Showing posts with label BIBLE. Show all posts
Showing posts with label BIBLE. Show all posts

Saturday, April 2, 2016

History of Phoenician- Ancient Indian descent and ancestors of current Europe

Did you know?

  • Western/Latin and other alphabets come from the Phoenician alphabet?
  • Beritus or Berytus (modern Beirut, Lebanon) had a very important School of Law in the Roman Empire?
  • The Bible is called thus because it refers to the Phoenician city of Byblos (“marketplace of papyrus or byblinos” in Greek?
    • Despite the fact that the Romans destroyed Punic Carthage in about 150 B.C., in 193 A.D. the Punic Septimius Severus became Emperor of Rome and one third the Roman Senate was made of Punic people.
    • King Solomon’s great Temple was built in the style of Tyre’s Melqart Temple by Phoenician artisans using the Cedars of Lebanon?
    • The Egyptian Pharoahs employed Phoenician cedar for their wood needs?
    • King Solomon, in his old age, became a worshipper of the Phoenician goddess Ashtarte?
    • Melchizedek, the King of Salem (King of Jerusalem) and Priest of the Most High God (El Elion), who offered bread and wine to Abraham, was Phoenician? [PP: Well,some say it was Shemhimself who founded Jerusalem & lived 600 years!]
    • The Pentateuch (Moses’ first five books, if not more, of the the Old Testament Bible, the Torah) was/were written down (transliterated) in Phoenician script?
    • Jesus Christ visited Phoenicia and among the first to believe in him was a Phoenician woman?
    • The bishops of all Phoenician cities were consecrated as bishops by the Apostles or their immediate successors?
    • Tyre, Sidon and other Phoenician
    •  Christian cities and towns provided rest-stops and shelters for the Apostles on their way to convert the world?
    • St. Jerome referred to Tyre as the place where St. Paul once knelt; and called Zarephath, Elijah’s town?
    • Phoenicians circumnavigated Africa?
    • Phoenicians were the first to use the Pole Star for navigation?
    • Phoenicians were able traders throughout the Mediterranean?
    • Phoenicians colonized the far corners of the Mediterranean from the Island of Cyprus in the East to Spain and Gibraltar including the outer Atlantic coast and North Africa in the West?
    • Britain was the Phoenicians’ secret treasure of tin where the name “Britain” may be coming from Barr (land) of Tannic (Tin)? Hence Britannia did not come from Prutani, the name applied to the Celts by the Romans, and some claim that the Celts were Phoenicians.
    • The Phoenicians reached North America BC and Punic inscriptions in Massachusetts and Iowa confirm this fact?
      • In the Iliad and the Odyssey, Homer mentions Phoenicia, Phoenicians and Phoenician cities.
      • The Phoenician possessed the science or art of dentistry as evident by the fine braces on a lower jaw of a scull?
      • The Phoenician language is still spoken today in Malta (orMaltese is a mixture of Phoenician/Punic and other Mediterranean languages) ?
      • To beef up their naval powers, conquerors employed the Phoenicians in building warship-fleets
        • The Phoenicians raised elephants on farms?
        • The first parliament ever to convene in the Middle East met in the Phoenician confederate city of Tripoli?
        • Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (193 – 211 AD) descended from early Phoenician settlers and spoke with a Phoenician accent?
        • Pythagoras was Phoenician and was initiated into the ‘Ancient Mysteries’ of the Phoenicians c. 548 B.C. and studied for about 3 years in the temples of Tyre, Sidon, and Byblos and that his father was a Phoenician merchant from Tyre?
        • Archimedes c.287 B.C.-212 B.C., Greek mathematician, physicist, and inventor, died during the Roman assault on Syracuse while designing a catapult and the Carthaginians fought on his side to defend the city.
        • Thales of Miletus (who was half Phoenician), one of the first great scientists, is said to have forecast the solar eclipse of the year 585 BC.
        • Zeno of Citium was a glowing star in the pre-Socratic age but was ridiculed in Athens for his Phoenician appearance.
        • Popes Anicetus (155 – 166 AD), John V (685-686 AD), Sergius I (687-701 AD) and Gregory III (741-752 AD) and Constantius were Phoenicians?
        • Aristotle held up the constitution of Carthage as a model.
        • Hasdrubal-Clitomachus added to Arcesilas a critical interpretation of certitude which makes him a forerunner of modern thought.
        • St. Augustine was Phoenician. He wrote “…there was a great deal of virtue and wisdom in the Punic books”.
        • St. Jerome believed Punic erotic poetry to be pernicious and described it as “lewd”.
        • Many parts of the Old Testament were plagiarized from Phoenician literature, poetry, and religion, similar to plagiarizing of the Book of Job (for example ) from Babylonian tales?
        • Phoenician sacrifice of children to the gods was copied/practiced by many Semites such as Abraham’s attempt to sacrifice his son?
        • The Phoenicians had a rough knowledge about pi (3.1416) at the time of Hiram and the building of Solomon’s Temple?
        • St. Frumentius, Phoenician from Tyre, converted Ethiopia to Christianity?
        • Mochus, a Sidonian, wrote a work on the atomic theory.

        Missionaries of Civilization

        The Phoenicians were instrumental in disseminating their form of writing which became our modern alphabet and in opening up various civilizations and cultures of the Mediterranean basin to each other. Both sciences and pseudosciences spread from Egypt and Mesopotamia to Phoenicia and Anatolia. The Phoenicians, in particular, transmitted much of this knowledge to the various lands of the Mediterranean, especially to the Greeks. The direction taken by these influences can be followed from Egypt to Phoenicia, Syria and Cyprus. The evidence comes thanks to a combination of excavated art forms that prove the direction of movement, as well as to Greek tradition. The latter lays great stress on what the early Greek philosophers learned from Egypt. Mesopotamian influence can be traced especially through the partial borrowing of Babylonian science and divination by the Hittites and later by the transmission of information through Phoenicia. The Egyptians and Mesopotamians wrote no theoretical treatises; information had to be transmitted piecemeal through personal contacts.
        Phoenician, what’s in a name?

