Taj Mahal - Tomb is grave, not a building ----------------------------------------
The term Taj Mahal is a corrupt form of the sanskrit term TejoMahalay
signifying a Shiva Temple. Agreshwar Mahadev i.e., The Lord of Agra was
consecrated in it.The tradition of removing the shoes before climbing
the marble platform originates from pre Shahjahan times when the Taj was
a Shiva Temple. Had the Taj originated as a tomb, shoes need not have
to be removed because shoes are a necessity in a cemetery.
widespread misunderstanding has resulted in mistaking the building for
the grave.Invading Islam raised graves in captured buildings in every
country it overran. Therefore, hereafter people must learn not to
confound the building with the grave mounds which are grafts in
conquered buildings. This is true of the Tajmahal too. One may therefore
admit (for arguments sake) that Mumtaz lies buried inside the Taj. But
that should not be construed to mean that the Taj was raised over
The Taj is a seven storied building. Aurangzeb
also mentions this in his letter to Shahjahan. The marble edifice
comprises four stories including the lone, tall circular hall inside the
top, and the lone chamber in the basement. In between are two floors
each containing 12 to 15 palatial rooms. Below the marble plinth
reaching down to the river at the rear are two more stories in red
stone. They may be seen from the river bank. The seventh storey must be
below the ground (river) level since every ancient Hindu building had a
subterranian storey. Immediately bellow the marble plinth on the
river flank are 22 rooms in red stone with their ventilators all walled
up by Shahjahan. Those rooms, made uninhibitably by Shahjahan, are kept
locked by Archealogy Department of India. The lay visitor is kept in the
dark about them. Those 22 rooms still bear ancient Hindu paint on their
walls and ceilings. On their side is a nearly 33 feet long corridor.
There are two door frames one at either end ofthe corridor. But those
doors are intriguingly sealed with brick and lime.
those doorways originally sealed by Shahjahan have been since unsealed
and again walled up several times. In 1934 a resident of Delhi took a
peep inside from an opening in the upper part of the doorway. To his
dismay he saw huge hall inside. It contained many statues huddled around
a central beheaded image of Lord Shiva. It could be that, in there, are
Sanskrit inscriptions too. All the seven stories of the Tajmahal need
to be unsealed and scoured to ascertain what evidence they may be hiding
in the form of Hindu images, Sanskrit inscriptions, scriptures, coins
Apart from Hindu images hidden in the sealed
stories it is also learnt that Hindu images are also stored in the
massive walls of the Taj. Between 1959 and 1962 when Mr. S.R. Rao was
the Archealogical Superintendent in Agra, he happened to notice a deep
and wide crack in the wall of the central octagonal chamber of the Taj.
When a part of the wall was dismantled to study the crack out popped two
or three marble images. The matter was hushed up and the images were
reburied where they had been embedded at Shahjahan's behest.
Confirmation of this has been obtained from several sources. It was only
when I began my investigation into the antecedents of the Taj I came
across the above information which had remained a forgotten secret. What
better proof is needed of the Temple origin of the Tajmahal? Its walls
and sealed chambers still hide in Hindu idols that were consecrated in
it before Shahjahan's seizure of the Taj.
Bhojshala- Saraswati Temple(currently a mosque) -------------------------------------------------
‘Bhojshala’ is an ancient and the only temple of Mata Saraswati,
Goddess of Knowledge and Wisdom. The temple was built in the year of
1034 AD by Raja Bhoj, the mighty Hindu King whose empire stretched from
Rajasthan to Odisha and from Madhya Pradesh to Maharashtra. This temple
of Mata Saraswati is situated at Dhar district in Madhya Pradesh, which
was capital of Raja Bhoj. Bhojshala was home to thousands of students and scholars and it was main centre of education.
1305 AD – First attack on Bhojshala by Alauddin Khilji:
Bhojshala was first attacked by infamous and cruel Muslim invader
Alauddin Khilji in 1305 AD. After the sacrifices of Hindu king Raja
Mahakaldev and his soldiers in the battle, Khilji killed 1200 Hindu
students and teachers in Bhojshala as they refused to convert to Islam.
The process of Islamic attack started 36 years back, when a Muslim
fakir named Kamal Moulana entered Malwa in 1269 AD. He used treacherous
ways and converted many Hindus to Islam. He collected detailed
information of Malwa region for 36 years and handed it over to Alauddin
1401 AD – Destruction of Vijay Mandir (Surya Martand temple) by Dilawar Khan:
A Muslim emperor named Dilawar Khan destroyed Vijay Mandir (Surya
Martand temple) and tried to convert part of Saraswati Temple Bhojshala
into dargah. Today Muslims offer Namaz in this same Vijay Mandir and now
conspiracy is hatched to prove that it is actually a dargah named ‘Lat
1514 AD – Construction of Kamal Moulana Makbara by Mehmudshah Khilji II :
In this year, Mehmudshah attacked Bhojshala and tried to convert it
into dargah. He encroached land outside Saraswati Temple and built
‘Kamal Moulana Makbara’ after 204 years of death of Kamal Moulana. On
this ground only, conspiracy is hatched to prove that Bhojshala is
actually a dargah.
1826 AD – Malwa captured by British: In
1703 AD, Malwa was captured Marathas (Hindus) ending rule of Muslims. In
1826 AD, East India Company defeated Hindus and conquered Malwa. They
too attacked Bhojshala and destroyed many monuments and temples.
1952 AD – Bhojshala handed over to Archeological Survey of India (ASI):
Central government handed over Bhojshala to ASI in this year. In this
same year, activists of RSS and Hindu Mahasabha started awakening Hindus
about Bhojshala. Shri Maharaja Bhoj Smruti Vasantotsav Samiti was
formed by Hindus.
1997 AD – Congress Chief Minister Digvijaya
Singh barred Hindus from entering Bhojshala and allowed Muslims to offer
Namaz in Bhojshala: Before 12 March 1997, Hindus were allowed to
take darshan, but were not allowed to perform puja. CM Digvijaya Singh
issued draconian order allowing Muslims to offer Namaz in Bhojshala on
every friday and barred Hindus even from entering Bhojshala. Hindus were
allowed only one day of Vasant Panchami to enter and perform puja in
ॐ गं गणपतये नम:
There are 250 temples of Ganesha in Japan.
In Japan, Ganesha is known as 'Kangiten', the God of fortune and the
harbinger of happiness, prosperity and good. An Oxford publication
claims that Gnaesha was worshipped in early days in Central Asia and
other parts of the globe. Ganesha statues have been found in
Afghanistan, Iran, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia,
Vietnam, China, Mongolia, Japan, Indonesia, Boreni, Bulgaria, and Mexico and other Latin American countries. It means that the cult of Ganesha was prevelant all over the world in the ancient times.
