Showing posts with label INDIA .ANCIENT INDIA. Show all posts
Showing posts with label INDIA .ANCIENT INDIA. Show all posts

Monday, March 16, 2015

New evidence will blow your mind about Dinosaur and many Inventions existed Millions of years ago.

1-ICA, PeruEngaving shows Dinosaur coexisted with human.
There is a small Peruvian town of Ica, situated in the Nazca Desert about 5 hours by bus from Lima. It has a Museo Cabrera, that houses engraved stones of Ica, and it will blow your mind and Darvin theory and new science theory that disproves Dinosaur and humans coexistance.
It has more than 10,000 stones of varying sizes with black, smooth surface engraved with figures.
Dr. Javier Cabrera Darquea, who collected and studied the stones for 37 years, got a small stone as a gift for his birthday. Surprised by its weight and design, he started collecting and studying the stones.
The drawing on this stone shows a dinosaur eating a human that led some people to think that there were humans 65 million years ago. (Courtesy of Eugenia Cabrera/Museo Cabrera)
The drawing on this stone shows a dinosaur eating a human that
led some people to think that there were humans 65 million years ago.
 (Courtesy of Eugenia Cabrera/Museo Cabrera)
Eugenia Cabrera C., director of the museum and daughter of Dr. Cabrera, said that her father conducted an analysis on the stones and found that they are a common type of rock called andesite, coated with a special layer on the surface, which made them black and smooth and probably gave them the extra weight.
Top left: Relief carving at Angkor Wat, Cambodia (1186 A.D.). Top Right: Textile from Nazca, Peru (700 A.D.). Bottom: Tapestry in the Chateau de Blois (1500 A.D.)
Top left: Relief carving at Angkor Wat, Cambodia (1186 A.D.). Top Right: Textile
from Nazca, Peru (700 A.D.). Bottom: Tapestry in the Chateau de Blois (1500 A.D.)
He speculated that the layer may have been soft at first, which allowed people to draw the figures on it, and later became hard. To this day, the coating is still on the stones, allowing us to see the figures.
On the stones are drawings of human figures, plants, animals, and abstract symbols. The humans are wearing headdresses, clothes, and shoes. Some stones depict scenes similar to today’s blood transfusions, organ transplants, and birth through caesarian section.

After excavation , it proves that Dinosaurs did not extint 65 millions of years ago, infact they existed 33500 years ago per A triceratops brow horn discovered in Dawson County, Mont. Scientists from the Paleochronology Group, who perform research relating to “anomalies of science,” maintain that dinosaurs did not die out millions of years ago and that there is substantial evidence that they were still alive as recently as 23,000 years ago.The sample was sent to the University of Georgia, Center for Applied Isotope Studies, for this purpose. The sample was divided at the lab into two fractions with the “bulk” or collagen break down products yielding an age of 33,570 ± 120 years and the carbonate fraction of bone bioapatite yielding an age of 41,010 ± 220 years [UGAMS-11752 & 11752a]. Mr Miller told Ancient Origins that it is always desirable to carbon-14 date several fractions to minimize the possibility of errors, which Miller requested, and that essential concordance was achieved in the 1000s of years as with all bone fractions of ten other dinosaurs.
 Numerous carbon dating proves C-14 tests have now been carried out on dinosaur bones, and surprisingly, they all returned results dating back in the thousands rather than millions of years.
Read the original at Ancient Origins.

Several stones show people with a telescope observing star constellations, planets, and comets.

The animals resemble cows, deer, and giraffes, among others. Some also resemble trilobites, extinct fish, and other animals with which we are not familiar. Most surprisingly, several stones show humans trying to kill, or being eaten by, dinosaurs.
A figure engraved on a stone believed to be as old as 65 million years holds a telescope, an invention believed to be created in 1609 by Galileo. (Courtesy of Eugenia Cabrera/Museo Cabrera)
A figure engraved on a stone believed to be as old as 65 million years holds a telescope, an invention believed to be created in 1609 by Galileo. (Courtesy of Eugenia Cabrera/Museo Cabrera)
Dr. Dennis Swift, who studied archeology at the University of New Mexico, documented in his book Secrets of the Ica Stones and Nazca Lines evidence that the stones date back to Pre-Columbian times.
Based on the drawings’ content, some believe that the stones are from 65 million years ago, before dinosaurs became extinct, and that there were people existing at that time—the ones who produced the stones.
These can not be considered as fakes  because in the 1960s, paleontologists thought dinosaurs walked dragging their tails, and the stones depict the dinosaurs holding their tails up.
However, it was later discovered that dinosaurs actually walked without their tails touching the ground. “Now we know the paleontologists were wrong. The Ica Stones were right,” wrote Swift.

-Telescope-Peruvian Stone engraving Showing Ancient Telescope, Modern-Style Clothing-So Galleo was not inventor of TELESCOPE.

When you look at these engravings-you will forget that it was Galleo Galilei invented the telescope in 1609. A stone believed to have been engraved as long as 65 million years ago,shows evidence that Mayans in Peru used to know telescope.
See more cave art in Indonesia>40,000  years ago, changes conception of human beings history as is told-

-Advanced Culture in Cave Paintings.
These paintings from more than 30,000 years ago in the caves of Europe in the 19th century, has busted the commonly accepted understanding of prehistory.Emile Cartailhac,is now considered a founding father of cave art studies.
The first paintings were discovered by Don Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola, a Spanish nobleman, and his daughter, Maria, in 1879 in the Altamira cave. They showed an unexpected sophistication.
The discovery was dismissed, until the early 20th century when Cartailhac published paintings.