        It is not certain what the Phoenicians called themselves in their own language; it appears to have been Kena’ani (Akkadian: Kinahna), “Canaanites.” In Hebrew the word kena’ani has the secondary meaning of “merchant,” a term that well characterizes the Phoenicians.
        The name ‘Phoenicians,’ was not what the Phoenicians called themselves but what the Greeks called them; the word means dark red in Greek and refers to the royal Tyrian purple dye that Phoenicians extracted from murex shells to dye cloth with and sold to the rich of the ancient world. The name appears in Psalm 45:14, in the phrase bat melek Ponnima (daughter of the king of the Phoenicians), which parallels bat Sor (daughter of Tyre) of verse 13. The same term, Ponnim (meaning the Phoenician language), appears in a comedy called Poenulus, by the Roman playwright T. Maccius Plautus (died 184 B.C.). TheLatin poenus (noun) and punicus (adjective), as well as Greekphoinikos, refer to the term Phoenician.

        Geography and Major Cities
        Political Structure and Colonies
        Their city states had a loose alliance and they established colonies in the far corners of the Mediterranean.
        Religion and Mythology
        They worshiped fertility gods and goddesses and their belief system was influenced by other religions in the Eastern Mediterranean and had some influence on Greek and Roman mythologies. At the beginning of the Christian era, Phoenicians were the first to accept the new faith after the Jews.
        Troubled History
        Phoenician cities, at the cross-roads of the East, were often invaded and subjugated by foreign conquerors which include Egyptians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Macedonians, Persians, and Romans, in addition to others. However, the Phoenicians were basically traders not warriors; and trade and war do not work well together.
        Creators of Alphabet
        They created a form of alphabet which evolved and was adapted by the Greeks to become the backbone of modern alphabet.
        Commerce and Other Achievements
        The Phoenicians were sea-faring traders who carried merchandise and goods across the Mediterranean. They circumnavigator Africa and used the Polar Star as a navigational guide.
        Important Visitor to Phoenicia (as opposed to invaders)
        Herodotus, historian
        Jesus Christ of Nazareth
        Saint Paul
        Saint Peter and other Apostles
        Origen, Christian scholar
        Pythagoras, mathematician and philosopher
        Others (more to come)
        Very Important Phoenicians (VIPs)
        Antipater of Sidon, Phoenician epigrammatist (150 BC – 127 BC)
        Aquilina of Byblos, Christian martyr (died in 293 A.D.)
        Barbara of Baalbeck/Heliopolis, Christian martyr (died in 237 A.D.)
        Cadmus, “Teacher of the Phoenician Alphabet”

        Christina of Tyre, Christian martyr (died in 300 A.D.)
        Dorotheus, Jurist and Professor of Roman Law
        Eusebius Bishop of Berytus (Beirut)
        Eusebius of Caesarea, Christian Icon
        Frumentius, Saint, Apostle of Abyssinia
        Hanno, Circumnavigator of Africa
        Himilco, Voyager
        Hiram the Architect, Solomon’s Temple Designer
        Jezebel Princess of Sidon and Queen of Israel (wife of King Ahab of Israel)
        John Mark Bishop of Byblos designated Bishop by St. Peter
        Pamphilus, Saint
        King Hiram of Tyre
        King Abi-Milki of Tyre
        King Ethbaal of Sidon (father of Princess Jezebel)
        King Ahiram of Byblos
        King Rib-Addi of Byblos
        King Zimrida of Sidon
        King Jabin of Hazor
        Matrona of Perge, Saint
        Mochus of Sidon wrote on the atomic theory
        Papinian, Jurist
        Perpetua and Felicity, Christian martyrs of Carthage (died in 203 A.D.)
        Philo of Byblos, Writer
        Porphyry of Tyre, Writer
        Phoenician Popes
        Sanchuniathon, Writer
        Thales of Citium
        Thales of Miletus, Astronomer
        Theodosia of Tyre, Christian martyr (died 293 A.D.)
        Ulpian, Jurist
        Zadok the Priest
        Zeno of Citium, Philosopher
        Zeno of Sidon, Philosopher
        Others (more to come)
        Phoenician Art, Crafts, Music, and Literature
        They dyed cloth which was the prized possession of the rich and worked in precious metals and ivory. Most Phoenician literature is unknown or was lost. However, second hand information and some ecclesiastical Phoenician works survive. Traces of their music may still be found in some church music today.
        The Logo or Coat of Arms ©
        The logo or Coat of Arms is my own creation and it represents Phoenician achievements and mythology. The two creatures or mythological monsters — part horse, part fish — called hippocampus come from Phoenician antiquity and represent Phoenician mythology. (The Trade link, under the subtitle Transit Trade, contains an image of a Phoenician silver coin with an impression of the hippocampus monster and a Phoenician ship.) Further, on the top of the logo, a piece of marble with Phoenician script represents Phoenician alphabet. Beneath it, the cloth represents famous Phoenician dyed cloth. At the very bottom, amphorae represent vessels which were used to carry Phoenician merchandise, as they traded about the Mediterranean.
        Why a Web page about Phoenicia?
        As a duty to my ancestors, to my national origin, to the young and old who do not know, to the old who wish to ignore the facts or like to hide them and to all those who are interested in history and cultures, I compiled this information.
        I dedicate this site in loving memory to my parents, Lucy and George, and to the good people of Bmakine, Souk El-Gharb, Ein El-Saiydeh, and Ein El-Rimmeneh — in the Lebanese mountains — where ever they may be.
      • © Copyright, All rights reserved by original referenced materials and the author: © Phoenician Canaanite Encyclopedia — ©Phoenician Encyclopedia — © Punic Encyclopedia — © Canaanite Encyclopedia — © Encyclopedia Phoeniciana, Encyclopedia Punica, Encyclopedia Canaanitica.
        Use of materials from this site are not allowed withou
        t written permission and must hyperlink back to

Sunday, November 30, 2014


Courtesy: Dr Shivkumar Angadi


(i) Kill your own brother and son, if they entice you to serve other gods
Holy Bible ordains : ‘Kill your own brother, son, daughter, wife, if they entice you to serve other gods’.  Here are five Biblical verses in this connection :
“6. If thy brother, the son of thy mother, or thy son, or thy daughter, or the wife of thy bosom, or thy friend, which is as thine own soul, entice thee secretly, saying, Let us go and serve other gods, which thou hast not known, thou, nor thy fathers;”
- Deuteronomy, 13/6
“7. Namely, of the gods of the people which are round about you, nigh unto thee, or far off from thee, from the one end of the earth even unto the other end of the earth;”
- Deuteronomy, 13/7

“8. Thou shalt not consent unto him, nor hearken unto him; neither shall thine eye pity him, neither shalt thou spare, neither shalt thou conceal him;”
- Deuteronomy, 13/8
“9. But thou shalt surely kill him; thine hand shall be first upon him to put him to death, and afterwards the hand of all the people.”
- Deuteronomy, 13/9
“10. And thou shalt stone him with stones, that he die; because he bath sought to thrust thee away from the Lord thy God, which brought thee out of the land of Egypt, from the house of bondage.”
- Deuteronomy, 13/10

The above verses indicate categorically that Holy Bible does not allow freedom of thought as well as freedom of worship.  It is a matter of agony and amazement that Holy Bible ordains a father to kill his own daughter, son, wife for a difference of religion !