Ganesha in Europe, Canada and USA
Ganesha's idol and paintings are exhibited in all the important museums
and art galleries of all the European countries specially in UK,
Germany, France and Switzerland. Ganesha idols and paintings(as Goodluck
charm) are also present in thousands of houses/offices of successful
business/writers/artists in all the European countries and in Canada and
USA. Recently a figure of Ganesha was un-earthed in a village near
Sofia, Bulgaria. Like Indian Romans worship Ganesha before a work is
Irish believe in Ganesha luck The embassy of Ireland
at New Delhi became the first European embassy to invoke the blessings
of Ganesha installed a statue of Ganesha at the main entrance of the
Silicon Valley in USA selects Ganesha as the presiding Deity of cyberspace technology .
“Ganesha is the God of knowledge and Ganesha's vehicle is the mouse
and, as you know, for software engineers the mouse is the vehicle that
they use to take their ideas and innovations from one place to the
other.” Hence it was decided by the computer industry association to
select Ganesha is presiding Deity of Silicon Valley.
Ganesha on Greek coins
Early images of an elephant-headed Deity, including those on an
Indo-Greek coin and elsewhere, dating between the first and third
centuries BC, represent Ganesha as the demiGod Vinayaka.
Indonesia Currency notes Indonesia Currency notes carries the picture of Ganesha
Vedic origin of Ganesha :
10,000 years old secret of success Devotees of Ganesha make reference
to his Vedic origin which is around 10,000 years old to push his
antecedents back in time. The vedas have invoked him as 'namo Ganebhyo
Ganapati' (Yajurveda, 16/25), or lord of obstacles, Ganapati, we salute
you. The Mahabharata has elaborated his personal appearance and
upanishad as his personal appearance and upanishads his immense power.
“Scholars say, artifacts from excavations in Luristan and Harappa and an
old Indo-Greek coin from Hermaeus, present images that remarkably
resemble Ganesha”. (“Robert Brown in his Book “Ganesha: Studies of an
Asian God”:State University of New York Albany).
Gifting of Ganesha brings good luck to the giver and as well as the receiver
Who was Sandrokottus: Samudragupta or Chandragupta Maurya?
Alexander, during his invasion on Persian Empire and some parts of western India, has carried some Greek scholars like Baeto, Diognetos, Nearchos, Onesikritos, Aristoboulos, and Kallisthenes with him to chronicle his achievements. Megasthanes and Deimachos, the ambassadors of Seleucus Nikator the successor of Alexander, also wrote about India. Though the works of these scholars are all lost but their substance is found in the works of Plutarch, Strabo, Pliny and Arrian. Plutarch wrote Alexander’s biography over 200 years after the death of Alexander based on the oral legends. These Greek scholars repeatedly mentioned about a powerful king of India named “Sandrokottus” who was undoubtedly “Samudragupta” with reference to the epoch of Gupta era in 335 BCE and Puranic account of the history of Magadha.
Sir William Jones (1746-1794) deliberately identified “Sandrokottus” mentioned by the Greeks as Chandragupta Maurya and declared that he was the contemporary of Alexander in 327-326 BCE. This mistaken identity or concocted theory of William Jones has been propagated by western historians as an eternal and irrefutable historical fact for constructing the chronology of Ancient India. Eminent Indian historians under the influence of western historians toed the same line. Unfortunately, they completely ignored the history of ancient India given in Puranas since Mahabharata War.
Considering the epoch of SakaEra in 583 BCE and the epoch of Gupta era in 335 BCE, the epigraphic evidence supports that Maurya dynasty ruled Magadha much earlier than 4th century BCE. Puranas tell us that Chandragupta Maurya ascended the throne by defeating the last Nanda king around 1500 BCE. According to Kaliyuga Raja Vrittanta, the Great Bear or Saptarshi Mandal was in Sravana nakshtra during the reign of Mahapadma Nanda.
“Saptarshayo Maghayuktah kale Yaudhishthire satam | Sravane te bhavishyanti kale Nandasya bhupateh ||”
(During the time of Yudhishthira, the GreatBear was in Magha constellation for 100 years. By the time of Nanda, it will be in Sravana constellation.)
The Great Bear was in Sravana nakshatra around 1676 BCE to 1576 BCE. NandaDynasty ruled Magadha for 100 years between 1616 BCE to 1516 BCE. Chandragupta Maurya founded the rule of MauryaDynasty around 1516 BCE. Therefore, Samudragupta was the contemporary of Alexander in 327-326 BCE not Chandragupta Maurya. There are many more evidences to support that Samudragupta was the “Sandrokottus” not Chandragupta Maurya.
❶ The Greek scholars recorded the names of kings of India as Xandrames, and Sandrokottus. Western historians deliberately identified these names with those of Mahapadmananda or Dhanananda and Chandragupta Maurya. Xandrames was said to be the father of Sandrokottus. According to John W. McCrindle, Diodorus distorted the name “Sandrokottus” into Xandrames and this again is distorted by Curtius into Agrammes21. It is totally absurd to link Xandrames with MahÀpadmananda and Sandrokottus with Chandragupta Maurya. Most probably, Greeks called Chandra (Chandragupta) as Xandrames and Samudragupta as Sandrokottus. Moreover, the description given by the Greek scholars about Sandrokottus and his father Xandrames are quite inapplicable to Chandragupta Maurya and could only apply to Samudragupta too. According to Greeks, Xandrames was the king of Gangaridai and Prasii whereas Dhanananda was the ruler of entire North, west, central and eastern India. It is also said that Sandrokottus (Samudragupta) killed his father Xandrames (Chandragupta). This fact has been wilfully ignored by the biased western historians and their followers.
❷ All Greek writers mentioned that Sandrokottus, the king of Prasii, whose capital was Palibothra i.e. Pataliputra. Megasthanes, Deimachos and other Greek ambassadors of Seleucus Nikator were sent in the court of Samudragupta and Chandragupta II at Palibothra. Pataliputra became the capital of Magadha Empire only during the reign of Chandragupta I around 335 BCE. According to Puranas, Girivraja or Rajagriha (Rajgir) was the capital city of Magadha during the reign of Nandas and Mauryas. Thus, Pataliputra was not the capital city of Chandragupta Maurya. From 3rd century BCE onwards, the city of Pataliputra became famous as the capital of Magadha. This is the reason why Vishakhadatta referred Pataliputra as the capital city of Magadha Empire in his work “Mudraraksasa” but this cannot be taken as evidence to reject the Puranic reference. Moreover, Mudraraksasa is a drama based on historical fiction. All the Puranas unanimously tell us that the capital of Magadha Empire was Girivraja or Rajagriha till the fall of Satavahana dynasty.