Iron Piller  in Delhi,India
The La Marche caves in west-central France contain depictions over 14,000 years old of people with short hair, groomed beards, tailored clothing, riding horseback and suited in modern style—a far cry from the animal-skin loin cloths we usually imagine were confirmed as genuine in 2002.

>500 million year old metallic vessel was found after an explosion of rock in Dorchester,Mass., in 1852. A Scientific American article from June 5, 1852, quotes the Boston Transcript: “This curious and unknown vessel was blown out of the solid pudding stone, fifteen feet below the surface. … There is no doubt but that this curiosity was blown out of the rock” (See full article below). The rock in question was determined to be from the Neoproterozoic era, that is from 541 million to a billion years ago.It is still controversial though.
-Ancient mystic metallurgy if India- Iron Piller OF Delhi-
It is >1,500 years old and , it is so impenetrable to corrosion that even modern technology fails to match it.
sultanganj buddha
The 24-foot pillar is 99.72 percent iron, according to Professor A.P. Gupta, Head of the Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities at the Institute of Technology and Management in India.
In modern times, wrought iron has been made with a purity of about 99–99.8 percent, but it contains manganese and sulfur, two ingredients absent in the pillar. The pillar was also coated in a protective oxide film. It is unlike anything produced today.
An inscription on it dates to about 400 A.D. but it was common at the time to re-erect old pillars with new inscriptions declaring victory in battle or some other triumph.
Sultanganj Buddha, which was cast of pure copper and weighs more than a ton, is some 1,500 years old and “no scientific explanation has yet been made in regard to how it was built at such an early date.”
150,000-Year-Old Pipes were found in a mysterious pyramid in China’s Qinghai Province near Mount Baigong are three caves filled with pipes leading to a nearby salt-water lake. There are also pipes under the lake bed and on the shore. The iron pipes range in size, with some smaller than a toothpick.
Dating done by the Beijing Institute of Geology determined these iron pipes were smelted about 150,000 years ago, if they were indeed made by humans, according to Brian Dunning of
The dating was done using thermoluminescence, a technique that determines how long ago crystalline mineral was exposed to sunlight or heated. Humans are only thought to have inhabited the region for the past 30,000 years. Even within the known history of the area, the only humans to inhabit the region were nomads whose lifestyle would not leave any such structures behind.
The state-run news agency Xinhua in China reported on the pyramid, the pipes, and the research began by a team scientists sent to investigate in 2002.

2000 year old battery in Iraq-
Baghdad Battery They are composed of clay jars with asphalt stoppers. Iron rods stick through the stoppers and are surrounded by copper. The jars were filled with vinegar or wine or some other acidic substance, as shown by corrosion of the interior. Vinegar or any other electrolytic solution could have helped the device produce electricity.
Smith College in Massachusetts reproduced the device. A post on the college’s website explains: “There is no written record as to the exact function of the jar, but the best guess is that it was a type of battery. Scientists believe the batteries (if that is their correct function) were used to electroplate items such as putting a layer of one metal (gold) onto the surface of another (silver), a method still practiced in Iraq today.”

London Hammer LONDON Hammer Made 100 Million Years Ago?-A hammer was found in London, Texas, in 1934 encased in stone that had formed around it. The rock surrounding the hammer is said to be more than 100 million years old, suggesting the hammer was made well before humans who could have made such an object are thought to have was tested by Battelle Laboratory in Columbus, Ohio, a lab that has tested moon rocks for NASA. According to Baugh, the tests found the hammer to have unusual metallurgy—96.6 percent iron, 2.6 percent chlorine, 0.74 percent sulfur, and no carbon.
Carbon is usually what strengthens brittle iron, so it is strange that carbon is absent. Chlorine is not usually found in iron. The iron shows a high degree of craftsmanship without bubbles in the metal. Furthermore, it is said to be coated in an iron oxide that would not readily form under natural conditions and which prevents rust.
Examples from the 15th century A.D. of  brain surgery in the Inca culture. (Thomas Quine/Wikimedia Commons)Northern India, a surgeon named Sushruta, who lived between 600 to 1000 B.C., was developing and practicing plastic surgery and may have been the first plastic surgeon. He had many students who were required to study six years before practicing. Before the medical training would begin, Sushruta would make the student take a solemn oath, similar to the Hippocratic Oath developed by Hippocrates some time later. During training, the students would practice on watermelons, gourds, and cucumbers, according to the article “Sushruta: The first Plastic Surgeon in 600 B.C.” in the Internet Journal of Plastic Surgery.
The doctor or doctors who performed the original trepanations performed the surgery in an area of the skull that minimized damage to the brain and assured longer survival.

Ancient Computer: Antikythera Mechanism Made in 150 BC found in Egypt-
 The size of a modern laptop, the Antikythera Mechanism was made by the ancient Greeks, though it was found on a Roman ship. It could calculate astronomical changes with precision.