H.G. Wells, the renowned English novelist, who was father of modern science fiction, opines candidly:
“You can no more trust a devout Catholic in your household and in your confidence than you can risk frankness or association with a Nazi spy.”
- H.G. Wells

Thomas Paine, the great thinker and religio-political reformer of America, opines :
“Of all the systems of religion that ever were invented, there is none more derogatory to the Almighty, more unedifying to man, more repugnant to reason, and more contradictory in itself, than this thing called Christianity.”
- Thomas Paine

Roman emperorConstantine, a manwho had his own son executed and his wife boiled alive, saw in Christianity a pragmatic means of bolstering his own military power and uniting the vast and troubled Roman Empire.
One cannot restrain oneself from shuddering at the wickedness of the man who commits atrocity and ascribes it to the command of God ! Is it not sheer blasphemy to tarnish the holy name of God by unholy deeds ?  

Thomas Paine corroborates the point
“People in general know not what wickedness there is in this pretended work of God.... it is a book of lies, wickedness, and blasphemy,. for what can be greater blasphemy than to ascribe the wickedness of man to the orders of the Almighty  ?”
- Thomas Paine

(ii) Kill all non-believers of your town
Holy Bible says : ‘If any man or woman in your town serves and worships other gods, like the sun, the moon etc. which God has not commanded, kill them with stone’.  Here is the Biblical text consisting of four verses :
“2. If there be found among you, within any of thy gates which the Lord thy God giveth thee, man or woman, that bath wrought wickedness in. the sight of the Lord thy God, in transgressing his covenant,”
- Deuteronomy, 17/2
“3. And bath gone and served other gods, and worshipped them, either the sun, or moon, or any of the host of heaven, which I have not commanded;”
- Deuteronomy, 17/3
“4. And it be told thee, and thou hast heard of it, and inquired diligently, and, behold, it be true, and the thing certain, that such abomination is wrought in Israel;”
- Deuteronomy, 17/4
“5. Then shalt thou bring forth that man or that woman, which have committed that wicked thing, unto thy gates, even that man or that woman, and shalt stone them with stones, till they die.”
- Deuteronomy, 17/5

St. Bernard of Clairvaux had declared in launching the Second Crusade :
“The Christian glories in the death of a pagan, because thereby Christ himself is glorified.”
- St. Bernard

(iii) Slaughter of infants and ripping of pregnant women
Holy Bible states in ‘Hosea’ that infants of Samaria shall be dashed into pieces, and pregnant women shall be ripped up.
“16. Samaria shall become desolate; for she bath rebelled against her God; they shall fall by the sword; their infants shall be dashed in pieces, and their women with child shall be ripped up.”
- Hosea, 13/16
(iv) Killing infants by stoning
Should the infants be dashed against stones, even if they are born of enemies ? Not at all.  But Holy Bible makes mention of it in the following verse :
“9. Happy shall he be, that taketh and dasheth thy little ones against the stones.”
- Psalms, 137/9
Note : Here ‘thy’ stands for daughter of Babylon.
(v) Peaceful citizens of Laish massacred 
Holy Bible narrates that the descendants of Dan assaulted Laish, massacred its peaceful citizens and burnt the city :
“27. And they (children of Dan) took the things which Micah had made, and the priest which he had, and came unto Laish, unto a people that were at quiet and secure; and they smote them with the edge of the sword, and burnt the city with fire.”
-Judges, 18/27
(vi) Kill each being that breathes
Holy Bible ordains the followers not to save alive any one in the cities conquered by them.  Each one that breathes must be slaughtered.  Here is the text :
“16. But of the cities of these people, which the Lord thy God doth give thee for an inheritance, thou shalt save alive nothing that breatheth;”
- Deuteronomy, 20/16

Holy Vedas preach fraternity and equality of all men of the earth.  When Nature treats all equally, why should men discriminate and quarrel with one another ?
Oxygen and Hydrogen combined in proper proportions will surely produce water, whether the person who combines Oxygen and Hydrogen, is Hindu or Muslim or Christian.  When a person feels hungry, is it Hindu hunger or Muslim hunger or Christian hunger ? It is human hunger.  You have to put forth efforts to satisfy the hunger.  When a person is slain in communal riot, his blood spills on the ground, can you identify the blood as Hindu blood or Muslim blood or Christian blood ? It is human blood.  When an orphan sheds tears at the loss of his parents in communal riots, can you label the tears as Hindu tears or Muslim tears or Christian tears ? These are tears of a human child.
The sun illuminates all places whether it is cottage or castle, whether it is a Hindu residence or a Muslim residence or a Christian residence.  The rose gives equal fragrance to all, Hindu as well as Muslim, Christian as well as Jew.
If Nature imparts equal treatment to all, why does man discriminate ? 
William Wordsworth, the famous poet of English literature, expresses the same view when he laments :

“If this belief from heaven be sent
If such be nature’s holy plan
Have I no reason to lament
What man has made of man?”
                    - Wordsworth

If birds flock together, ants crawl together, sheep move together, cows graze together, why can’t human beings live together ?
The Creator of the Cosmos has created the lovely earth with fascinating phenomena of nature and beautiful boons for enjoyment of mankind.  But instead of enjoying life in toto on this alluring earth, men have created chaos, conflicts, controversies and calamities on the petty pretext of different modes of worship.  They do not know what worship means.  Worship does not consist of rites and rituals, nor of uttering and muttering of prescribed religious syllables only.  According to Hindu philosophy, worship signifies love - love for not only human beings but also birds and beasts.   