❸ According to Megasthanes, Sakas or Skythians were living in the northern side of India. “India, which is in shape quadrilateral, has its eastern as well as its western side bounded by the great sea but on the northern side it is divided by Mount Hemodos from that part of Skythia which is inhabited by those Skythians who are called the Œakai, while the fourth or western side is bounded by the river called the Indus, which is perhaps the largest of all rivers in the world after the Nile.” Many other Greek scholars also wrote about Skythians. Thus, it seems that Northern Saka Ksatrapas were ruling in the North-western frontier region during the time of Megasthanes. It is well known that Saka Ksatrapas were contemporaries of Guptas not Mauryas. Asoka inscriptions mention about only Yavana kings named Antikina, Alikasundara, Maga, Turamaya and Gongakena (not Greeks but indigenous Yavana kings of Afganistan and Northern Pakistan) ruling in the western frontier regions. Western historians speculated about these kings to be Antiochus Theos II of Syria, Alexander of Epirus, Magas of Cyrene, Ptolemy II Philadelphos of Egypt and Antigonus Gonatus of Macedonia. These baseless speculations are simply based on the resemblance of names without any direct or indirect evidence. The references of Yavana kings in Asoka inscriptions indicate that Yavanas were the rulers in the western frontier regions not Sakas. There is no reference of Saka Ksatrapas in the entire account of Mauryan history. Therefore, Sandrokottus can only be Samudragupta who was the contemporary of Saka Ksatrapas not Chandragupta Maurya.
❹ Seleucus Nikator also sent Deimachos on an embassy to Allitrocades or Amitrocades, the son of Sandrokottus. Western historians identified Allitrocades or Amitrocades to be Bindusara, the son of Chandragupta and concocted that Bindusara was also known as “Amitraghata”. None of the Indian sources ever referred Bindussra as Amitraghata. Western historians deliberately created the word “Amitraghata” with some sort of resemblance. According to Puranas, Samudragupta was also known as “Asokaditya” and Chandragupta II was also known as “Vikramaditya”. Probably, Allitrocades or Amitrocades referred to “Vikramaditya”, the son of Sandrokottus (Samudragupta).
❺ Megasthanes described the system of city administration of Pataliputra but there is no similarity between the system described by Megasthanes and the system of city administration given in Kautilya Arthasastra. Megasthanes also stated that there was no slavery in India but Kautilya Arthasastra’s Chapter 65 named “Dasakalpa” is solely devoted to the status of slaves among the Aryans and the Mlecchas. Probably, the slavery system that existed during Mauryan era has gradually declined by Gupta era. Thus, Megasthanes cannot be contemporary to Chandragupta Maurya.
❻ Megasthanes not only often visited Palibothra but also stayed in the court of Sandrokottus for a few years. But he did not even mention about Kautilya or Chanakya who was the real kingmaker and also the patron of Chandragupta. No Greek scholar ever mentioned about Kautilya. Therefore, Megasthanes cannot be the contemporary to Chandragupta Maurya.
❼ Greek scholars often mentioned that Sandrokottus was the king of the country called as Prasii (Prachi or Prachya). Pracha or Prachi means eastern country. During the Nanda and Mauryan era, Magadha kings were ruling almost entire India. Mauryan Empire was never referred in Indian sources as only Prachya desa or eastern country. Prachya desa was generally referred to Gupta Empire because Northern Saka Ksatrapas and Western Saka Ksatrapas were well established in North and West India. Megasthanes mentioned that Sandrokottus is the greatest king of the Indians and Poros is still greater than Sandrokottus26 which means a kingdom in the North-western region is still independent and enjoying at least equal status with the kingdom of Sandrokottus. Chandragupta Maurya and his successors were the most powerful kings of India. It was impossible for any other Indian king to enjoy equal status with Mauryan kings because Mauryans inherited a strongest and vast empire from Nandas. Therefore, Sandrokottus, the king of Prasii can only be Samudragupta not Chandragupta Maurya.
❽ The Greek historian Plutarch mentioned that Androkottus (Sandrokottus) marched over the whole of India with an army of 600 thousand men. Chandragupta Maurya defeated Nandas under the leadership of Chanakya. There was no need for him to go on such expedition to conquer the whole of India because he has already inherited the Magadha kingdom of Nandas covering entire India. Actually, it was Samudragupta who overran the whole of India as details given in Allahabad pillar inscription.
❾ According to Greek historians like Justinus, Appianus etc., Seleukos made friendship with Sandrokottus and entered into relations of marriage with him. Allahabad pillar inscription tells us that Samudragupta was offered their daughters in marriage (Kanyopayanadana...) by the kings in the North-west region. There is nothing in Indian sources to prove this fact with reference to Chandragupta Maurya.
❿ The Jain work “Harivamsa” written by Jinasena gives the names of dynasties and kings and the duration of their rule after the nirvana of Mahavira. Jinasena mentions nothing about Mauryas but he tells us that Gupta kings ruled for 231 years. Western historians fixed the date of Mahavira-nirvana in 527 BCE which means Mauryas ruled after Mahavira-nirvana but Jaina Puranas and Jaina Pattavalis had no knowledge of Mauryas after Mahavira-nirvana. Thus, Mauryas ruled prior to Mahavira-nirvana. Therefore, Sandrokottus can only be identified with Samudragupta.
11. If Sandrokottus was indeed Chandragupta Maurya, why do none of the Greek sources mentioned about Asoka, the most illustrious and greatest of Mauryan kings? It is evident that Greek sources had no knowledge of Asoka. Therefore, the ancient Greeks were contemporaries to Gupta kings not Mauryas. In view of the above, Samudragupta was the contemporary of Alexander not Chandragupta Maurya. Unfortunately, this distorted history is being taught to Indians since last 231 years. Indian historians also blindly followed on the footsteps of Western historians.
➩ Western historians were born and brought up in a religious Christian society. They were faithful to the Biblical conception of the creation of the world in 4004 BCE. They knew the fact that the antiquity of the history of Greece and other European countries cannot be greater than 1000 BCE. When they encountered with the antiquity of ancient Indian history that is greater than 6776 BCE, Western historians could not believe it. Therefore, they started distorting the chronology of ancient India. First of all, Sir William Jones conspired and deliberately cut down 1200 years of Indian history by identifying Sandrokottus as Chandragupta Maurya. To cover up this distortion, Jones declared that Puranic account of Indian history is mythological and unreliable but selectively accepted the genealogy of various dynasties from Puranas. Actually, many Western historians pursued their research with an objective to curtail the antiquity of the chronology of ancient India so that the supremacy of ancient Greek civilization can be established.
Western historians were fascinated with the history of Alexander from their childhood. They started searching the footprints of Alexander’s invasion in India. Interestingly, there is no reference of Alexander’s invasion in Indian literary sources because it was actually a non-event for Indians. Western scholars concocted the theory that the Yavanas mentioned in Indian sources are Greeks without any evidence. According to various Indian sources, Yavana kingdoms existed in Indian history since Mahabharata war that located in the west and north side across the Indus river. Thus, Indian Yavanas were more ancient than the birth of ancient Greek civilisation.