Antikythera Mechanism
A diagram of the gears inside the Antikythera Mechanism. (Wikimedia Commons
Antikythera Mechanism
The Antikythera Mechanism is a 2000-year-old mechanical device used to calculate the positions of the sun, moon, planets, and even the dates of the ancient Olympic Games. (Wikimedia Commons)

Petralona SkullIn 1959, in an area called Chalkidiki in Petralona, Northern Greece, a shepherd came across a small opening to a cave.The ‘Petralona man’, or Archanthropus of Petralona, as it has since been called, was found to be 700,000 years old, making it the oldest human europeoid (presenting European traits) of that age ever discovered in Europe beating AFRICAN ORIGIN.Research published in the US in 1971 in the prestigious Archaeology magazine, backed up the findings that the skull was indeed 700,000 years old. This was based on an analysis of the cave’s stratigraphy and the sediment in which the skull was embedded within. Further research in the cave discovered isolated teeth and two pre-human skeletons dating back 800,000 years, as well as other fossils of various species.
 Read the original

. Petralona Man

 500,000-Year-Old Engraving Found- An engraving on a piece of ochre by Homo sapiens (modern man) was previously the oldest, dating from about 100,000 years ago. Two dating methods placed the simple zig-zag engravings on the shell between 540,000 to 430,000 years of age.
The shell came from an excavation site on the Indonesian island of Java and it was part of a collection at the Naturalis Biodiversity Center in Leiden for more than a hundred years before the engraving was noticed. Researchers working with the shells were studying the clever way Homo erectus used a sharp tool, possibly a shark’s tooth, to pinpoint a part of the mussel that would cause the shell to open if pressed.

2.8-Billion-Year-Old Spheres Found in South Africa?
According to Michael Cremo and other researchers of prehistoric culture, these spheres add to a body of evidence suggesting intelligent life existed on Earth long before a conventional view of history places it here.
Cremo has traveled the world gathering information on out-of-place artefacts (ooparts); he compiled his findings in the popular book, “Forbidden Archaeology: The Hidden History of the Human Race.”
There is controversy if it is nature made or man made.

15,000-Year-Old Houses Found in Africa Show Advanced Skills of Prehistoric Society-

Polish archaeologists have uncovered remnants of 15,000-year-old sturdy and permanent structures in Sudan, Africa. They show a much more settled and advanced stage of human behavior than previously thought for the time.

These houses were made during the Late Palaeolithic era.It’s the first evidence that Homo sapiens of the time “built sizable houses, planned distribution of a camp party with different functions, [and] adapted well to the wetland environment,” in the Nile Valley, according to Polish science publication PAP.
STURGEON: 200 million years old  
Many prehistoric animlas still lives along with humans-
MARTIALIS HEUREKA ANT: 120 million years old-in the Amazon forest.

GOBLIN SHARK: 125 million years old-

FRILLED SHARK: 150 million years old-

                                           TUATARA: 200 million years old



JELLYFISH: 505 million years old
SPONGE: 760 million years old  

HORSESHOE CRAB: 445 million years old   
Scientist does not know how evolution works?-
Dr. Tour was confirmed as one of the 10 most-cited scientists in the world in 2010. His work on nanotechnology is world-renowned. He is a chemistry professor at Rice University, he received his Ph.D. in organic chemistry at Purdue University and was a post-doctoral Fellow at Stanford University.Scientist do not really know how evolution works.

SOURCE- Modified from epochtimes.Visit the Epoch Times Beyond Science page on Facebook, and subscribe to the Beyond Science newsletter to continue exploring ancient mysteries and the new frontiers of science!

NAUTILUS: 500 million years old
icas engraved stones -a prehistoric-library
controversial claim -geologist mysterious tracks-in turkey-millions of years ago

Monday, April 14, 2014

Mystery of the missing 1000 yr old Gods in INDIA - Traced to USA and Australian National Gallery Of Art

Mystery of the missing Gods: 1,000-year-old guardian of the Brihadeeswara temple, Shiva Nataraja
Palaniswamy, whose family guarded Brihadeeswara Temple in Sripuranthan for centuries, lights a lampatan empty spot now
 Sripuranthan, 300 km off Chennai, The altar is stripped bare, like a frame without a picture: It's a temple without a god. The 1,000-year-old guardian of the temple, Shiva Nataraja, is missing from his abode-Where did it go- details here-
The Lord of Cosmic Dance has travelled 9,000 km to the National Gallery of Art (NGA) in Canberra, Australia. How did he get there? Ask Subhash Kapoor, 65, a New Delhi-born and New York-based antiquity dealer, considered an art connoisseur as well as one of the biggest idol smugglers in the world. He sold the Nataraja to NGA for Rs.31 crore in 2008. Ask the men of the Idol Wing, the antiquity theft squad of Tamil Nadu Police's Economic Offences Wing (EOW.) They will tell you how the master art thief worked a network of lowlife criminals to loot timeless treasures and sell them to the highest bidder. Ask the Homeland Security Investigations (HIS) of America. They accuse Kapoor of stealing over 150 idols worth $100 million from India. The missing god is at the centre of a curious trial that has just started in a district court in Tamil Nadu. SO THIS IS BOUGHT ILLEGALLY BY USA GOVT AND AUSTRALION GOVT OR PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS,KNOWING IT IS STOLEN FROM INDIA. Criminlas act,but INDIA is so busy in its own downfall,it has not time but to still devide and get ruled by same people who tends to divide it again in name of AAP,CONGRESS. By the way Soniya Gandhi's sistet was also doing same trade of IDOL BUSINESS.
It's the old story of human greed and relentless pursuit of profit. But it's new in its span, complexity and daring. It blends two vastly different worlds, art and police intelligence, spanning across continents: India, Thailand, US, UK and Australia. "Art and antiquity theft is one of the most lucrative crimes," says IPS officer Prateep V. Philip, currently additional director general, EOW, in Chennai. "It outbids drug trafficking, arms dealing, and money laundering." Hence the odds of recovering stolen treasures are abysmal, one in ten. But in this case, the Idol Wing has managed to trace eight of the 28 idols stolen from Sripuranthan and the nearby village of Suthamalli, to various museums and galleries across the world. The case promises to be one of the most significant courtroom tests on how to track art and antiquity crimes in an increasingly networked world. But ultimately it's a searing morality tale, where arrogance, pride and hubris lead to individual downfall.

