Friday, October 28, 2016

Indian mathematics -Still Amazing

Despite developing quite independently of Chinese (and probably also of Babylonian mathematics), some very advanced mathematical discoveries were made at a very early time in India.
Mantras from the early Vedic period (before 1000 BCE) invoke powers of ten from a hundred all the way up to a trillion, and provide evidence of the use of arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, fractions, squares, cubes and roots. A 4th Century CE Sanskrit text reports Buddha enumerating numbers up to 1053, as well as describing six more numbering systems over and above these, leading to a number equivalent to 10421. Given that there are an estimated 1080 atoms in the whole universe, this is as close to infinity as any in the ancient world came. It also describes a series of iterations in decreasing size, in order to demonstrate the size of an atom, which comes remarkably close to the actual size of a carbon atom (about 70 trillionths of a metre).
As early as the 8th Century BCE, long before Pythagoras, a text known as the “Sulba Sutras” (or "Sulva Sutras") listed several simple Pythagorean triples, as well as a statement of the simplified Pythagorean theorem for the sides of a square and for a rectangle (indeed, it seems quite likely that Pythagoras learned his basic geometry from the "Sulba Sutras"). The Sutras also contain geometric solutions of linear and quadratic equations in a single unknown, and give a remarkably accurate figure for the square root of 2, obtained by adding 1 + 1⁄3 + 1⁄(3 x 4) - 1⁄(3 x 4 x 34), which yields a value of 1.4142156, correct to 5 decimal places.
As early as the 3rd or 2nd Century BCE, Jain mathematicians recognized five different types of infinities: infinite in one direction, in two directions, in area, infinite everywhere and perpetually infinite. Ancient Buddhist literature also demonstrates a prescient awareness of indeterminate and infinite numbers, with numbers deemed to be of three types: countable, uncountable and infinite.
Like the Chinese, the Indians early discovered the benefits of a decimal place value number system, and were certainly using it before about the 3rd Century CE. They refined and perfected the system, particularly the written representation of the numerals, creating the ancestors of the nine numerals that (thanks to its dissemination by medieval Arabic mathematicians) we use across the world today, sometimes considered one of the greatest intellectual innovations of all time.
The Indians were also responsible for another hugely important development in mathematics. The earliest recorded usage of a circle character for the number zero is usually attributed to a 9th Century engraving in a temple in Gwalior in central India. But the brilliant conceptual leap to include zero as a number in its own right (rather than merely as a placeholder, a blank or empty space within a number, as it had been treated until that time) is usually credited to the 7th Century Indian mathematicians Brahmagupta - or possibly another Indian, Bhaskara I - even though it may well have been in practical use for centuries before that. The use of zero as a number which could be used in calculations and mathematical investigations, would revolutionize mathematics.
Brahmagupta established the basic mathematical rules for dealing with zero: 1 + 0 = 1; 1 - 0 = 1; and 1 x 0 = 0 (the breakthrough which would make sense of the apparently non-sencical operation 1 ÷ 0 would also fall to an Indian, the 12th Century mathematician Bhaskara II). Brahmagupta also established rules for dealing with negative numbers, and pointed out that quadratic equations could in theory have two possible solutions, one of which could be negative. He even attempted to write down these rather abstract concepts, using the initials of the names of colours to represent unknowns in his equations, one of the earliest intimations of what we now know as algebra.