In fact, it can be confidently stated that the great victory of Alexander and the homesickness of Greek soldiers have been concocted by historians of Alexander who were employed by him to chronicle his achievements. Probably, the army of Alexander was comprehensively defeated by the Indian king Poros and the wounded Alexander and his army have to flee through the channels of Indus River and they landed on the shores of Arabian Sea. They were then forced to march along the dry Makran and Persian Gulf coast and somehow finally, made it back to Babylonia where the wounded young Alexander died there in 323 BCE at the age of 33 years. It may be noted that Alexander employed the historians to chronicle his victories not the defeats. Therefore, the Greek historians concocted the victorious army of Alexander fell homesick and feigned the ignorance of geography for the return journey through the channels of Indus River. It is unbelievable that the victorious army of Alexander fell homesick otherwise they could have amassed unimaginable wealth from India, the most prosperous country of the world of the times. Moreover, Megasthanes, who was sent as ambassador to King Poros by Seleukos, mentioned that Poros was even greater than Sandrokottus. If Poros was defeated and appointed as satrap by Alexander, how could he become greater than Sandrokottus? After the death of Alexander, his generals decided to divide his Empire among themselves but interestingly, no part of India east of Indus River was included as part of Alexander’s Empire. Therefore, it seems that the victory of Alexander over the Indian king Poros, the homesickness of his army and the ignorance of geography were just concocted stories by paid Greek historians of Alexander.
✺ Strabo once stated ✺ “Generally speaking, the men who have hitherto written on the affairs of India were a set of liars. Deimachos holds the first place in the list; Megasthanes comes next; while Onesikritos and Nearchos with others of the same class, manage to stammer out a few words of truth.”
As quoted by Kota Venkatachalam, Troyer also rejected the identification of Chandragupta Maurya with Sandrokottus and pointed out that one of the Chandraguptas of the Gupta dynasty should be taken as Sandrokottus. If Samudragupta is accepted as Sandrokottus the contemporary Indian king of Alaxander and the epoch of Saka coronation era in 583 BCE, there will be no conflict in the traditional Indian records and epigraphic records. Moreover, we need not to declare certain copper plate inscriptions as forgeries. Unfortunately, the Eurocentric and the distortionist approach of Western historians caused extreme damage to the chronology of ancient India. These intellectuals having no integrity pursued their research by distorting and concocting numerous so-called historical facts which can be called nothing less than a “fraud”. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The Chronology of Ancient India, Victim of Concoctions and Distortions by Vedveer Arya
6000 year old Lord Rama and Hanuman carvings in Silemania, Iraq.
AN ANCIENT RAM-CHAPEL IN SUMER
One of the major triumphs of modern archaeology was the hair-raising discoveries of Sir Leonard Woolley at Ur. Amidst the ruins of Ur, he unearthed a Ram-chapel but totally missed its relevance in world history. This crucial finding not only bridges the wide gaps between Indian tradition and archaeology but also unfolds the historic bonds that once united ancient India, Iran and Sumer. Ram-Sin of (Larsa) to whose memory this chapel was dedicated must have been Rama of Valmiki. The name Ararama of Larsa may be an echo of Rama. This Ram-Chapel of Ur is the earliest known memorial to the great Rama and may have been erected by Dilmun merchants who resided nearby. Dilmun was always mentioned in the Sumerian texts together with Magan and Melukkha and it is possible that these three states were somehow allied to each other.
RAMA, BHARATA & LAKSHMANA IN SUMER
The Cambridge Ancient History which is usually not considered as a sourcebook for Indian history by writers like Romila Thapar contains priceless information relevant to Indian ancient history. In the highly authentic Sumerian king list appears such hallowed names as Bharat (Warad) Sin and Ram Sin. As Sin was the Moon god Chandra Ram Sin can be seen to be same as Rama Chandra. Bharat Sin ruled for 12 years (1834-1822 BC), exactly as stated in the Dasaratha Jataka. The Jataka statement, “Years sixty times hundred, and ten thousand more, all told, / Reigned strong-armed Rama”, only means that Rama reigned for sixty years which agrees exactly with the data of Assyriologists. Ram Sin was the longest reigning monarch of Mesopotamia who ruled for 60 years. The mention of the father in the inscriptions of both Warad Sin and Ram Sin is noteworthy and may point to a palace intrigue. Joan Oates is not aware of the Ramayana but writes with great insight (p. 61) that Warad sin was manoeuvred to the throne by his father. In Mesopotamia, a prince normally became king only after the death of his father. Lakshmana, mentioned the Bible as Lakhamar, ruled as a great king.
THE FIRST SYNCHRONISM OF INDIAN HISTORY
In his thirtieth year(1794 BC) Ram-Sin defeated a powerful coalition
led by the King of Lanka (Babil). It is most significant to note that
while there were ten kings who fought on the side of Ram-Sin, another
group of ten kings supported his enemy. This may in fact explain the ten
faces of Dashanana. Ram-Sin considered this victory to be of such great
importance that he dated all the documents of the last thirty years of
his reign by this event. Gadd comments on the lyrical nature of Ram-Sin’s long victory inscription which may have been the kernel around which Valmiki’s Epic grew. The mature Harappan culture ended by about 1750 BC. According to Dales, the decline of Harappans is linked to the decline of the Sumerians after
Ram-Sin (1822-1763 BC). Rama’s death, not the so-called invasion of
Aryans or floods, may have signalled the decline of both the Indus and
monks and disciples follow a unique practice among Buddhists in that
they greet each other using only their right hand. This greeting is a
tradition which dates back to Da Mo and his disciple, Hui Ke.
In 495 AD, the Indian monk Ba Tuo, or Buddhabhadra, came to China
teaching a form of Buddhism known as Xiao Sheng Buddhism. He was given
land at the foot of Shaoshi mountain by Emperor Shao Wen and founded the
Shaolin Temple on this land.
Around the time that Ba Tuo was
founding the Shaolin Temple there was an Indian prince named
Bodhidharma. Bodhidharma was very intelligent and was the favorite son
of the king of a region that is now part of southern India. Bodhidharma
had two older brothers who feared that their father, the king, would
pass them over and bequeath the kingship to Bodhidharma. In their
jealousy, the two older brothers often disparaged Bodhidharma while
talking with their father, hoping to turn him against their younger
brother. The older brothers also attempted to assassinate Bodhidharma
but Bodhidharma had very good karma and so the attempts were not
successful. Despite being the favorite son of the king, Bodhidharma
realized that he was not interested in a life of politics. He chose
instead to study with the famous Buddhist master Prajnatara and become a
Bodhidharma trained with his master for many
years. One day he asked his master, "Master, when you pass away, where
should I go? What should I do?" His master replied that he should go to
Zhen Dan, which was the name for China at that time. Years later,
Bodhidharma's master passed away and Bodhidharma prepared to leave for
During the many years that Bodhidharma had studied as a
monk, one of his older brothers had become king of India and that older
brother's son had become king after him. The king of India was very fond
of his uncle and wanted to make amends for the actions which
Bodhidharma's older brothers had taken against him. He asked Bodhidharma
to stay near the capital, where he could protect and care for him, but
Bodhidharma knew that he must go to China as his master had said.