Samuel Coleridge expresses the same idea in his poem, ‘Ancient Mariner’ :

“He prayeth well, who loveth well,
Both man and bird and beast,
He prayeth best, who loveth best
All things both great and small;
For the dear God who loveth us,
He made and loveth all.
                    - Samuel Coleridge

Vedas emphasise that souls of all men, birds, beasts and insects have the same Divine lustre.  None is devoid of Celestial grace, grandeur and glory.   
All beings originate from the Supreme Being who is the Father of all His children.  If it is so, why to despise one another ?
Providence permeates all beings, whether high or low, pauper or prince, sinner or saint

 “He, the All-pervasive
Pervades all beings
Within and without.”
                    - Yajur Veda 32/8

He who comprehends the afore-mentioned golden doctrine of omnipresence of Almighty, and realises glimpse of God in all beings of the earth, never hates any creature.  He whose eyes look at all persons as equal brothers having same Celestial spark, which he feels in his own self, is free from malice, hatred and fanaticism.  The following mantra of Yajur Veda illustrates the idea :

 “He who sees all beings
In his own self
And finds the reflection
Of his own self in all beings
Never looks down upon any body.”
                    - Yajur Veda 40/6

Thus, Hindu Philosophy (Vedic Philosophy) hinges on equality and fraternity.  It is based on universal brotherhood - brotherhood of not Hindus only but all human beings of the earth, because all hearts are the abodes of Almighty

 “O Arjuna
Supreme Being dwells
In the hearts of all creatures.”
                    - Gita 18/61

Prof. Heeren, the renowned Western scholar, writes :
“The Vedas stand alone in their solitary splendour serving as beacon of divine light for the onward march of humanity.”
- Prof. Heeren

Lord Morley admits unambiguously :
“What is found in Vedas, exists nowhere else.”
- Lord Morley

“Solution of world’s problems lies in Hinduism and not in socialism.”
- Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya



(i) Slaves are permanent possession to be inherited by future children
The Holy Bible not only justifies but also establishes slavery. The Biblical God admonishes and authorises his followers to buy both bondmen and bondmaids from among the heathens who stay around them.  Biblical God goes one step further and incites his followers to treat the bondmen and bondmaids as a permanent possession and property to be inherited by future children ! Read the following three passages :
 “44. Both thy bondmen, and thy bondmaids, which thou shalt have, shall be of the heathen that are round about you; of them shall ye buy bondmen and bondmaids.”
- Leviticus, 25/44
 “45. Moreover of the children of the strangers that do sojourn among you, of them shall ye buy, and of their families that are with you, which they begat in your land; and they shall be your possession.”
- Leviticus, 25/45
 “46. And ye shall take them as an inheritance for your children after you, to inherit them for a possession; they shall be your bondmen for ever……”
- Leviticus, 25/46

The afore-mentioned three verses indicate categorically that followers of Bible do not treat non-believers (heathens, pagans) as their equal brothers, but inferior men and women fit to be permanent slaves, who can be purchased and also inherited for future children.  Will the Christian members of organisation like Human Rights Commission approve of the above verses of Holy Bible ? If not, why do they not raise voice against the justification and establishment of slavery and bonded labour in Holy Bible ?

Bertrand Russell, the renowned philosopher, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1950, states :
“The Churches, as every one knows, opposed the abolition of slavery as long as they dared, and with a few well-advertised exceptions they oppose at the present day every movement towards economic justice.  The Pope has officially condemned Socialism.”142
- Bertrand Russell

(ii) Biblical judgments regarding slaves 
The Holy Bible has set some judgments regarding slaves. According to these judgments, a Hebrew servant can be freed after he has served his master for six years.  But during the period of six years, if his master has given him a wife, and she has born him sons or daughters, the wife and her children shall be her master’s property and he shall go out alone by himself.  Here are the six verses :
 “1. Now these are the judgments which thou shalt set before them.”
- Exodus, 21/1
 “2.  If thou buy an Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve; and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing.”
- Exodus, 21/2
 “3. If he came in by himself, he shall go out by himself, if he were married, then his wife shall go out with him.”
- Exodus, 21/3
 “4. If his master have given him a wife, and she have born him sons or daughters; the wife and her children shall be her master’s, and he shall go out by himself.”
- Exodus, 21/4
 “5. And if the servant shall plainly say, I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free;”
- Exodus, 21/5
 “6. Then his master shall bring him unto the judges; he shall also bring him to the door, or unto the door post; and his master shall bore his ear through with an aul; and he shall serve him for ever.”
- Exodus, 21/6

(iii) The New Testament also sanctions slavery
The following six verses of the New Testament not only advocate but also establish the system of slavery :
 “1. Let as many servants as are under the yoke, count their own masters worthy of all honour, that the name of God and his doctrine be not blasphemed.”
- Timothy 1, 6/1
The readers should note the use of the words ‘under the yoke’ which are generally used for animals.
 “9. Exhort servants to be obedient unto their own masters, and to please them well in all things; not answering again;”
- Titus, 2/9
 “10. Not purloining (stealing), but shewing all good fidelity; that they may adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things.”
- Titus, 2/10
Note the establishment of slavery in the name of ‘God, the Saviour’!
 “5. Servants, be obedient to them that are your masters according to the flesh, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as unto Christ;”
- Ephesians, 6/5
 “6. Not with eyeservice, as men-pleasers; but as the servants of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart;”
- Ephesians, 6/6

Here slaves are ordainded to serve their masters with fear and trembling, considering themselves as the servants of Christ.  Moreover, the above verse confirms slavery as ‘the will of God’.
 “18. Servants, be subject to your masters with all fear; not only to the good and gentle, but also to the forward (perverse,  difficult to deal with).”
- Peter 1, 2/18

The above verse of the New Testament ordains the slaves to serve with all fear not only their gentle masters, but also perverse and harsh ones - that too in the name of God, the Saviour ! With all this, will Christian missionaries boast that Christianity believes in equality of men ?