The so-called Golden Age of Indian mathematics can be said to extend from the 5th to 12th Centuries, and many of its mathematical discoveries predated similar discoveries in the West by several centuries, which has led to some claims of plagiarism by later European mathematicians, at least some of whom were probably aware of the earlier Indian work. Certainly, it seems that Indian contributions to mathematics have not been given due acknowledgement until very recently in modern history.
Golden Age Indian mathematicians made fundamental advances in the theory of trigonometry, a method of linking geometry and numbers first developed by the Greeks. They used ideas like the sine, cosine and tangent functions (which relate the angles of a triangle to the relative lengths of its sides) to survey the land around them, navigate the seas and even chart the heavens. For instance, Indian astronomers used trigonometry to calculated the relative distances between the Earth and the Moon and the Earth and the Sun. They realized that, when the Moon is half full and directly opposite the Sun, then the Sun, Moon and Earth form a right angled triangle, and were able to accurately measure the angle as 1⁄7°. Their sine tables gave a ratio for the sides of such a triangle as 400:1, indicating that the Sun is 400 times further away from the Earth than the Moon.
Although the Greeks had been able to calculate the sine function of some angles, the Indian astronomers wanted to be able to calculate the sine function of any given angle. A text called the “Surya Siddhanta”, by unknown authors and dating from around 400 CE, contains the roots of modern trigonometry, including the first real use of sines, cosines, inverse sines, tangents and secants.
As early as the 6th Century CE, the great Indian mathematician and astronomer Aryabhata produced categorical definitions of sine, cosine, versine and inverse sine, and specified complete sine and versine and inverse sine, and specified complete sine and versine tables, in 3.75° intervals from 0° to 90°, to an accuracy of 4 decimal places. Aryabhata also demonstrated solutions to simultaneous quadratic equations, and produced an approximation for the value of π equivalent to 3.1416, correct to four decimal places. He used this to estimate the circumference of the Earth, arriving at a figure of 24,835 miles, only 70 miles off its true value. But, perhaps even more astonishing, he seems to have been aware that π is an irrational number, and that any calculation can only ever be an approximation, something not proved in Europe until 1761.
Bhaskara II, who lived in the 12th Century, was one of the most accomplished of all India’s great mathematicians. He is credited with explaining the previously misunderstood operation of division by zero. He noticed that dividing one into two pieces yields a half, so 1 ÷ 1⁄2 = 2. Similarly, 1 ÷ 1⁄3 = 3. So, dividing 1 by smaller and smaller factions yields a larger and larger number of pieces. Ultimately, therefore, dividing one into pieces of zero size would yield infinitely many pieces, indicating that 1 ÷ 0 = ∞ (the symbol for infinity).
However, Bhaskara II also made important contributions to many different areas of mathematics from solutions of quadratic, cubic and quartic equations (including negative and irrational solutions) to solutions of Diophantine equations of the second order to preliminary concepts of infinitesimal calculus and mathematical analysis to spherical trigonometry and other aspects of trigonometry. Some of his findings predate similar discoveries in Europe by several centuries, and he made important contributions in terms of the systemization of (then) current knowledge and improved methods for known solutions.
The Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics was founded in the late 14th Century by Madhava of Sangamagrama, sometimes called the greatest mathematician-astronomer of medieval India. He developed infinite series approximations for a range of trigonometric functions, including π, sine, etc. Some of his contributions to geometry and algebra and his early forms of differentiation and integration for simple functions may have been transmitted to Europe via Jesuit missionaries, and it is possible that the later European development of calculus was influenced by his work to some extent.
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Sunday, October 9, 2016