Seeing that Bodhidharma would not remain, the king of India ordered
that carrier pigeons be sent to China with messages asking the people of
China to take care of Bodhidharma. These messages made Bodhidharma
famous among many Chinese who wondered what was so special about this
particular Buddhist monk that the king of India would make such a
In 527 AD, 32 years after Ba Tuo's founding of the
Shaolin temple, Bodhidharma crossed through Guangdong province into
China. In China, he was known as Da Mo. Da Mo arrived in China
practicing Da Sheng (Mahayana) Buddhism. When Da Mo arrived, he was
greeted by a large crowd of people who had heard of the famous Buddhist
master and wished to hear him speak. Rather than speak, Da Mo sat down
and began meditating. He meditated for many hours. Upon completing his
meditation, Da Mo rose and walked away, saying nothing.
actions had a profound effect upon his audience. Some people laughed,
some cried, some were angry and some nodded their heads in
understanding. Regardless of the emotion, everyone in the crowd had a
This incident made Da Mo even more famous, so famous
that Emperor Wu heard of him. Emperor Wu, who ruled over the southern
kingdom of China, invited Da Mo to come to his palace. When Da Mo
arrived, Emperor Wu talked with Da Mo about Buddhism. The emperor had
erected many statues and temples devoted to Buddhism. He had given much
wealth to Buddhist temples. In talking of his accomplishments, Emperor
Wu asked Da Mo if his actions were good. Da Mo replied that they were
not. This response surprised Emperor Wu, but they continued talking and
eventually Emperor Wu asked Da Mo if there was Buddha in this world. Da
Mo replied that there was not.
Da Mo's replies were a
reflection of Emperor Wu. By asking if his actions were good, Emperor Wu
was searching for compliments and affirmation from Da Mo. Da Mo denied
that Emperor Wu's actions were good because it is the duty of the
emperor to care for his people. Rather than seeking compliments, Emperor
Wu should have been content to help his people through Buddha.
Similarly, if one asks if there is Buddha in the world, then one has
already answered the question: Buddha is a matter of faith, you either
believe in your heart or you do not. In questioning the existence of
Buddha, Emperor Wu had demonstrated a lack of faith.
answers enraged Emperor Wu and he ordered Da Mo to leave his palace and
never return. Da Mo simply smiled, turned and left.
continued his journey, heading north, when he reached the city of
Nanjing. In the city of Nanjing, there was a famous place called the
Flower Rain Pavillion where many people gathered to speak and relax.
There was a large crowd of people gathered in the Flower Rain Pavillion
around a Buddhist monk, who was lecturing. This Buddhist monk was named
Shen Guang had at one time been a famous general.
He had killed many people in battle but one day realized that the people
he had been killing had family and friends and that one day someone
might come and kill him. This changed him and he decided to train as a
Buddhist monk. Eventually, Shen Guang became a great speaker on
Buddhism. As Da Mo neared the crowd, he listened to Shen Guang's speech.
Sometimes Shen Guang would speak and Da Mo would nod his head, as if in
agreement. Sometimes Shen Guang would speak and Da Mo would shake his
head, as if in disagreement. As this continued, Shen Guang became very
angry at the strange foreign monk who dared to disagree with him in
front of this crowd. In anger, Shen Guang took the Buddhist beads from
around his neck and flicked them at Da Mo. The beads struck Da Mo in his
face, knocking out two of his front teeth. Da Mo immediately began
bleeding. Shen Guang expected a confrontation; instead, Da Mo smiled,
turned and walked away.
This reaction astounded Shen Guang, who began following after Da Mo.
Da Mo continued north until he reached the Yangzi river. Seated by the
river there was an old woman with a large bundle of reeds next to her.
Da Mo walked up to the old woman and asked her if he might have a reed.
She replied that he might. Da Mo took a single reed, placed it upon the
surface of the Yangzi river and stepped onto the reed. He was carried
across the Yangzi river by the force of his chi. Seeing this, Shen Guang
ran up to where the old woman sat and grabbed a handful of reeds
without asking. He threw the reeds onto the Yangzi river and stepped
onto them. The reeds sank beneath him and Shen Guang began drowning. The
old woman saw his plight and took pity on Shen Guang, pulling him from
the river. As Shen Guang lay on the ground coughing up river water, the
old woman admonished him. She said that by not asking for her reeds
before taking them, he had shown her disrespect and that by
disrespecting her, Shen Guang had disrespected himself. The old woman
also told Shen Guang that he had been searching for a master and that Da
Mo, the man he was following, was that master. As she said this, the
reeds which had sunk beneath Shen Guang rose again to the surface of the
river and Shen Guang found himself on the reeds being carried across
the Yangzi river. He reached the other side and continued following
after Da Mo.
There are many people who believe that the old
woman by the river was a Boddhisatva who was helping Shen Guang to end
the cycle of his samsara.
At this point, Da Mo was nearing the
location of the Shaolin Temple. The Shaolin monks had heard of his
approach and were gathered to meet him. When Da Mo arrived, the Shaolin
monks greeted him and invited him to come stay at the temple. Da Mo did
not reply but he went to a cave on a mountain behind the Shaolin Temple,
sat down, and began meditating. In front of the Shaolin Temple, there
are five mountains: Bell Mountain, Drum Mountain, Sword Mountain, Stamp
Mountain and Flag Mountain. These mountains are named after the objects
which their shape resembles. Behind the Shaolin Temple there are five
"Breast Mountains" which are shaped like breasts. The cave in which Da
Mo chose to meditate was on one of the Breast Mountains.
Mo sat facing a wall in the cave and meditated for nine years. During
these nine years, Shen Guang stayed outside Da Mo's cave and acted as a
bodyguard for Da Mo, ensuring that no harm came to Da Mo. Periodically
Shen Guang would ask Da Mo to teach him, but Da Mo never responded to
Shen Guang's requests. During these nine years the Shaolin monks would
also periodically invite Da Mo to come down to the Temple, where he
would be much more comfortable, but Da Mo never responded. After some
time, Da Mo's concentration became so intense that his image was
engraved into the stone of the wall before him.
Towards the end
of the nine years, the Shaolin monks decided that they must do
something more for Da Mo and so they made a special room for him. They
called this room the Da Mo Ting. When this room was completed at the end
of the nine years, the Shaolin monks invited Da Mo to come stay in the
room. Da Mo did not respond but he stood up, walked down to the room,
sat down, and immediately began meditating. Shen Guang followed Da Mo to
the Shaolin temple and stood guard outside Da Mo's room. Da Mo
meditated in his room for another four years. Shen Guang would
occasionally ask Da Mo to teach him, but Da Mo never responded.
