Showing posts with label ANCIENT INDIAN BIOLOGY. Show all posts
Showing posts with label ANCIENT INDIAN BIOLOGY. Show all posts

Monday, April 14, 2014

Indian scriptures about scientific evolution/microbiology.#decoding #hinduism

Microbiology in The VedasWhile rest of religions talk about Adam and Eve, Indian scientific scriptures talks about real evolution of all species in world from unicellular to multicellular ,evolution of microorganisms,plants etc.An Santi Parva of Mahabharata,Section XV Arjuna speaks of the world of Microbes,’which ,though not seen by the naked eyes, support Life”

Talks of Darwinism when he says that the strongest survive by feeding and annihilating them.

The Mobile and the Immobile world is Food for Living creatures.

Jainism had such an advanced knowledge and Piety, the Jain Monks use to sweep the path they travel gently with a fan made of Peacock feathers to make sure that the smaller organisms are not unintentionally killed by them.

Kara , Dhooshana, Inderjith and Ravana’s Moola Sena were adept at fighting biological warfare.

Our Vedic literature recorded about 740 plants and 250 animals.
¨ The first attempt of classification is observed in Chandyogya Upanishad, which classified animals into three categories — Jivaja(Viviparous = giving birth to young ones), e.g. mammals, Andaja(Oviparous = egg lying), e.g. birds, reptiles, insects and worms, andUdbhija (Vegetal origin), e.g. minute animals. Post-Vedic Indian literature, such as Susruta Samhita (600 BC) classified all ‘substances’ into sthavara (immobile), e.g. plants, jangama (mobile), e.g. animals.
¨ Plants were further subdivided into Vanaspati (fruit yielding non-flowering plants), Vriksha (both fruit yielding and flowering plants),Virudha (shrubs and creepers), and Osadhi (plants that die with ripening of fruits).
Susruta described in detail the parts of plants, such as Ankura (sprout), Mula (root), Kanda (bulb or stem), Patra (leaf),Pushpa (flower), Phala (fruit), etc.
¨ Susruta Samhita also mentioned about classification of animals, such as Kulacara (those herbivores who frequent the river banks, e.g. elephant, buffalo, etc.), Matsya (fish), Janghala (wild herbivorous quadrupeds, e.g. deer), Guhasaya (carnivorous quadrupeds like tiger, lion, etc.). Susruta Samhita also records some observations on snakes (both venomous and non-venomous) and leeches.

They knew about Microbes and about fermentation.

They were aware of the exact combinations and temperatures at which fermentation takes place in preparing Buttermilk,Curds,Liquor.

The existence of Lives , which are smaller and Microscopic was analysed.

Germ theory of diseases was first established by Vedic Rishis and was recorded in Vedas.
Vedas are first text in the world to record nexus between microbes and disease.
In Vedas, prime etiological factors of diseases mentioned are–

a) Endogenous toxins, its accumulations, and causation of a disease; b) ‘Krimi’ –’Drisya’ (visible), ‘Adrisya’ (invisible); and c) Imbalance of tridosha.
Rigveda, Yajurveda, and Atharvaveda followed by Āyurvedas provide rich insight into microbial sciences that existed in Bharat many thousands of years ago.
In Rigveda (1/191), Rishị Agastya pinpoints out that there are two types of poisonous creatures viz. those exceedingly poisonous and others are less poisonous.
Of them, some are visible venomous, while others are invisible one.
Some of them live in water, while others live on earth.
Perhaps Ṛsị Agastya is the first person to state that invisible creatures are also toxin producers.
He also prescribes antidotes as remedy for the poison. Atharvaveda reiterates that whenever there is accumulation of toxins within the body, disease results.
Use of Biological weapons of Mass Destruction was known.
There are large number of suktas in the Vedas which provides information about microbiological knowledge in the ancient Vedic texts.
KankotanSukta by Rishi Agastaya (Rigveda 1/191); KrimighnamSukta (Atharvaveda 5/23), KriminashnamSukta (AV. 2/32), KrimijambhanamSukta
(AV. 2/31) all by Rishi Kanva; RakshognamSukta (AV. 5/29) by Rishi Chatan; KriminashnamSukta (AV. 4/37) by Rishi Badrayani and other suktas
provides insight into the Microbial sciences in Vedas.
Not only the Vedas, Ayurvedic texts like Charaka Samhita, Susruta Samhita, Ashtanga Hridaya and many others provides rich insight into Vedic Microbiology.