Kapoor possibly learnt his trade from his father. Parshotam Ram Kapoor, who had a gallery in Delhi which allegedly trafficked in stolen antiquities sourced from temple thieves of India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. "Kapoor, too, has contacts spanning across India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Dubai, Cambodia and Bangkok," says Philip. Kapoor and his family earned a reputation as respectable and enlightened art collectors in the US. "But that was a front," says Philip. Kapoor roamed the London and Frankfurt book fairs, bought books, did his research and then travelled to countries rich with objets d'art, set up middlemen who could procure those and used a wide network of collectors, museum curators and dealers to ship and sell his ill-gotten art with fake idols.
He spent more than 30 years in the tony ZIP codes of Manhattan, New York. With his flourishing private museum, Art of the Past, Kapoor hobnobbed with the well-heeled and well-funded, was the person to drop in on for anything to do with Indian art and was ever-present at major art dos across the world. He also ran a fine-art storage business, Sofia Storage, and a lucrative import-export business of antiquities, Nimbus Import Inc, in New York.

According to A.G. Pon Manickavel, deputy inspector general and in-charge of the Idol Wing, Kapoor stayed at the five-star Taj Connemara hotel every time he visited Chennai and met local art dealers. The network of local temple thieves was lured with the promise of big money. By his own confession to the police (later retracted), he had paid $700,000 through his HSBC Bank account for the 28 idols-nothing compared to what he earned for them, but big enough to lure the thugs. "The client is a big man. Stick with us and you will get so rich that you won't have to work ever," one of the seven local thugs, Marisamy, was told after he handed over 10 idols and received Rs.25 lakh
The map
The loot

It happened one night
They came in the dead of night. Seven men in a lorry-sometimes together, sometimes in batches. They had come before to do a recce. And they had no fear of god, they had stolen enough temple treasures. All that mattered was money and they had been promised a lot by a Keralite art dealer Sanjeevi Asokan of Chennai, who they trusted and who knew old temples in and around Tamil Nadu like the back of his hand. He was looking for antique metal idols of the Chola era for a big client and had discovered that the Sripuranthan and Suthamalli temples were crumbling, locked and unused.
According to the confession reports of two of the temple thieves, Rathinam and Pitchaimani, one night in January 2006, they parked a lorry on one side of the wide bed of a dried-up lake near the Nataraja temple, far from the village. They just pulled at the temple's lock and it came unstuck. They removed three of the eight idols inside, glued the lock back together with adhesive and left. Asokan collected those, purchased new, cheap statues that looked similar and mingled the lot together. He bribed some customs officials and obtained an export certificate for what he claimed was a handicraft collection. This was then shipped from Chennai harbour via Hong Kong and London to Kapoor in New York.
All was well until June 2008, when officers from the Tamil Nadu Hindu Religious and Charitable Endowments (HR&CE) Department turned up in Sripuranthan, suggesting that the idols be taken away for safe storage. Unwilling to hand over their gods, the panchayat promised to secure the Lord Nataraja with a collapsible iron gate. In August, as a crowd gathered for gate installation, the lock was found to be broken and precious idols missing. The story of looting 18 idols from Suthamalli in February 2008 is exactly the same. By the time the theft came to light two months later, when a visiting priest opened its doors, the idols had already reached Hongkong.
Six of the 28 gods have already been identified in museums and private collections across the world: Canberra, New South Wales, Chicago, Ohio to Singapore. The Australian government has ordered NGA to remove the Nataraja from display. EOW has started a census of the 45,000 temples of the state. But with the trial on course, the villagers are desperate to claim their god back. They are raising money to repair the temple. "When are you bringing him back?" asks a woman casually as she strolls by, dragging a goat on a string. But will Nataraja want to return to a nation that allows cobwebs to settle in temples? The outcome of the case will tell if his wrath has been appeased for now.


Tuesday, March 25, 2014

Wonders of Ancient India #DECODING #HINDUISM

Wonders of Ancient India
Yogis and traditional households in India have for thousands of years (and are till today) been utilizing a simple, practical and effective method of drinking water in its most holistic way - drinking water from a copper cup or a large copper vessel where water is stored.

Yogis have revered copper as an ideal container to positively charge water before drinking it. For thousands of years, the yogis would carry water in their copper pot called 'kamandalam'. In traditional households in India, copper drinking cups are still used.

In Ayurveda, Copper is being used mostly in bhasma (ashes) form. Tamra bhasma (copper ash) is used in treating various disorders like fever, skin disorders and based on its antipyretic, anti parasitic and anti-leprotic properties.

Ayurvedic practitioners believe that drinking water purified by keeping it over night in a copper vessel will help prevent arteriosclerosis. Other benefits of copper according to ayurveda are:

 Drinking water from copper cups prevents ageing, called vaya-sthapak.

Copper can destroy undesirable virus and bacteria. When copper dissolves in water, water becomes ionic (electrolyte) as can be ascertained by its pH measurement. That is the reason the micro-organisms get killed in such water. This is called the Oligodynamic effect, as proven by research.

 Water is energized. Taste the water from a copper cup to experience the energized quality of water! It is said to be "blessed". When water is 'blessed', its crystalline structure is changed. When water is blessed, the water has super healing properties.