At the end of the four-year period Shen Guang had been following Da Mo
for thirteen years, but Da Mo had never said anything to Shen Guang. It
was winter when the four-year period was ending and Shen Guang was
standing in the snow outside the window to Da Mo's room. He was cold and
became very angry. He picked up a large block of snow and ice and
hurled it into Da Mo's room. The snow and ice made a loud noise as it
broke inside Da Mo's room. This noise awoke Da Mo from his meditation
and he looked at Shen Guang. In anger and frustration Shen Guang
demanded to know when Da Mo would teach him.
Da Mo responded that he would teach Shen Guang when red snow fell from the sky.
Hearing this, something inside Shen Guang's heart changed and he took
the sword he carried from his belt and cut off his left arm. He held the
severed arm above his head and whirled it around. The blood from the
arm froze in the cold air and fell like red snow. Seeing this, Da Mo
agreed to teach Shen Guang.
Da Mo took a monk's spade and went
with Shen Guang to the Drum Mountain in front of Shaolin Temple. The
Drum Mountain is so called because it is very flat on top. Da Mo's
unspoken message to Shen Guang was that Shen Guang should flatten his
heart, just like the surface of the Drum Mountain. On this Drum Mountain
Da Mo dug a well. The water of this well was bitter. Da Mo then left
Shen Guang on the Drum Mountain. For an entire year, Shen Guang used the
bitter water of the well to take care of all of his needs. He used it
to cook, to clean, to bathe, to do everything. At the end of the first
year, Shen Guang went down to Da Mo and again asked Da Mo to teach him.
Da Mo returned with Shen Guang to the Drum Mountain and dug a second
well. The water of this well was spicy. For an entire year, Shen Guang
used the spicy water for all of his needs. At the end of the second
year, Shen Guang went back down to Da Mo and asked again to be taught.
Da Mo dug a third well on the Drum Mountain. The water of this third
well was sour. For the third year, Shen Guang used the sour water for
all of his needs. At the end of the third year, Shen Guang returned to
Da Mo and agains asked to be taught. Da Mo returned to the Drum Mountain
and dug a fourth and final well. The water of this well was sweet. At
this point, Shen Guang realized that the four wells represented his
life. Like the wells, his life would sometimes be bitter, sometimes
sour, sometimes spicy and sometimes sweet. Each of these phases in his
life was equally beautiful and necessary, just as each of the four
seasons of the year is beautiful and necessary in its own way. Without
really saying many words to Shen Guang, Da Mo had taught Shen Guang the
most important of lessons in a mind-to-mind, heart-to-heart fashion.
This mind-to- mind, heart-to-heart communication is called "action
language" and is the foundation of the Chan Buddhism which Da Mo began
at the Shaolin Temple.
After his realization, Shen Guang was given the name Hui Ke and he became abbot of the Shaolin temple after Da Mo.
To pay respect for the sacrifice which Hui Ke made, disciples and monks
of the Shaolin Temple greet each other using only their right hand.
Before I was born, who was I? After I am born, who am I? Respect yourself, and everyone will respect you. Understand yourself, and everyone will understand you. There are mirrors all around you: Strive to see and understand yourself. Strive to have the heart of a Buddha. Stop doing bad things, only do good. Do whatever you can to help others. In these ways you help yourself. Help yourself, and you help the world.
Buddhism was born in Nepal about 2500 years ago. It spread to India
some 400 years later, and 1500 years ago, it appeared in China. Chan
Buddhism is said to have originated at Shaolin Temple, and its spiritual
founder was an Indian prince named Bodhidharma, or as he was known to
the Chinese, Da Mo. It is characterized by a rejection of much of the
protocol associated with other sects of Buddhism and is oriented around
the practice of meditation. In Chan, the Temple is everywhere, and one
can pray anywhere, meditate in any position, and it emphasizes the idea
of personal awakening and understanding. Chan is the spiritual parent of
Japanese Zen Buddhism.
What does "Amituofo" or "Amitabha" mean?
Amituofo means a multitude of things, depending on how it is used. It
can be a greeting, a salutation, a blessing, or it can mean "please" or
"I'm sorry." You can use it to express anything from your heart.
Literally, it is the name of a Buddha, the "Amita" Buddha ("fo" being
the Chinese word for Buddha). It is pronounced "Ah-mee-twoh-foh".
"Amituofo" is the Chinese transliteration of the Sanskrit "Amitabha".
Why do we say "Amituofo" 3 times at the beginning and end of every class? The first is to pay respect to Buddha, "Fo". The second is for dharma, "Fa" the way or the philosophy. The third is for sangha "Seng", the monastic community or family, as well as one's master - even including mastering yourself.
What is "Action Meditation"?
Action meditation, or "dong chan" in Chinese, can be everything and
anything we do. Play some music, speak, eat, go swimming, go climb a
tree, go climb a mountain, walk upside-down, play basketball, make
dinner, make love - any action you can think of that you can express in
your beautiful life - that's action meditation. There are a million
different doors for a million different people to walk through in their
lives, and a million different ways for a million different people to
meditate in their lives.
Sitting meditation probably may not
be good for some people, just like everyone likes different food and has
different tastes. I can just sit there watching TV, and without warming
up kiss my foot. It feels so good, so fresh and so clean - that's my
action meditation. Maybe you'll never be able to do this kind of action
meditation, or maybe you can. That's why you have to be yourself. You
can't copy other people. You can borrow somebody else's philosophy to
use in your life, but you can't live completely like somebody else.
Even now, in the 21st century, there are many monks, masters, or
instructors who still just use one way to teach many people, to cross
their legs and sit in the lotus position doing sitting meditation. Not
everybody is flexible enough to put their legs together and sit there
like that. They sit there for 15-20 minutes and their joints begin to
ache, their knees, ankles, lower back, and neck get tired and
uncomfortable. Why do you want to do sitting meditation when you're
torturing yourself, creating a problem for your life?
extend your leg to meditate, you can do splits if you want to. You can
do Luohan Sleeping style to meditate, you can do headstands to meditate.
Try different ways. Find yourself.
What does it mean to be a monk?
This is the source of confusion for many people who have a distorted
view of what constitutes monkhood. In some types of Buddhism, there are
250 different rules for monks, 500 for those who wish to be nuns. One
may wear the robes, shave one's head, not speak a word, not look left or
right, eat a restricted diet, and follow all 250 rules. But anyone can
shave his head and wear the robes -- this does not make him a monk. Some
so-called monks might be strict in their practice but may be so for the
wrong reasons. These people are not honest with themselves.