Rev. Alexander Campbell unambiguously advocates the system of slavery and bondage by saying that it is not immoral because it is confirmed by the Bible.  He states :
“There is not one verse in the Bible inhibiting slavery, but many regulating it.  It is not then, we conclude, immoral.”
- Alexander Campbell

Thomas Jefferson, the third President of America, opines :
“In every country and in every age, the priest has been hostile to liberty.”
- Thomas Jefferson

The French Revolutionists rejected the Bible and abolished slavery in the colonies, while the Church reintroduced the Bible and slavery.

Col. Robert G. Ingersoll, (1833-1899), the famous orator and statesman of U.S.A., who popularised the criticism of the Bible on the basis of a humanistic philosophy and scientific rationalism, opines candidly :

“The real oppressor, enslaver and corrupter of the people is the Bible.”
- Col. Robert G. Ingersoll

The most devoted Christian King, George III, abhorred abolition of slavery.  The most zealous defenders of slavery in America were Bible moralists.  Abraham Lincolin’s‘Emancipation Proclamation’ nullified ‘God’ law’ of Holy Bible.
In spite of the afore-mentioned Biblical texts which not only sanction but also confirm and establish slavery, the Christian missionaries boast that contribution of Christianity towards modern civilization in the West is of paramount importance.   

Ms Matilda Joslyn Gage, one of the renowned historians of America, falsifies their claim as under
“The careful student of history will discover that Christianity has been of very little value in advancing civilization, but has done a great deal toward retarding it.”
- Matilda Joslyn Gage
Ms Matilda Joslyn Gage quotes Wendell Phillips in support of her statement.  Wendell Phillips opines :
“The liberty and civilization of the present are nothing else than the fragments of rights which the scaffold and stake have wrung from the strong hands of the usurpers.”147
- Wendell Phillips

(i) All men are equal
The philosophy of Holy Vedas revolves round fraternity and equality.  None is superior to another.  None is master, none is slave.  All men have equal rights on the earth.  Nature treats all alike, whether he is brown or black, high or low, prince or pauper. Lord has prescribed the same mode of birth and death for all men of the earth.  All souls are equally alike

Let our hearts be
In equality and unity.
                    - Rig Veda 10/191/4
(ii) Live and let live
Vedic religion (Hindu religion) is based on the golden principle of ‘live and let live’.  Exploitation in any form is strictly prohibited in Vedic religion.  Supreme Being dwells in the hearts of all men.  Then why to enslave a fellow-being, who has the same equal right to live with dignity and liberty ? Holy Vedas admonish us to live and let others live :

You may live
And let me also live.
                    - Atharva Veda 19/69/1

Prof. Max Muller admires and appreciates Vedas in the following words :
“Vedas will continue to be admired and appreciated as long as the oceans and the mountains exist on the earth.”
- Prof Max Muller

(iii) Slavery is pain, liberty is pleasure
No other suffering on the earth is so painful as slavery.  All troubles and tribulations, tortures and turmoils appear insignificant in comparison to agonies of bondage.  No other joy in the world is so great as liberty.  It is the root of real delight and source of genuine joy.  He who is deprived of liberty is the most wretched man on the earth.  Freedom is a blessing, where as slavery is a curse.  Freedom is life, where as slavery is death.  Freedom is rapture, where as slavery is torture.

Shri Manu, the first law-giver of the world, says

Slavery is pain,
Freedom is pleasure,
In short, this is the definition
Of pain and pleasure.
                    - Manu

(iv) Crush the man who enslaves us
Holy Vedas precept and preach universal brotherhood.  All human beings on the earth are brothers having one and the same father, God Almighty who treats all alike.  Hence all are entitled to equal rights and privileges.  But if some persons, on account of their selfish motive and malicious mentality, try to encroach upon the liberty of others, they are not to be treated as brothers.  They are to be dealt with as encroachers, assaulters and enemies.  Vedas authorise us to crush the man who tries to subjugate us, because protection of liberty then becomes unavoidable necessity.

O effulgent Lord,
May the person who enslaves us
Be crushed under feet
Whether he is near or far;
Mayest Thou be with us
For our progress and prosperity.
                    - Rig Veda 1/79/11

Holy Vedas admonish us that he, who snatches the basic right of liberty and wishes to make us servile, should not be allowed at all to exercise his power, whether he is alien or our own kith and kin:

O resplendent Lord,
Destroy the power of the man
Who wants to enslave us
Whether he is alien or akin,
No matter, if his strength
Is as vast as the sky;
Break the ropes
Fastened unto his bows.
                    - Rig Veda 10/133/5
“The root cause of our downfall is our mental weakness.  The first and foremost task we have to perform is to annihilate this mental weakness.”
- Dr. K.B. Hedgewar

“A wrong interpretation of ‘non-violence’ has deprived the national mind of the power of discrimination.  We have begun to look upon strength as ‘violence’ and to glorify our weakness…… The world is not prepared to listen to the philosophy, however sublime, of the weak.”
- Guruji M.S. Golwalkar

“I would prefer Hitler to the Democracy that was cowardly and yielding to every aggressor.”
- Veer Savarkar

“I shall see that my one soldier will defeat one lac enemies, then alone I shall get myself called Gobind Singh.”
 - Guru Gobind Singh



The Holy Bible preaches and propagates ‘racism’.  ‘Racism’ is the belief in the inherent superiority of a particular race or races over others, usually with the implication of a right to dominate over others.  The following passage of Holy Bible indicates that its followers are ‘holy people’, ‘special people’, ‘chosen people’ and ‘superior race’ in the court of God :
“6. For thou art an holy people unto the Lord thy God: the Lord thy God bath chosen thee to be a special people unto himself, above all people that are upon the face of the earth.” 
- Deuteronomy, 7/6

The afore-mentioned Biblical passage incited the British rulers to accord discriminatory treatment to the people of Bharat.  Let Christian missionaries answer to the question: “Does Bible believe in equality of all men of the universe ?”

Vedic religion does not approve of superiority of a particular race or races over others.  None is superior or inferior.  All are equal children of one Father.
All men are sweet sons of Supreme Being
Holy Vedas preach equality of all men of the earth and equal rights of all irrespective of caste, colour, creed and country.