How to use it: Pour water in the copper cup and leave overnight or for a while. Then, drink in the morning. Or use your copper cup to drink water from at all times.  

In 1894 the Indian astronomer, Sri Yukteswar, wrote that the cause of the moving equinox (precession) was the result of our sun’s orbit around another star, estimating the orbit period at 24,000 years.

This is, of course, is the same concept as Plato's Great Year, as well as the Maya Long Count calendar. The cross, as well as its cardinal points, are of great importance in astrology (astro-theology), the essence behind the ancient "Swastika" and misunderstood in most of today's religions. - Robert Sepehr
Wonderful ancient engineering at Vapiyaka caves finds no parallel even to this date!!

Shining interior with sharp edges, of the ~2300 years old
Vapiyaka caves carved entirely out of granite at Barabar twin Hills, Zehanabad (Bihar) Amazing ancient engineering!

How they made it possible to cut granite rock and finishing surface to a astonishing degree and that too ~2300 years ago?

This is one among the exemplaries of ancient engineering. They cut the rock like butter using so called primitive tools and made its surface reflective like glass.

The name "Vapiyaka" is derived from sanskrit word "Vapi (meaning well)" which means cave of well.
From Hindu council.

Wednesday, January 29, 2014

Fifteen Indian Inventions and Discoveries That Shaped the Modern World

15 Indian-Inventions that changed world--

Per Huffington Post that changed and basically gave a base for all world to thrive and what she got- is what every mother get- TERRORISM,LOOT,PARTITION,MISUSE OF INDIAN PHILOSOPHY AND MANY CONVERSION BY MURDERERS OF ISLAMIST AND CHRISTIANS. SO barbaric and it is still going on. On name  of religion,wrong religion,INDIA has been and still being prayed upon its being itself. India needs to rise up and tell the world that it could teach a lesson also to shut every religion up.
According to the celebrated American author of The Story of Civilization, Will Durant, "It is true that even across the Himalayan barrier, India has sent to the West such gifts as grammar and logic, philosophy and fables, hypnotism and chess, and above all numerals and the decimal system.
India was the mother of our race and Sanskrit the mother of Europe's languages. She was the mother of our philosophy, mother through the Arabs, of much of our mathematics, mother through Buddha, of the ideals embodied in Christianity, mother through village communities of self-government and democracy. Mother India is in many ways the mother of us all."
Despite India's extraordinary civilisational achievements being well documented by respected Western scholars, accurate knowledge of the country's history has seldom entered the public domain, most especially in Britain.
India was the mother of our race and Sanskrit the mother of Europe's languages. She was the mother of our philosophy, mother through the Arabs, of much of our mathematics, mother through Buddha, of the ideals embodied in Christianity, mother through village communities of self-government and democracy. Mother India is in many ways the mother of us all."
Despite India's extraordinary civilisational achievements being well documented by respected Western scholars, accurate knowledge of the country's history has seldom entered the public domain, most especially in Britain.
As India prepares to celebrate its 67th Independence Day next month, this blog post, the first in a new series about an India that many of us know little about, lists the first four of fifteen ground-breaking contributions that India has made to the lives that all of us lead today in Britain, and around the world.
"..India has sent to the West such gifts as grammar and logic, philosophy and fables, hypnotism and chess, and above all numerals and the decimal system. She was the mother of our philosophy..of much of our mathematics..of the ideals embodied in Christianity..of self-government and democracy. Mother India is in many ways the mother of us all." Will Durant.
1. The Indian/Hindu Numeral System: Few people are aware that the numbers that we all use today are an Indian invention. Often referred to as Arabic numerals, after the Arab traders who brought Indian mathematical concepts to the West, this path-breaking Indian invention replaced the cumbersome Roman numeral system in use in the West until then, and stands as one of the greatest human inventions of all time.
"We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made." Albert Einstein.
The ingenious Indian system succeeded where the efforts of other great civilisations failed, and today underpins the foundation of modern mathematics and its infinite uses in our day-to-day lives.
Beyond the numeral system itself, a number of other critical mathematical principles also have their routes in India, whose scientific texts and discoveries were regularly studied by foreign scholars, from Greek philosophers to Arab mathematicians, and from British inventors to Nazi and Cold War era rocket and nuclear scientists.
"Nearly all the philosophical and mathematical doctrines attributed to Pythagoras are derived from India." Ludwig von Shroeder
2. Carburised Steel: Ancient Indians were known pioneers in metallurgy, and had mastered the production of high quality steel more than two thousand years before the process was finally demystified (including through the scientific investigations of Michael Faraday) in Britain and Europe. The legendary Indian Wootz Steel was a source of astonishment to other great civilisations from Ancient Greece to Persia, and from Arabia to Ancient Rome. It was so advanced and prized that it was selected by King Porus as a gift over the gold and silver also offered to him by Alexander the Great.
The ancient Indian technique of making high quality steel today forms the basis of modern steel production for everything from the vehicles we travel in, to the cutlery we eat with. Barely seven decades after independence, India has again become a world leader in metallurgy and high quality steel production.
3. Contributions to Western Philosophy: Historians are well aware that the Ancient Greeks and Romans were infatuated with India, just as our forefathers in Britain were during the early modern era. As much as the Ancient Greeks marvelled over Indian technology, town planning and state craft, they also actively sought new ideas and thoughts from India's Vedic scriptures and philosophers, as well as by learning at ancient Indian universities such as Taxila and Nalanda.
Many scholars have pointed to significant Indian contributions to Ancient Greek philosophy, often portrayed as the foundation of human - and certainly Western - philosophy. In a thorough recent analysis in The Shape of Ancient Thought, American scholar Thomas McEvilley also details how Indian philosophy directly influenced key facets of pre-Socratic Greek philosophy.
"Is it not probable that the Brahmins were the first legislators of the earth, the first philosophers, the first theologians ? The Greeks, before the time of Pythagoras, travelled into India for instruction." Voltaire.
4. Clothing the world: Another revolutionary Indian contribution was the development, production and use of cotton textiles for clothing. The Ancient Greeks were initially not even familiar with cotton, instead often wearing animal skins until the wars of Alexander the Great, during which they discovered and started using Indian garments, which essentially clothe all of us today.
"Hundreds of years before the Christian era, cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, and their use spread to the Mediterranean countries." The Columbia Encyclopaedia
For us in Britain, it is important to be aware that one of the pillars of our wealth as a modern nation, and a foundation of our industrial revolution, was directly derived from knowledge and experience of high quality textiles production and trade gained in India, as well as what many economic historians argue was the deliberate dismantling of India's pioneering textiles industry. In his book The Political Economy of Imperialism, Dan Nadudere states that "It was by destroying the Indian textile industry that the British textile industry ever came up at all."
In next week's article, I will highlight five further remarkable but mostly unknown Indian discoveries that are central to our daily lives. For a broader understanding of an India that few of us are aware of, I would recommend watching the brilliant British historian Michael Wood's The Story of India, previously broadcast by the BBC in our country, and via PBS in the United States.
"If I were asked under what sky the human mind has most fully developed some of its choicest gifts, has most deeply pondered on the greatest problems of life, and has found solutions, I should point to India." Max Mueller
 5. Ancient Democracy: The ancient republic of Athens has long been considered the oldest non-tribal, organised democracy in the world. During the modern era, racially motivated European 'historians' distorted or simply re-wrote significant Indian and colonial historical achievements, from pettily changing the date of the life and death of the revered Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, to make it appear as if he lived after Pericles and Socrates, to omitting known references to the existence of ancient Indian republics, known as Gana-Sangha (equal assembly), or Gana-Rajya (equal government).