The Chinese word for monk is "heshang" (huh-shahng). The character "he"
has the meaning here of the word "heqi" - friendly and amiable. The left
side of the character means harmony, life. The right side is a
pictograph of a mouth. Your mouth is not just only for eating good food,
drinking good drinks, and making love - You also need to use it to
speak with people and make wonderful relations between them. Use it to
give people the knowledge and philosophy to help themselves and help the
world. At the same time, the mouth can be used negatively to speak
horrible things that can destroy people. When you're healthy, it's from
what you eat and how you speak. When you're sick, it's from the same
things. You must know how to use your chi positively. Shang means
"gaoshang" - noble. It means a high level, different from others. To
become a heshang, it is not necessary to shave your head, not necessary
to wear the monk robes, and not necessary to live inside the monastery.
Everywhere is your home, everywhere is your temple. You are the temple.
If you shave your head and wear the monk robes, but do things like eat
meat, drink, be with women, underneath the table, out of sight, not
wanting people to see or know about it, you're cheating yourself. You're
not being honest with yourself. You're not being yourself. Why are you
doing that? If you do those things, but are open about it, honest with
yourself and others, that's beautiful. Express your beautiful life fully
Why are Shaolin Monks allowed to eat meat and drink wine?
Shaolin Monks have been highly respected in their exploits outside the
Temple, but no more so than at the end of the Sui Dynasty (581- 618),
when the king of the Qin State, Li Shimin, needed to protect himself
from the emperor of a rival state. Thirteen Shaolin monks rescued the
nephew of the Emperor Li, and in the process, obtained the seal of the
rival emperor. Later, Li became the first Emperor of the Tang Dynasty,
and in gratitude to Shaolin, he granted the monks there the privilege of
eating meat and drinking wine.
Shaolin Temple is unique among
Buddhist temples throughout the world. Shaolin Temple monks practice
physical as well as mental philosophy every day for many hours, and need
protein to maintain their strong minds and strong bodies. Everything
has life, everything has chi. In the last few hundred years, technology
has helped scientists, doctors, and professors find out many things,
what's real, and what isn't real. When you eat vegetables, you are also
taking life. When you drink water, you kill many lives just from one
sip. When you walk down the street, many little creatures walk all over
your body, upside-down or horizontally. You don't realize every day how
many lives you kill just from doing these simple things! If you have a
lovely heart and peaceful mind, you have to use them to help other
people, yourself, and the world. That's why I made the simple rules for
my followers now in the modern world - "Only do good things, don't do
bad. Do whatever you can to help others. In these ways, you help
yourself. Help yourself, and you help the world." Whatever you eat or
drink, it doesn't matter. Understand yourself.
Do I have to change religions to train?
You don't need to change anything. Stay believing whatever you believe,
whether it's in God, Jesus, Moses, Muhammad or anyone else. I believe
in them all. I believe in all of the religion's special leaders, they
all teach people to be good people, to only do good things, not to do
bad, and to help other people. All of them just have different names, I
believe in them all, love them all, and I believe they love us too. When
you come to the Temple, you don't need to change what you believe,
change religions, shave your head, or become a vegetarian. I do not
teach Chinese philosophy, I teach International philosophy. I encourage
my students, disciples, and followers to go to church, go to
monasteries, go to mosques, to open their minds and open their hearts.
Learn all of the philosophies and combine them together - that's your
philosophy. Just like in the martial arts world, there are many styles,
karate, tae kwon do, jiu jitsu, muay thai, and hundreds more. Whatever
style you practice, it doesn't matter - learn all of the styles, combine
them together, and that's your style. That way, you can get the
knowledge for yourself, and share it with other people. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bodhidharma
Hindus Lived 74000 Years Ago Survey Finds -------------------------------------------------
New evidence suggests that Hinduism existed in Indonesia 74,000 ago and
it is safe to assume that Hinduism antedates this period.Earlier to
this finding a city older that Mohenjo-Daro has been found.
76,000 years ago, the volcano Toba – located in what is now Indonesia –
erupted to create the largest and most devastating volcanic event of
the past 2 million years. Almost 3,000 cubic kilometers of magma was
spewed out, while sulfuric acid rained over the earth as far away as
Greenland. The world became subject to a volcanic winter, and what
followed was one of the most severe ice ages in documented history.
Over in India, the land was showered with 15 centimeters of volcanic
ash, which can be seen today, working as a distinct age marker in the
earth’s stratigraphy. And yet, contrary to all logic, archaeologists
have unearthed assemblages of stone tools both above and below the ash
deposit in India’s Jwalapuram Valley.
The tools look remarkably
similar to those made by humans in Africa, which indicates that these
tools were also human-formed – and yet, if humans were still in India
after the depositing of ash (an incredible feat it itself), they would
have had an extremely difficult time trying to survive. After all, the
sheer magnitude of the eruption suspended both volcanic gas and sulfuric
acid in the earth’s atmosphere for years, causing warm sunlight to be
redirected away from Earth – and plunging the world into several
centuries of temperatures that were at least 3-5 degrees C lower than
normal after the event.
Mapping of stone tool artefacts on a Middle Palaeolithic occupation surface under the Toba ash.
Newly discovered archaeological sites in southern and northern India
have revealed how people lived before and after the colossal Toba
volcanic eruption 74,000 years ago.
multidisciplinary research team, led by Oxford University in
collaboration with Indian institutions, unveiled to a conference in
Oxford what it calls ‘Pompeii-like excavations’ beneath the Toba ash.
The seven-year project examines the environment that humans lived in,
their stone tools, as well as the plants and animal bones of the time.
The team has concluded that many forms of life survived the
super-eruption, contrary to other research which has suggested
significant animal extinctions and genetic bottlenecks.
to the team, a potentially ground-breaking implication of the new work
is that the species responsible for making the stone tools in India was
Homo sapiens. Stone tool analysis has revealed that the artefacts
consist of cores and flakes, which are classified in India as Middle
Palaeolithic and are similar to those made by modern humans in Africa.
‘Though we are still searching for human fossils to definitively prove
the case, we are encouraged by the technological similarities. This
suggests that human populations were present in India prior to 74,000
years ago, or about 15,000 years earlier than expected based on some
genetic clocks,’ said project director Dr Michael Petraglia, Senior
Research Fellow in the School of Archaeology at the University of
This exciting new information questions the idea that the
Toba super-eruption caused a worldwide environmental catastrophe. Dr
Michael Petraglia, School of Archaeology
An area of widespread
speculation about the Toba super-eruption is that it nearly drove
humanity to extinction. The fact that the Middle Palaeolithic tools of
similar styles are found right before and after the Toba super-eruption,
suggests that the people who survived the eruption were the same
populations, using the same kinds of tools, says Dr Petraglia. The
research agrees with evidence that other human ancestors, such as the
Neanderthals in Europe and the small brained Hobbits in Southeastern
Asia, continued to survive well after Toba.