All the walkers
Who walk on the path
Have equal right
To the path
                    - Rig Veda 2/13/2
“Without dynamic conquering spirit, even devotion to a divine cause will be of little avail.  In this hard world which is an arena for trial of strength with brute forces, mere goodness or noble virtues will not hold the field even for a single moment.  That is why we find that in spite of all the piety, goodness and devotion to God all through the past thousand years, we were trampled under the feet by foreign aggressors who, though total strangers to goodness and virtue, had a passion for heroic action and organised effort.”
M.S. Golwalkar


(i) The sky has windows
The sky is nothing but a vacuum.  It does not have windows. But Holy Bible states that the windows of sky were opened
“11. In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the Mountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.”
- Genesis, 7/11
No scientist will agree to the above text.
(ii) The earth has foundations, pillars and four corners!
According to Biblical Geography (Social Science), the earth has foundations, pillars and four corners ! Read the following three verses :
The Earth has foundations :
“5. Who laid the foundations of the earth, that it should not be removed for ever.”
- Psalms, 104/5
The Earth has pillars :
“8…… for the pillars of the earth are the Lord’s, and he bath set the world upon them.”
- I Samuel, 2/8

The Earth has four corners :
“1. And after these things I saw four angels standing on the four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, that the wind should not blow on the earth, nor on the sea, nor on any tree.”
- Revelation, 7/1
(iii) The sun, not the earth, moves !
Joshua commanded the sun to standstill and not the earth.  This is Biblical Science ! The following passage indicates that Joshua stops the sun and the moon :
“13. And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies.  Is not this written in the book of Jasher?  So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day.”
- Joshua, 10/13

All the educated people of the world know today that the sun never moves, it is the earth that revolves.  When Copernicus declared this scientific truth for the first time, the clergymen raised hues and cries against the learned scientist calling him atheist, because he contradicted Holy Bible.  Consequently he was humiliated and tortured. Martin Luther, the German religious reformer who was the founder of the Protestant Reformation, commented upon the Copernicus theory as under :

“The fool (Copernicus) wishes to reverse the entire science of astronomy.  But sacred Scripture tells us that Joshua commanded the sun to stand still, and not the earth.”
- Martin Luther

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru writes in his ‘Glimpses of World History’ :
Giordano Bruno, an Italian, was burnt in Rome by the Church in 1600 for insisting that the earth went round the sun.”91
- Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru

James A. Haught states in his book, ‘Holy Horrors’ :
“At Alexandria in 415, the great woman scientist Hypatia, head of Alexandria Library, was beaten to death by monks and other followers of St Cyril, who viewed her science much as the church later viewed Galileo’s.”92
- James A. Haught

While commenting upon Biblical Science, George Bernard Shaw, the famous playwright, critic and essayist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1925, observes :
“Bible is hopelessly pre-evolutionary; its descriptions of the origin of life and morals are obviously fairy tales; its astronomy is terracentric; its notions of the starry universe are childish; its history is epical and legendary: in short, people whose education in these departments is derived from the Bible are so absurdly misinformed as to be unfit for public employment, parental responsibility, or the franchise.”93
- George Bernard Shaw

In modern scientific era, educated Christian missionaries feel ashamed to give any publicity to the afore-mentioned verse of the Holy Bible.

In spite of the fact that Holy Bible is replete with erroneous and unscientific statements, the Christians claim that it is authority on each and every matter of the earth and anything can be proved from the Holy Book.  In this connection  

Thomas Paine, great thinker of American Revolution, observes :
“It has often been said that anything may be proved from the Bible, but before anything can be admitted as proved by the Bible, the Bible itself must be proved to be true; for if the Bible be not true, or the truth of it be doubtful, it ceases to have authority, and cannot be admitted as proof of anything.”94
- Thomas Paine

Antonio Fogazzaro, the renowned Italian novelist, observes :
“The Catholic Church, calling herself the fountain of truth, today opposes the search after truth, when her foundations, the sacred books, the formulae of her dogmas, her alleged infallibility, become objects of research to us, this signifies that she no longer has faith in herself.”95
- Antonio Fogazzaro

According to George Bernard Shaw, the fundamentalist clergymen are the worst enemies of religion, and the Holy Bible, in spite of being the work of many highly gifted authors and translators, is a jumble of savage superstitions.  He states :
“It is time to tell our Fundamentalists bluntly that they are the worst enemies of religion today; that Jehovah is no God, but a barbarous tribal idol,. that the English Bible, though a masterpiece of literary art in its readable parts, and, being the work of many highly gifted authors and translators, is yet a jumble of savage superstition, obsolete cosmology, and a theology presented in such an unbalanced one-sided way, that the first Christian Catholic Church forbade the laity to read the Bible without special permission.”96
- George Bernard Shaw

According to George Bernard Shaw, Bible-educated man is ignoramus.  He opines :
“It is the Bible-educated human who is now the ignoramus.  If you doubt it, try to pass an examination for any practical employment by giving Bible answers to the examiners’ questions. You will be fortunate if you are merely plucked and not certified as a lunatic.”97
- George Bernard Shaw

(iv) Is disease caused by devil ?
According to Jesus, disease is caused by devil.  If the devil is removed from body of sick man, he becomes all right.  The New Testament of Holy Bible narrates that Jesus Christ removed devil from the body of a man in synagogue :
“33. And in the synagogue there was a man, which had a spirit of an unclean devil, and cried out with a loud voice.”
- Lake, 4/33
“35. And Jesus rebuked him, saying, Hold thy peace, and come out of him.  And when the devil had thrown him in the midst, he came out of him, and hurt him not.”
- Luke, 4/35
Here is another verse indicating that disease is caused by devil, and Jesus Christ healed many patients by removing devils from their bodies :
“34. And he healed many that were sick of divers diseases, and cast out many devils; and suffered not the devils to speak, because they knew him.”
- Mark, 1/34

Thomas Jefferson, the third President of America, states
“The gospel history of Jesus consists of a groundwork of vulgar ignorance, of things impossible, of superstitions, fanaticism, and fabrications.”98
- Thomas Jefferson

(v) Can a sick be cured by priest or doctor ?
If there is any sick among you, you need not call for a physician.  A true Christian calls for ‘the elders of the Church’; because according to Holy Bible, the elders of the Church, (not doctor) will cure the sick.  Here is a precept in the New Testament :
“14. Is any sick among you? let him call for the elders of the church; and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord;”
- James, 5/14

If the elders of the church can cure any sick man by anointing him with oil, then all hospitals must be closed, and all qualified doctors should change their profession and learn to become churchmen.  Alas ! this unscientific teaching has caused innumerable deaths in the families of the illiterate gullible people.