In the same vein, the history of the ancient Indian republic of Vaishali, which dates back to 600 BCE - almost a century before the institution of Athenian republican democracy - was also 'adjusted' to support colonial propaganda of the day. Ironically, Ancient Greece itself demonstrated significant respect and attraction towards India and its achievements, but the legacy of modern-era colonial propaganda in this and many other facets of our collective history, remain with us to this day.
"Through such chronological manipulations, the threat that the Indian past presents to the Greek miracle [as postulated by European supremacists] is defused by chronology."Thomas McEvilley.
Another completely distinct and more widely known ancient form of Indian democracy is the localised 'panchayat' system, which literally means an 'assembly of five' wise and respected elders. Unlike ancient Indian city and state-level republics, panchayats started as a form of localised grassroots democracy more than three thousand years ago, have survived the rise and fall of repeated conquests and empires, and are still a central feature of India's modern democratic apparatus.
"India was the mother of..village communities of self-government and democracy."Will Durant.
6. Water on the Moon: One of Independent India's most notable contributions to modern space exploration occurred between 2008 and 2009, with Chandrayaan-1, the Indian Space Research Organisation's (ISRO) first dedicated lunar mission.
ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) carried both ISRO and NASA instruments, of which the Indian 'Moon Impact Probe' first detected the presence of lunar water. This was achieved three months before NASA's 'Moon Mineralogy Mapper' (also part of Chandrayaan-1) made the same breakthrough, to which the discovery of lunar water is often attributed.
"We want to thank ISRO for making the discovery possible. The moon till now was thought to be a very dry surface with lot of rocks." Jim Green, NASA Director.
7. Einstein's Quantum Statistics: The scientifically advanced Germans have long been considered to be some of the world's most ardent Indologists.
"It [The Upanishads] is the most satisfying and elevating reading which is possible in the world; it has been the solace of my life and will be the solace of my death." Arthur Schopenhauer.
Prominent German genii from Albert Einstein to the Nazi scientists and inventors who later migrated to the United States or USSR, were eager students of Indian texts such as the remarkably advanced Upanishads. Such texts were often referenced during the 20th Century race to create nuclear technology, space rockets, jet engines and even mind control technologies, all of which are examined in India's ancient texts.
"India - the land of Vedas, the remarkable works contain not only religious ideas for a perfect life, but also facts which science has proved true. Electricity, radium, electronics, airship, all were known to the seers who founded the Vedas." Wheeler Wilcox.
Like many Indian inventors before him, the 20th Century Bengali scientist Satyendra Nath Bose is one of modern science's unheralded heroes. His work provided the foundations for quantum statistics, which were later endorsed, developed and published by Einstein; the 2001 Nobel Prize for physics was awarded to German and US scientists for their study of condensates, which was in fact first conducted by - and even named after - Bose; the widely covered 'God Particle', the Higgs-Boson, is deservedly known to be attributed to Peter Higgs, the British genius behind the Higgs particle. The other, less well known half of the Higgs-Boson is named yet again after Bose, for his ground-breaking contributions to particle physics.
"Gravitation was known to the Indians before the birth of Newton. The system of blood circulation was discovered by them centuries before Harvey was heard of." P. Johnstone.
8. Radio/Wireless Communication: Guglielmo Marconi has for long been credited as the inventor of wireless radio communication. He subsequently received the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics for contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy.
The first public demonstration of the use of radio waves for communication, however, was made by an Indian scientist, Jagadish Chandra Bose. Bose first demonstrated the use of radio in Calcutta, in 1895, two years before a similar demonstration by Marconi in England. More than a century after the feat, Bose has been belatedly credited for his achievement.
Bose's revolutionary demonstration forms the foundation of the technology used in mobile telephony, radars, satellite communication, radios, television broadcast, WiFi, remote controls and countless other applications that play a central role in our daily lives.
"The inventor (J.C. Bose) has transmitted signals to a distance of nearly a mile and herein lies the first and obvious and exceedingly valuable application of this new theoretical marvel." The Daily Chronicle, England, 1896.
9. The 'Zero' (0): Little needs to be written about the 'zero', one of the most important inventions of all time. This mathematical digit and concept also has a direct link to the ancient philosophy of 'nothingness', and is one of many examples of the intermeshing of science and mathematics with spirituality and philosophy in ancient India.
'In the whole history of mathematics, there has been no more revolutionary step than the one which India made when they invented zero." Lancelot Hogben.
Other critical branches of mathematics such as Calculus, attributed to Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz, were developed to an almost identical formula by Indian mathematicians, hundreds of years before Newton & Leibniz's findings. Similarly, the Pythagorean-theorem had been developed in India a century before an almost identical revelation in Greece.
"The study of mathematics in the West has long been characterized by a certain ethnocentric bias, a bias which most often manifests not in explicit racism, but in a tendency toward undermining or eliding the real contributions made by non-Western civilizations. The debt owed by the West to other civilizations, and to India in particular, go back to the earliest epoch of the "Western" scientific tradition, the age of the classical Greeks, and continued up until the dawn of the modern era, the renaissance, when Europe was awakening from its dark ages..
Due to the legacy of colonialism, the exploitation of which was ideologically justified through a doctrine of racial superiority, the contributions of non-European civilizations were often ignored, or, as George Ghevarughese Joseph argued, even distorted, in that they were often misattributed as European." Dr. David Gray.
10. Complex Hydraulic Engineering: Since the time of the Indus Valley civilisation over 5,000 years ago, and until the onset of the European colonial era in the recent past, India had created and sustained a vast and highly advanced network of canals, along with intricate irrigation, water management and sewage systems. These sewage systems were so advanced that they were designed to automatically self-clear systems blockages, as well as account for smell and odour. The world's first flush toilets were also in use in India over 3,000 years ago, and were a feature of most homes in the Indus Valley Civilisation - the largest ancient civilisation in the world.
According to American author of historical revisionism, David Hatcher Childress, ancient India's plumbing-sewage systems were so sophisticated that they are still superior to those of many developing countries today. Large public baths were also in existence in the Indus Valley Civilisation, thousands of years before the creation of similar Roman baths.
A wonder to modern-day researchers, the cities [were] highly developed and advanced. A remarkable early example of city planning. David Hatcher Childress.
A system of canals similar to those created by Isambard Kingdom Brunel in the 19th Century - although infinitely larger and more complex - existed in India for thousands of years, and was the lifeblood of what was, for the majority of recorded human history until the colonial era, the world's largest economy.
Edmund Burke, a prominent British supporter of American revolutionaries and the philosophical father of the modern Conservative party, repeatedly condemned the damage that British dominion had done to India, and specifically pointed to the callous ruination of painstakingly built Indian reservoir systems which had succeeded for thousands of years in keeping dry regions fertile, and India's people self sufficient, nourished, and prosperous.
"In the happier times of India, a number almost incredible of reservoirs have been made in chosen places throughout the whole country. There cannot be in the Carnatic and Tanjore [alone] fewer than ten thousand of these reservoirs of the larger and middling dimensions." Edmund Burke.