Although some scholars have speculated that the Tob
[8/29, 13:18] Darshan Kumar: volcano led to severe and wholesale
environmental destruction, the Oxford-led research in India suggests
that a mosaic of ecological settings was present, and some areas
experienced a relatively rapid recovery after the volcanic event.
The team has not discovered much bone in Toba ash sites, but in the
Billasurgam cave complex in Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, the researchers
have found deposits which they believe range from at least 100,000 years
ago to the present. They contain a wealth of animal bones such as wild
cattle, carnivores and monkeys. They have also identified plant
materials in the Toba ash sites and caves, yielding important
information about the impact of the Toba super-eruption on the
Dr Petraglia said: ‘This exciting new
information questions the idea that the Toba super-eruption caused a
worldwide environmental catastrophe. That is not to say that there were
no ecological effects. We do have evidence that the ash temporarily
disrupted vegetative communities and it certainly choked and polluted
some fresh water sources, probably causing harm to wildlife and maybe
Older Than Harappa. --------------------------
“A team of archaeologists from the Deccan College Post Graduate and
Research Institute is back from Haryana where they stumbled upon a
record 70 Harappan graves at a site in Farmana, discovering the largest
burial site of this civilization in India so far. It is an extraordinary
archaeological finding. A big housing complex that matured during the
Harappan era was discovered by these archaeologists who have been
working in this little known village for the past three years. The
archaeological team here uncovered an entire town plan. The skeletal
remains belong to an era between 2500 BC to 2000 BC. http://ancientstandard.com/2007/08/18/“volcanic-mega-eruption-no-problem-how’ve-you-been”-ca-74000-bc
हिन्दुओं में कृष्ण के नाम पर एक
प्रथा प्रसिद्ध है । जिसे रासलीला कहते हैँ। इस रासलीला के विषय में अनेक
मिथ्या बातें जनसाधारण में फैली हुई हैं । जिससे कृष्ण के निर्मल नाम पर पर
धब्बा लगा है। यहाँ तक कि लोग उसी आशय से कृष्ण को विषयी और दुराचारी
बताते हैं। लाखों हिन्दू कृष्ण का नाम केवल रासलीला के संबंध से ही जानते
हैं। वे न कृष्ण के उच्च शिक्षा से परिचित हैँ । और न उनको यह ज्ञात है ।
कि कृष्ण ने अपने जीवनकाल में अपने देश के लिए क्या-क्या कार्य किए और
इतिहास उनको किस प्रतिष्ठा की दृष्टि से देखता है। वे केवल उस कृष्ण से
परिचित हैं । और उसी की पूजा- अर्चना करते हैं । जो रासलीला मैं गोपियों के
साथ नाचता और गाता था ।
श्री कृष्ण के बारे में जो कुछ ' कहा जाता,
किया जाता, अथवा सुना जाता है । वह मिथ्या है। हमें ये याद रखना चाहिए कि
कृष्ण और बलराम 12 वर्ष से अधिक अपने गाँव मैं नहीं रहै। 12 वर्ष की
अवस्था में या उसके लगभग अथवा उससे कुछ पश्चात वे मथुरा चले आए और फिर
आजीवन उनको कभी गोकुल एवं बृन्दावन में जाने का अवकाश नहीं मिला, यहॉ तक कि
उन्हें मथुरा भी छोड़नी पडी। ऐसी दशा में विचारना चाहिए कि प्रेम या सहवास
करने का उन्हें कब या किस आयु मैं अवसर मिला होगा ।
अत: वह उन सब
अत्याचारों के कर्ता कैसे कहै जा सकते हैँ जो उनके नाम से रासलीला या
ब्रहाओत्स्व में दिखाये जाते हैं। हिन्दुओँ की अधोगति की यदि थाह लेनी हो
तो केवल ब्रहाओत्स्व देख लेना चाहिए। संसार की एक ऐसी धार्मिक जाति जिसकी
धर्मोउनती किसी समय विश्वविख्यात थी, आज अपने उस धर्म पर यों उपहास करने पर
उतारू हो चुके हैं ।
धर्म के नाम पर हजारों पाप करने लगी है और फिर
आड़ कै लिए ऐसै धार्मिक माहान पुरुष को चुन लिया जाता है । जिसको शिक्षा
में पवित्र भक्ति 'कूट-कूट कर भरी हुईं है।
दुख की बात है कि हमने
अपने महान पुरुषों का कैसे अपमान किया है। कदाचित यह इसी पाप का फल हैं कि
हम इस अधोपतन को पहुँच गये और कोई हमारी रक्षा न कर सका।
Sir J. C. Bose invented the Mercury Coherer (together with the telephone receiver) used by Guglielmo Marconi to receive the radio signal in his first transatlantic radio communication over a distance of 2000 miles from Poldhu, UK to Newfoundland, St. Johns in December 1901. Guglielmo Marconi was celebrated worldwide for this achievement, but the fact that the receiver was invented by Bose was totally concealed. Read Bose's original paper on the receiver device.
In 1895, Sir J. C. Bose gave his first public demonstration of electromagnetic waves, using them to ring a bell remotely and to explode some gunpowder. He sent an electromagnetic wave across 75 feet passing through walls and body of the Chairman, Lieutenant Governor of Bengal. (I am in process of ascertaining how this experiment is placed in context of works by other scientists towards demonstrating remote transmission of EM waves).
3. Cataract Surgery- The earlier form of Cataract Surgery,was known as ‘couching’, was first done by Sushrut in ancient India and then introduced to other countries. Read more Sushruta-samhita.
4.Water in moon discovered by one and only Chandrayan, happened in 2008 and 2009, with Chandrayaan-1, the Indian Space Research Organisation's (ISRO) first dedicated lunar mission. The Indian 'Moon Impact Probe' first detected the presence of lunar water.
5.Ruler was first used by Indus Valley civilizations, made from IVORY (BBC).
The system attributed to the Indus Valley Civilization (ca. 2600 BC) is sometimes cited as particularly accurate. Based on an ivory scale found in Lothal, their smallest unit corresponded to approximately 1.704 mm (0.067 in), the smallest division ever recorded on a scale of the Bronze Age.
9.Buttons -were first made by Indus Valley civilization and off course they used to wear tailor cut suites, so it is Indian origin.
Button: Ornamental buttons—made from seashell—were used in the Indus Valley Civilization for ornamental purposes by 2000 BCE. Some buttons were carved into geometric shapes and had holes pierced into them so that they could be attached to clothing by using a thread. Ian McNeil (1990) holds that: "The button, in fact, was originally used more as an ornament than as a fastening, the earliest known being found at Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley. It is made of a curved shell and about 5000 years old."
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11.Sugar was first produced in the Ancient India .They discovered method of turning sugarcane juice into granulated crystals that were easier to store and to transport.
12. Bead Making industry - Was originated in Lothal Gujrat> 3000 yrs ago when maritime industry was developed between Indus valley civilizations.