Today educated people fully know that a disease is not caused by devil and it can be cured only by doctors, not by the elders of the church.  Had the sick man been cured by ‘the elders of the church’, Christian missionaries would not have established hospitals with qualified doctors.  Their own action in establishing the hospitals contradicts the precept of the Holy Bible.

(i) The earth, not the sun, moves
Holy Vedas, in spite of being the most ancient scriptures, are in complete harmony with modern science.  Brown, the Western scholar, opines :

“Vedas paint the picture of scientific religion, where religion and science clap together.  Vedas are based on religion, science and philosophy.”
- Brown

We find scientific truth in Yajur Veda so far as motion of the earth, (not the sun as in Holy Bible) is concerned

The Earth with all its waters
Revolves round the sun.

The Earth revolves
With its mother water In its orbit,
The Earth revolves
Around its father, the Sun.
                    - Yajur Veda 3/6

Mrs. Wheeler Willax, an eminent American writer, states:
“We have all heard and read about the ancient religion of India.  It is the land of the great Vedas, the most remarkable works containing not only religious ideals for a perfect life, but also facts which all the science has since proved true. Electricity, Radium, Electrons, Airships, all seem to be known to the seers who found the Vedas.”
- Mrs. Wheeler Willax

(ii) Disease is cured by medicines, not by priest
Holy Vedas do not approve of unscientific statement that disease is caused by devils.  Only illiterate superstitious people believe in such unscientific teachings.  Disease is caused due to infection (bacteria virus), unhygienic diet, pollution of air and contamination of water etc.
In ancient times, even the civilised nations of the world used to seek guidance in connection with art of healing from the Hindus who were called the Aryans during the days of yore.  The Western physicians have now begun to realise the detrimental reactions of allopathy.  They have started appreciating the efficacy of ‘Nature Cure’ and Ayurvedic medicines mentioned in Holy Vedas.

(iii) Nature cure
The cure of all diseases whether they are physical, mental, ethical and spiritual, lies in nature.  Separation from nature results in decay and death, while communion with her brings harmony and hilarity.  ‘Return to Nature’ or ‘Acquire knowledge of nature’ is the axis round which philosophy of Vedas revolves.  Unnatural modes of medicines cause great harms.  Hence Vedic religion pleads for nature cure.  Elements of nature possess great powers to cure the most chronic diseases.  On the surface of the earth or beneath the water, God Almighty has created most useful herbs which are panacea for all sorts of diseases.  Man, being frail creature, having limited knowledge, is unaware of the precious uses of elements of nature.  The diseases can be cured by water, earth, air, fire and sunshine.  These are the chief elements of nature.  Vedas encourage and inspire man to explore and acquire the knowledge of nature cure.

Ye learned men,
Acquire knowledge of nature cure,
Beneath the waters lies fluid
That cures aft fatal diseases.
The water possesses power
To cure all maladies,
Acquire this knowledge and power
For leading life of vigour and virtues
          - Rig Veda 1/23/19

Here is mantra of Sam Veda elucidating the advantages of the rays of the sun :

The solar rays drive away diseases
Dispel malignant thoughts
And keep us away from sins.
                    - Sam Veda 397

(iv) Ayurvedic medicines
Ayurveda is the foundation stone of the ancient medical science of Aryavarta.  It is considered by some scholars as Upaveda consisting of supplementary hymns illustrating the definite properties and uses of drugs and medicinal plants.  The earliest description of medicinal plants and their precious uses is to be found in Rig Veda which is the oldest scripture in the world.
Bharat is an emporium of medicinal plants, herbs and shrubs.  Approximately more than seventy five per cent of drugs described in the British pharmacopoeia grow in India in a state of nature. Professor Greenish of the London School of Pharmacy rightly remarked, “India, owing to the remarkable variations she possesses of climate, attitude and soil, is in a position to produce successfully every variety of medical herbs required by Europe.”
The pharmacists and physicians of the West have now begun to realise that indigenous herbs of India penetrate and probe into the root of the disease and cure the patient permanently.  It was proclaimed with confidence by the ancient Indian physicians in Vedic era.  The following mantra of Rig Veda bears testimony to it

The medicinal herbs
Penetrate and get diffused
Into all limbs and joints of the sick
And like a sharp and strong moderator
Destroy his disease.
                    - Rig Veda 10/97/12

Joccolliot, the famous writer of the West, opines candidly
“Astonishing fact.  The Hindu Revelation (the Veda) is of all revelations the only one whose ideas are in perfect harmony with modern science.”
- Joccolliot

“Society must be moulded to truth.  Truth has not to adjust itself to society.”
- Swami Vivekananda



St. Paul, the apostle of Christ, fearlessly justifies his lie (falsehood) in the New Testament by saying that if his lie (falsehood) enhances the glory and truthfulness of God, he must resort to it and he should not be judged as a sinner.  Read the following verse :
“7. For if the truth of God bath more abounded through my lie unto his glory; why yet am I also judged as a sinner?”
- Romans, 3/7

While commenting on the above verse Rupert Hughes, the famous writer and philosopher, opines :
“I do not believe telling lies for the gloy of God… The Bible in itself destroys the claim of God’s omnipotence.”
- Rupert Hughes

There is another instance of promoting untruth.  Biblical God himself sent an angel to be a lying spirit in the mouth of the prophets to persuade Ahab to go to Ramoth-gilead.  Micaiah said, “Listen to the word of God. I saw God sitting on his throne.  All the angels of heaven stood by Him on his right and left.  God said, “Who will persuade Ahab to go to Ramoth-gilead so that he may be killed there ?” Some said something, while others said other thing.  In the meanwhile, a spirit came, stood before God and said, “I will persuade Ahab.” God asked him, “How will you do so ?” The spirit replied, “I will go there and will be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets.” God said, “You will be able to persuade Ahab, hence you may go and do so.” Thus Biblical God permitted the angel to become a lying spirit.  In other words, God of Bible gave His consent to the angel to tell a lie.  Here is the Biblical text
“19. And he (Micaiah) said, Hear thou therefore the word of the Lord: I saw the Lord sitting on his throne, and all the host of heaven standing by him on his right hand and on his left.”
- I Kings, 22/19
“20. And the Lord said, Who shall persuade Ahab, that he may go up and fall at Ramoth-gilead?  And one said on this manner, and another said on that manner.”
- I Kings, 22/20
“21. And there came forth a spirit, and stood before the Lord, and said, I will persuade him.”
- I Kings, 22/21
“22. And the Lord said unto him, Wherewith?  And he said, I will go forth, and I will be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets.  And he said, Thou shalt persuade him, and prevail also: go forth, and do so.”
- I Kings, 22/22