Planets dimension and location per Bhagvatgita

Bhagavata Purana, composed around >35000 years ago, describes in detail, Stars, planets in our solar system, Sun, their dimensions, distances between them, climatic and karmic effects of their movement.

sa eṣa bhagavān ādi-puruṣa eva sākṣān nārāyaṇo lokānāṁ svastaya ātmānaṁ trayīmayaṁ karma-viśuddhi-nimittaṁ kavibhir api ca vedena vijijñāsyamāno dvādaśadhā vibhajya ṣaṭsu vasantādiṣv ṛtuṣu yathopa-joṣam ṛtu-guṇān vidadhāti.
Translation : Original cause of the cosmic manifestation is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nārāyaṇa. When great saintly persons, fully aware of the Vedic knowledge, offered prayers to the Supreme Person, He descended to this material world in the form of the sun to benefit all the planets and purify fruitive activities. He divided Himself into twelve parts and created seasonal forms, beginning with spring. In this way He created the seasonal qualities, such as heat, cold and so on.
Srimad Bhagavatam, Canto 5, Chapter 22 describes our solar system in detail.
yathā kulāla-cakreṇa bhramatā saha bhramatāṁ tad-āśrayāṇāṁ pipīlikādīnāṁ gatir anyaiva pradeśāntareṣv apy upalabhyamānatvād evaṁ nakṣatra-rāśibhir upalakṣitena kāla-cakreṇa dhruvaṁ meruṁ ca pradakṣiṇena paridhāvatā saha paridhāvamānānāṁ tad-āśrayāṇāṁ sūryādīnāṁ grahāṇāṁ gatir anyaiva nakṣatrāntare rāśy-antare copalabhyamānatvāt.
Translation : Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī clearly answered: When a potter’s wheel is moving and small ants located on that big wheel are moving with it, one can see that their motion is different from that of the wheel because they appear sometimes on one part of the wheel and sometimes on another. Similarly, the signs and constellations, with Sumeru and Dhruvaloka on their right, move with the wheel of time, and the antlike sun and other planets move with them. The sun and planets, however, are seen in different signs and constellations at different times. This indicates that their motion is different from that of the zodiac and the wheel of time itself.
The time that the passage of the sun takes moving through both the spheres above and below, speeding slow, fast or moderate, is in the descriptions of the scholars discussed as a samvatsara [a solar year], a parivatsara [one twelfth of a revolution of Jupiter], an idâvatsara [a day of the gods consisting of 360 solar days] an anuvatsara [a lunar year comprising twelve lunations] and a vatsara [a year to the ecliptic in terms of the 27 lunar mansions or nakshatras.
evaṁ candramā arka-gabhastibhya upariṣṭāl lakṣa-yojanata upalabhyamāno ’rkasya saṁvatsara-bhuktiṁ pakṣābhyāṁ māsa-bhuktiṁ sapādarkṣābhyāṁ dinenaiva pakṣa-bhuktim agracārī drutatara-gamano bhuṅkte.
Translation : Sun lit Moon, who is placed a hundred thousand yojanas [astronomy: ± 385.000 km] above [the earth] and is moving much faster [than the sun], is so the passage of one year of the sun covered by the passage of two fortnights, is in two and a quarter of a day one solar month [or one twelfth of the sky] passed and is in only one day [the portion of] a fortnight of solar days passed.
(Modern astronauts estimated distance between Earth and Moon to be 384,400 km)
tata upariṣṭād dvi-lakṣa-yojanato nakṣatrāṇi meruṁ dakṣiṇenaiva kālāyana īśvara-yojitāni sahābhijitāṣṭā-viṁśatiḥ.
