Article: March, 2008: Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaobotany.
'Investigation of botanical remains from an ancient site, Tokwa in Uttar Pradesh, has brought to light the agriculture- based subsistence economy during the Neolithic culture (3rd-2nd millennium BC). An important find among the botanical remains is the seeds of South American custard apple, regarded to have been introduced by the Portuguese in the 16th century. The remains of custard apple as fruit coat and seeds have also been recorded from other sites in the Indian archaeological context, during the Kushana Period (AD 100-300) in Punjab and Early Iron Age (1300-700 BC). The factual remains of custard apple, along with other stray finds discussed in the text, favour a group of specialists, supporting with diverse arguments, the reasoning of Asian - American contacts, before the discovery of America by Columbus in 1498'.
The Sumerian civilisation developed on the Persian Gulf, growing to strength at around 4 - 3,000 B.C. The 'Plain of the Land of Shinar' is the territory which after 2,000 B.C. became called Babylon. The Greeks named the region Mesopotamia (The land between two rivers), most of which lies in the modern state of Iraq.
- City building: Eridu, Ur (Ziggurat), Larsa
- Sumerian Sciences: Astronomy, Writing, Medicine etc.
- Cross-Culturality: Indus Valley to Egypt.
The Sumerians: (Chronology).
The exact origins of the Sumerians are unknown. They entered Mesopotamia c. 4,000 B.C.
Sphinx's in India: 'The original homeland of the Sumerians is unknown. It is believed that they came from the east (2), but whether by sea or from the highlands is unknown. We know that they are not local people because their language belongs to an isolated language group. During the 5th millennium B.C. a people known as the Ubaidians established settlements in the region later known as Sumer (Mesopotamia) (2) It has been noticed that there are very clear similarities between the Ubaid artwork, and that of of 'Old Europe' Vinca Culture which flourishe
A similar object appears commonly in Mesopotamian art.(More about Sumeria)d c. 6,000 - 3,500 BC.
At the Temple of Chidambaram on a raised platform, two sphinxes are sitting on either side of a grand doorway, guarding the entrance of an ancient temple. They are known to the worshippers and the priests as the divine beings that ward off evil and remove sins. A mysterious smile adorns their human faces, which are surrounded by full lion's mane. One is male, the other is female, and as a faithful couple they have been seated in this way side by side for many centuries. According to this temple's tradition, they dissolve the negative vibrations of all who look at them as they enter the temple.
This Sphinx of India is also playing a role in various legends and mythologies. Some of these mythologies are part of local traditions and describe the purushamriga as the founder of that particular temple, or as otherwise playing a role in its tradition. But they are also found in particular episodes of the great Indian epics, the Mahabharata and Ramayana. And also in some of the Puranas. Thus there is a legend recounting the purushamriga as one of the characters involved with the legendary events surrounding the birth of Tamasa Manu, one of the earlier Manus or human ancestors. When the sons of Lord Rama and Sita leave the ashram of Vasishtha to go in search of their father, they meet the purushamriga on the way. The depiction of the purushamriga as a devotee worshipping the Shiva Linga refers to an episode from the Mahabharata that is well known in the South of India.
1). Michael Wood. In Search of the First Civilisations. 1992. BBC Books.
2) Peter Lancaster Brown. 'Megaliths, Myths and Men'. 1977. Book Club Associates.
3). B. G. Sidharth. The Celestial Key to the Vedas. 1999. Inner Traditions Publ.
4). See Dimmit and VAN Buitenen, Classical Hindu Mythology, for a review of this figure.
9). Rene Noorbergen. Secrets of the Lost Races. 1977. New English Library. http://co-creatingournewearth.blogspot.com/2012/05/swastika-city-arkaim-siberia-c12000bc.html