G.W. Foote and J.M. Wheeler state in their book, ‘Crimes of Christianity’ as under :
“During many centuries, indeed for more than a thousand years, the Christian Church lied for the glory of God without shame or compunction. Whatever promoted its reputation and power was deemed both necessary and honourable.  Frauds were praiseworthy, if they were pious; and in the words of Mosheim, those who wished to shine forth most eminently as true Christians ‘deemed it a pious act to employ deception and fraud in support of piety.’ ”
- G.W. Foote and J.M. Wheeler

Rupert Hughes, famous writer and philosopher of the West, states
“I quit (going to Church) because I came to believe that what is preached in the churches is mainly untrue and unimportant, tiresome, hostile to genuine progress, and in general not worth while.”
- Rupert Hughes

Holy Vedas preach nothing but truth, which is defined as universal law of nature or voice of conscience or divine voice.

Tread on the path of truth.
                    - Yajur Veda 7/45

The path of truth ensures peace and prosperity, happiness and hilarity, enjoyment and ecstasy, glory and grandeur.  It enables its pursuers to dominate over those who tread the path of untruth. because truth triumphs over untruth in the long run.

The noble soul who pursues
The path of truth
Is never defeated.
                    - Rig Veda 9/73/8

The course of truth is flawless, devoid of frights and fears, doubts and disbeliefs.  It is open to scrutiny at all times.  It can face challenge of tests and trials from all quarters.  That is why Vedas advise and admonish the people to watch and witness the path of truth which is followed by the righteous.

Observe minutely the path of truth
Which is trodden by the enlightened sages.
                    - Atharva Veda 18/4/3
“If we achieve independence with elimination of Hindu society and Hindu culture from the country, it will not be called independence of Hindustan, and the value of such independence will be zero.”
- Dr. K.B. Hedgewar



(i) Bible condemns knowledge
“17. But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it:……”
- Genesis, 2/17
(ii) Bible condemns wisdom
“19. For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God……”
- I Corinthians, 3/19
(iii) Bible condemns philosophy
“8. Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy……”
- Colossians, 2/8
It is an admitted fact that knowledge as well as wisdom acquired through knowledge, and philosophy create power of reasoning which enables man to distinguish between right and wrong, good and bad, truth and untruth.  But followers of Holy Bible condemn reason. Martin Luther said :
“Reason should be destroyed in all Christians.”
- Martin Luther
Pope Gregory I, Gregory the Great, opposed the study of grammar.  He also condemned education for all but the clergy as folly and wickedness.  He forbade laymen to read even the Bible.  He had the library of the Palatine Apollo burned ‘lest its secular literature distracts the faithful from the contemplation of heaven.’
Bertrand Russell, the renowned philosopher, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1950, corroborates the afore-mentioned statement by his observation as under :
“Pope Gregory, the Great wrote to a certain bishop a letter beginning: ‘A report has reached us which we cannot mention without a blush, that thou expoundest grammar to certain friends.’ The bishop was compelled by pontifical authority to desist from this wicked labour, and Latinity did not recover until the Renaissance.”
- Bertrand Russell
It is astonishing that the Catholic Church vehemently opposed even the translation of Bible from Latin to English.  William Tyndale, who translated the New Testament in English secretly, was strangled and burned.  James A. Haught states in this connection as under :
“The Catholic Church decreed that the Bible could be printed only in Latin, restricting it to priests and scholars.  Printing it in a common language for common people was punishable by death.  In England in the 1520s, William Tyndale sought permission to translate the New Testament into English so that ‘every plowboy’ might read it.  The request put his life in danger, and he fled to Lutheran territory in Germany.  He completed  translation and smuggled copies back to England - where they were seized and burned by Catholic bishops.  Tyndale eventually was captured in Antwerp by Catholic authorities, who tried him for heresy and had him strangled and burned.”104
- James A. Haught
Vedic slogan is ‘bliss through knowledge’.  Holy Vedas lay emphasis on learning knowledge.  There is no limit of age to seek knowledge.  The whole world is a vast school where man learns from cradle to crevice.  Those who do not endeavour to seek knowledge are like stagnant water that stinks.  He who is devoid of knowledge not only embitters his own life but also that of others.  He who seeks knowledge is endowed with divine bliss.  He enjoys not only himself but also makes others enjoy the fruit of knowledge which is as sweet as nectar.  That is why Vedas instruct man to attain bliss through knowledge

Through knowledge
Immortal bliss is attained.
                      - Yajur Veda 40/14
Holy Vedas emphasise on purification through knowledge. Vedas preach progressive thoughts.  They emphasise on that knowledge which elevates and ennobles, illuminates and enlightens man.  The aim and object of acquiring knowledge is to purge the inner self of dross and dirt and purify the mind.  Just as when impurities of gold are burnt in fire, it begins to glitter; so does true knowledge, having burnt the imperfections and impurities, flaws and follies of man, make him shine.  That is why Vedas urge upon man to seek that knowledge which may purge and purify him.

The true knowledge
Purifies us.
                      - Rig Veda 1/3/10
Holy Vedas have always been a source of inspiration and enthusiasm to the scientists, researchists, discoverers and explorers.  They inspire man to set sails on the surface of the sea to discover new regions, to dive deep into the ocean to find unfathomable depths full of jewels and diamonds, to fly into the ethereal spheres to explore new horizons in quest of knowledge, wisdom, philosophy, power and beauty.  Modern explorations in space as well as ocean are advised to man by holy vedas.

Explore the ocean
Explore the sky
And be blessed
                      - Yajur Veda 6/21
“Accept only that which stands to your reason.  Never accept anything merely because it is preached by some great leader.  Test its truth on the touchstone of your intellectual discrimination.”
- Dr. K.B. Hedgewar