11. Medicine: From an advanced understanding of the human nervous system, muscles and organs, to the use of vaccination techniques; from an almost infinite collection ofnaturally sourced drugs to the employment of holistic preventative medicine; and from a focus on fortifying immunity to mastery of the concepts of digestion and metabolism, ancient Indians have shaped the very foundations of modern medicine and healthcare.
"Indian medicine dealt with the whole area of the science. Much attention was devoted to hygiene, to the regimen of the body, and to diet.
Arabic medicine was founded on the translations from the Sanskrit treatise, made by command of the Kaliphs of Baghdad, 750-960 AD. European medicine, down to the 17th Century, was based upon the Arabic; and the name of the Indian physician Charaka repeatedly occurs in the Latin translations." Sir William Hunter, British Historian.
Contrary to popular misconceptions, many of the herbs and spices used in Indian cuisine were not merely added to preserve or flavour food, but instead to effortless combine preventative medicine with everyday sustenance. According to the timeless Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda, it is actually considered irresponsible and representative of a poor lifestyle to even have to resort to medicine, with preventative natural medicine, i.e. herbs and spices, ingested through daily meals being the preferred option. More than 2,000 years ago, the principal contributor to Ayurveda articulated:
"It is more important to prevent the occurrence of disease than to seek a cure."Acharya Charaka, the 'Father of Medicine'.
12. Surgery: The concepts, operative methodologies and specialised tools of surgery that were used in India more than 2,000 years ago and first postulated during an even earlier Vedic period, and are still being developed in 21st Century Europe.