Translation : [More than] two hundred thousand yojanas behind [the moon], leaving Meru to the right are there, together with the many stars by the Controller attached to the wheel of time, the twenty-eight stars headed by Abhijit (Vega).
tata upariṣṭād uśanā dvi-lakṣa-yojanata upalabhyate purataḥ paścāt sahaiva vārkasya śaighrya-māndya-sāmyābhir gatibhir arkavac carati lokānāṁ nityadānukūla eva prāyeṇa varṣayaṁś cāreṇānumīyate sa vṛṣṭi-viṣṭambha-grahopaśamanaḥ.
Translation : At a distance of two hundred thousand yojanas there about [about the star center or the sun; astronomy: at a distance of 107 million km] there is Us’anâ [Venus], the planet that can be seen going in front, behind and rotating along with the sun just as fast, slow or with a moderate speed. It is of all the planets the one considered to exert as good as always a favorable influence in the form of rainfall, it by its movements neutralizes the influence of planets that obstruct rainfall.
uśanasā budho vyākhyātas tata upariṣṭād dvi-lakṣa-yojanato budhaḥ soma-suta upalabhyamānaḥ prāyeṇa śubha-kṛd yadārkād vyatiricyeta tadātivātābhra-prāyānāvṛṣṭy-ādi-bhayam āśaṁsate.
Translation : Another two hundred thousand yoyana’s behind Venus [astronomy: 57.9 million miles from the sun], so is explained, is there situated Mercury, the son of the moon; he is as good as always working auspiciously, but at the time he stands apart from the sun is there almost always an increase of fearful conditions like draughts, a closed sky, and stormy conditions.
ata ūrdhvam aṅgārako ’pi yojana-lakṣa-dvitaya upalabhyamānas tribhis tribhiḥ pakṣair ekaikaśo rāśīn dvādaśānubhuṅkte yadi na vakreṇābhivartate prāyeṇāśubha-graho ’gha-śaṁsaḥ.
Translation : Two hundred thousands yojanas outside of our orbit there is also Mars [astronomy: at about 228 million km from the sun]; in three by three fortnights does he, if he doesn’t make a curve, one after another pass through the twelve signs and in his approach he is as good as always an unfavorable planet giving trouble.
tata upariṣṭād dvi-lakṣa-yojanāntara-gatā bhagavān bṛhaspatir ekaikasmin rāśau parivatsaraṁ parivatsaraṁ carati yadi na vakraḥ syāt prāyeṇānukūlo brāhmaṇa-kulasya.
Translation : Two hundred thousand yojanas outside of Mars [astronomy: 778.3 million km from the sun] is there the most powerful planet Jupiter who, if he doesn’t run a curve, takes a year [parivatsara] to one after another move through one sign; to the brahmins in the universe he almost always turns out to be very favorable.
tata upariṣṭād yojana-lakṣa-dvayāt pratīyamānaḥ śanaiścara ekaikasmin rāśau triṁśan māsān vilambamānaḥ sarvān evānuparyeti tāvadbhir anuvatsaraiḥ prāyeṇa hi sarveṣām aśāntikaraḥ.
Translation : Two hundred thousand yojanas behind him is situated Saturn [astronomy: 1.43 billion km from the sun], who takes a period of thirty months to travel through each single sign and for sure is as slow as taking an equal number of years [anuvatsara’s] to pass through all of them; he indeed means almost always a lot of trouble to all.
tata uttarasmād ṛṣaya ekādaśa-lakṣa-yojanāntara upalabhyante ya eva lokānāṁ śam anubhāvayanto bhagavato viṣṇor yat paramaṁ padaṁ pradakṣiṇaṁ prakramanti.
Translation : 1.1 million yojanas beyond that one are situated all the great sages who verily always think of the good fortune of the inhabitants of all the worlds; leaving it to the right do they circumambulate the transcendental abode of the Supreme Lord Vishnu [the center of the stars]