Tuesday, January 7, 2014


Biological Achievements of Ancient India-VERIFIED-
Medical science was far advanced during ancient times of the Vedas, the Mahabharata and the Puranas. It is proved with evidence that Cloning, which is supposed to be the highest achievement of the modern world, was done in Vedic era to produce a horse ‘Hari’ and a cow ‘Wishwaroopa’. The cow was cloned from the skin of a cow, similar to the modern cloning of a lamb ‘Dolly’, from an udder of a sheep. Human clones were developed, even a dead man. Cloning from layers of skin and from drops of blood was done. Test tube babies were prepared. Parthenogenesis was performed producing six male children. From an aborted embryo 101 full grown children were produced. Chamasa was divided to make four animals from a single fertilized ovum. In vitro development of foetuses was carried out.

Life science was fully studied, so the sages knew about the chromosomes which were termed as ‘Gunawidhi’.(Mahabharata Shanti 308) This is a perfectly scientific term; because these principles control the characters i.e. ‘Guna’ and also ‘Widhi’, the functions, of a person. Even the chromosome number 23, specific for human beings is recorded, in the Mahabharata and the Bhagawata. It is also stated that these principles give rise to genetic diseases. A list of genetic diseases is given in the Mahabharata, which is similar to the list in the modern science. Bhagawata (3/6/1-7) has recorded that these 23 Gunavidhi of a male gamete enter the female gamete and unite with her 23 Gunavidhi to stimulate them so that a zygote is formed. Then the zygote, which is termed as ‘Kalala’, goes on dividing once, ten times, three times. It means that the cell divides once to give rise to two cells. This happens ten times so that two raised to the power of ten cells form. This happens thrice, at three layers namely Endoderm, Mesoderm and Ectoderm. This multiplication produces two raised to the power of thirty cells, which are really present in a newborn baby, according to the modern science.

How could the sages achieve such a vast and microscopic knowledge? All the stages of growth of an embryo are given in the Bhagawata commencing from the first day up to the full term. These stages concur with those proved by modern science, and some times supercede the modern science. Bhagawata records that heart of a foetus begins its work in the second month of pregnancy. This fact was unknown to the modern science till December 1972. Medical science presumed till then, that the foetal heart began in the fifth month of pregnancy, but then with the use of Disonar apparatus it was confirmed that the foetal heart begins in the second month of pregnancy. This is now well known due to ultrasonography. Aitareya Upanishad, which is composed in about 6000 B.C., much earlier than the Bhagawata [of 1652 B.C.] also states the same fact.

The Bhagawata (2/1022, 3/26/55) states that ears are responsible for recognizing the directions. This is proved by the modern science after 1935, when the Labyrinth or the Vestibular apparatus was discovered in the internal ear.

During Vedic era, Rubhus had divided one ‘Chamas’ (pel), which was prepared by the God Twashta, into four parts.(RV.1-20-6, 1-110-5, 4-33-5, 4-35-3,4, 4-36-4) that ‘Chamas’ means an urn containing life. The word ‘Chamas’ is formed of two components Cham + Asa. The verb ‘Cham’ pe~ means to drink, to eat. The verb ‘Asa’ vl~ means to live, to exist. Therefore, Chamas means a thing, which eats and drinks to live. It means in the modern language a primary cell, full of life or a fertilized ovum.

Other achievements like Parthenogesis, Test-tube-baby etc are also reported in ancient literature of India. The technique of division of Chamasa might have been used by Great Sage Vedayasa.