From plastic surgery that is similar in technique and approach to its modern manifestations, to highly developed midwifery, and from usage of anaesthesia to the employment of advanced childcare techniques, these much studied ancient Indian skills again form the foundation of much of our modern knowledge of surgery.
Under the Buddhist Emperor Asoka, ancient India also built a vast network of animal hospitals in which specialised veterinary surgery was also common.
"The surgery of the ancient Indian physicians was bold and skilful. A special branch of surgery was dedicated to rhinoplasty or operations for improving deformed ears, noses and forming new ones, which European surgeons have borrowed." Sir William Hunter.
13. Religious Tolerance: Whilst Buddhism has historically sought to seek converts through peaceful persuasion, and whilst Indian religions do accept conversions to their faith, none of India's indigenous faiths have a history of forceful conversions, and are instead identified by their pluralistic nature.
"It is an undoubted fact that in India, religions and philosophical thinkers were able to enjoy perfect, nearly absolute freedom for a long period. The freedom of thought in ancient India was so considerable as to find no parallel in the West before the most recent age." Max Weber, German Sociologist.
Ironically, Hinduism and Buddhism have still succeeded spectacularly in spreading their message from India to vast swathes of the Far East, Indonesia to Japan, and from Thailand to China.
"India conquered and dominated China culturally for 20 centuries without ever having to send a single soldier across her border". Hu Shih, Philosopher & Former Chinese Ambassador to the United States.
This non-proselytising disposition is central to the broader religious tolerance that defines Indian culture, as well as the avowedly secular character of modern India (in India, 'secular' means tolerant of all religions, as opposed to the European definition of non-religious). The current Prime Minister of a predominantly Hindu nation of 1.2 billion people, for instance, is from the minority Sikh community, which forms only 2% of the population; India's Chief of the Air Staff is a Christian (2.3%); the three most prominent film stars in India's iconic film industry - and the revered recent President of India, Professor A.P.J. Abdul Kalam - are all Muslims (14.6%); one of the world's most prominent businessmen, Rata Tata, is an Indian Parsi (0.006%).
Historically, India has also been a long-standing refuge for persecuted minorities, with Zoroastrian Iranians (referred to as Parsis) and Jewish communities in particular having fled other parts of the world to make India a home when other major powers pursued systematic campaigns of discrimination and anti-Semitism, if not outright persecution, against them.
"The Bene Israel flourished for 2,400 years in a tolerant land that has never known anti-Semitism, and were successful in all aspects of the socio-economic and cultural life of the people of the region." Avotaynu (the Jewish genealogical magazine).
14. Nonviolence: More a civilisational contribution than a 'discovery', the active promotion of kindness and strict nonviolence as a rudiment of life spans the entirety of India's known history, from the ancient concepts of 'Ahimsa', to Mahatma Gandhi's policy of 'Satyagraha' (insistence on truth). It forms a core of the Hindu, Jain, Buddhist and Sikh traditions, encompasses words as well as physical actions, and extends beyond humans to animals and the environment.
Unlike most great powers, past and present, India is unique in its long-standing history ofnot having precipitated military invasions of foreign territories. This is in spite of India having been the world's most pre-eminent economic power for the majority of recorded human history.
"India will teach us the tolerance and gentleness of mature mind, understanding spirit and a unifying, pacifying love for all human beings." Will Durant, American Historian.
15. Gender Equality: Another civilisational contribution, India, by the deplorably low standards of mankind, and of men in particular, yet again set early standards for humanity in the advancement of the rights of women.
Gender equality was a cornerstone of ancient Hindu texts and life, with women possessing joint ownership of property rights with men, and, inconceivably for the time, being allowed to divorce. The ancient institution of 'Swayamvara' was a practice whereby a potential bride chose a husband from a congregation of suitors whose aim was to win her over. 'Swayam' in Sanskrit means self and 'vara' means choice or desire.
The ancient Kama Sutra is a highly evolved (even by today's standards) guide to harmonious relationships, family life, love, intimacy and gracious co-existence. Contrary to popular Western perceptions of the text being a 'sex manual', the Kama Sutra also postulates physical, spiritual and mental equality between both sexes, and is derived from one of the core pillars of Hindu philosophy, 'kama', which means enjoyment or passion. It was written during the era of barbarian invasions in Europe, and approximately 1,500 years before similar wisdom became freely acceptable in modern Britain.
My own faith, Sikhism, insists that any person irrespective of age or gender can lead prayer, community activity or even an entire army based on merit alone. Consequently, Guru Harkrishan became the eighth Guru of Sikhism as a five year old child, and many young girls and boys have been known to conduct prayers at Sikh temples.
A number of matriarchal communities, in which descent and inheritance is traced through maternal lineage, have existed in India for thousands of years. Matrilineal communities in modern India include the Nair, Bunt and Khasi communities. Khasi women are still known to marry multiple husbands, which has resulted in a male rights movement amongst Khasi men.
Threats to the relatively advanced rights of women in India initially came during the later Vedic age via texts such as the Smritis, which encouraged misogyny. They were further embedded through the imposition of seclusive policies such as the 'pardah' (veil) imposed by the Moghuls, and were additionally entrenched by the imposition of Victorian value systems and policies during colonial rule, which led to a rapid and marked decline in the status of Indian women in the modern era. I have often stated that the re-emergence of 21st Century India will not and cannot be complete by virtue of economic success or scientific prowess alone, but instead through the re-assertion of the primacy of women throughout Indian society, as per the best traditions of a much stifled indigenous culture.
"India of the Vedas entertained a respect for women amounting to worship. Here is a civilization, which places the woman on a level with the man and gives her an equal place in the family and in society." Louis Jaccoliot, French Author.'
This article is from Huffington post by Abhey Singh.