपुरे।
मध्याह्नो यवकोट्यां रोमक विषयेऽर्धरात्र: स्यात्‌॥
(आर्यभट्टीय गोलपाद-१३)
अर्थात्‌ जब लंका में सूर्योदय होता है तब सिद्धपुर में सूर्यास्त हो जाता है। यवकोटि में मध्याह्न तथा रोमक प्रदेश में अर्धरात्रि होती है। चंद्र-सूर्यग्रहण- आर्यभट्ट ने कहा कि राहु केतु के कारण नहीं अपितु पृथ्वी व चंद्र की छाया के कारण ग्रहण होता है। अर्थात्‌ पृथ्वी की बड़ी छाया जब चन्द्रमा पर पड़ती है तो चन्द्र ग्रहण होता है। इसी प्रकार चन्द्र जब पृथ्वी और सूर्य के बीच आता है तो सूर्यग्रहण होता है। विभिन्न ग्रहों की दूरी- आर्यभट्ट ने सूर्य से विविध ग्रहों की दूरी के बारे में बताया है। वह आजकल के माप से मिलता-जुलता है। आजकल पृथ्वी से सूर्य की दूरी (15 करोड़ किलोमीटर) है। इसे AU ( Astronomical unit) कहा जाता है। इस अनुपात के आधार पर निम्न सूची बनती है।
व्रह्माण्ड का विस्तार-
व्रह्माण्ड की विशालता का भी हमारे पूर्वजों ने अनुभव किया था। आजकल व्रह्माण्ड की विशालता मापने हेतु प्रकाश वर्ष की इकाई का प्रयोग होता है। प्रकाश एक सेकेंड में ३ लाख किलोमीटर की गति से भागता है। इस गति से भागते हुए एक वर्ष में जितनी दूरी प्रकाश तय करेगा उसे प्रकाश वर्ष कहा जाता है। इस पैमाने से आधुनिक विज्ञान बताता है कि हमारी आकाश गंगा, जिसे Milki way ‌ कहा जाता है, की लम्बाई एक लाख प्रकाश वर्ष है तथा चौड़ाई दस हजार प्रकाश वर्ष है। इस आकाश गंगा के ऊपर स्थित एण्ड्रोला नामक आकाश गंगा इस आकाश गंगा से २० लाख २० हजार प्रकाश वर्ष दूर है और व्रह्माण्ड में ऐसी करोड़ों आकाश गंगाएं हैं।
श्रीमद्भागवत में राजा परीक्षित महामुनि शुकदेव से पूछते हैं, व्रह्माण्ड का व्याप क्या है? इसकी व्याख्या में शुकदेव व्रह्माण्ड के विस्तार का उल्लेख करते हैं-
‘हमारा जो व्रह्माण्ड है, उसे उससे दस गुने बड़े आवरण ने ढंका हुआ है। प्रत्येक ऊपर का आवरण दस गुना है और ऐसे सात आवरण मैं जानता हूं। इन सबके सहित यह समूचा व्रह्माण्ड जिसमें परमाणु के समान दिखाई देता है तथा जिसमें ऐसे करोड़ों व्रह्माण्ड हैं, वह समस्त कारणों का कारण है।‘
ये बात बुद्धि को कुछ अबोध्य-सी लगती है। पर हमारे यहां जिस एक शक्ति से सब कुछ उत्पन्न-संचालित माना गया, उस ईश्वर के अनेक नामों में एक नाम अनंत कोटि व्रह्माण्ड नायक बताया गया है। यह नाम जहां व्रह्मांडों की अनन्तता बताता है, वहीं इस विश्लेषण के वैज्ञानिक होने की अनुभूति भी कराता है। इस प्रकार इस संक्षिप्त अवलोकन से हम कह सकते हैं कि काल गणना और खगोल विज्ञान की भारत में उज्ज्वल परम्परा रही है। पिछली सदियों में यह धारा कुछ अवरुद्ध सी हो गई थी। आज पुन: उसे आगे बढ़ाने की प्रेरणा पूर्वकाल के आचार्य आज की पीढ़ी को दे रहे हैं।