Wednesday, October 5, 2016

Gympie Pyramid of Australia

Gympie Pyramid is a low terraced structure located in the outskirts of Gympie in Queensland, Australia.
Many archaeologists claim that this structure was built by european immigrants in late 19th century or early 20th century.Few claim that it has latin American (Incan) connection due to the predominance of a cactus of South or Central American origin in this area.
Few even went on to claim that this pyramid was created by Egyptians who had mining operations in Australia centuries ago, with bases of operation reaching as far as the Blue Mountains in New South Wales.
Even Chinese connection was imposed to it as its size, height and shape are typical of Ming Dynasty observation platforms and it would have been logical for the Chinese to build observatories to determine precisely the location of the phenomenal riches they had discovered.

Gympie Pyramid – The Ramayana Connection

In Kishkinda Kanda episode of Ramayana, sage Valmiki describes about Vanara king Sungreeva’s plans to send 4 teams in 4 directions to find Seetha, who was kidnapped by Ravana.
To the team headed towards east direction, he describes that after crossing ocean in Indian east coast, one would find Yava Dwipam (Yava Island), which is today’s Java Island of Indonesia.
यत्नवन्तो यव द्वीपम् सप्त राज्य उपशोभितम् |
सुवर्ण रूप्यकम् द्वीपम् सुवर्ण आकर मण्डितम् || 4-40-30
यव द्वीपम् अतिक्रम्य शिशिरो नाम पर्वतः |
दिवम् स्पृशति शृन्गेण देव दानव सेवितः || 4-40-31
ततो रक्त जलम् प्राप्य शोण आख्यम् शीघ्र वाहिनीम् |
गत्वा पारम् समुद्रस्य सिद्ध चारण सेवितम् || 4-40-33
Valmiki descibes about Yava Island to appear in golden color (due to sunrays) and there after one finds a mountain called Shishira.
Then he mentions of ‘rapid red waters‘ of the River Shona. (Shona’ (शोण) means ‘red’ in Sanskrit)
The he asks them to proceed to an island called Plaksha (Fig tree) and further on to Ikshu (Sugarcane) Island. They will then confront a furious and tempestuous tide-ripped ocean and its islands.
After this, there is another ocean named Lohita. (Lohita means ‘yellow‘ but the waters are described as a mix of yellow and red. This is most likely today’s Coral Sea of Australia.
After crossing the sea, Valmiki says, one can see the tallest ever ‘Shalmali‘ (शाल्मलि) tree on an island.
Botanical name for the Sanskrit ‘Shalmali‘ is Salmalia Malabaricatralia and is also referred to as Bombax Ceiba. It is native to East Asia and Northern Australia. This must be the Fraser island.
Bombax Ceiba species of silk-cotton trees is sometimes known as Kapok in Northern Australia and the ‘Shalmali‘ are tall trees growing up to a height of 80 feet.
Vishnu Purana refers to Australia as ‘Shalmali Dwipa‘ due to presence of these trees.
Verse 4-40-40 mentions about a huge mountain like structure on this island, which was built by Viswakarma, a ‘celestial‘ architect, responsible for the construction of many gigantic cities and structures (probably the megaliths) around the world.
गृहम् च वैनतेयस्य नाना रत्न विभूषितम् |
तत्र कैलास संकाशम् विहितम् विश्वकर्मणा ||
(gRiham ca vainateyasya naanaa ratna vibhuuSitam |
tatra kailaasa sa.nkaasham vihitam vishvakarmaNaa ||) 4-40-40
Translation : On that Shalmali Island in Wine Ocean you will be seeing the mansion of Vinata’s son, namely Garuda, the Eagle-vehicle of Vishnu, which is decorated with numerous jewels, and which in sheen will be like Mt. Kailash, the abode of Shiva.
This mansion is a construction of Viswakarma, the Heavenly Architect.
Today, the only island one can reach after crossing Indonesia is Australia and Gympie Pyramid is located on its west coast.
Gympie pyramid site in Queensland is about 120 Km away from Fraser island. Valmiki mentions that after one passes this gigantic structure, one will see a shore which is white and shaped like a necklace. This is probably the coast off the shores of Brisbane.
The Ramayana then mentions a Milky Ocean, a tall mountain by the name Rishaba, a silvery lake called Sudharsha, and a beautiful land inhabited by the ‘devas’, ‘apsaras‘ and ‘kinnaras‘.
This should be be New Zealand (with such lakes and adjacent to Australia).
Eventhough modern archaeologists are trying to prove something else, artifacts like the Vedic God Ganesha and a Goddess in a Padmasana posture seated on a lotus flower have been found at Gympie, which indicates that ancient world history is way different than what we are made to believe.

Monday, October 3, 2016

Ramanujacharya original body preserved inside Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, Srirangam, Tiruchinarpalli since 900 years

Vaishnava philosopher and guru Ramanujacharya original body preserved inside Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, Srirangam, Tiruchinarpalli since 1137 CE.

Sri Ramajunacharya was an exponent of the Sri Vaishnavism tradition within Hinduism.
Ramanuja’s thiruvarasu (sacred burial shrine) is the Ramanuja shrine (samaidhi) located inside the Sri Ranganathaswamy temple.
Sandalwood paste and saffron are used to maintain the body and no other chemicals are added.
Twice a year, a coat of camphor mixed with saffron, which produces ochre/orange tint on the preserved body and this tradition has been practiced for more than 878 years.
His body is placed behind his idol and is open for darshan to all devotees.
One can notice nails on fingers, which indicate that it is actually a human body.
His physical body is placed in the southwest corner on the fifth round within the Srirangam temple as ordered by Lord Ranganatha himself.
Even many Srivaishnavas are not aware that in Srirangam, their holiest place hailed as ‘ Bhuloka Vaikuntam‘ ( Heaven on Earth) lies preserved the body of Sri Ramanuja in all its pristine state unostentatiously, without any fanfare or publicity and without using any of the chemical preservatives used for the Egyptian and Goan mummies.
The Egyptian mummies are kept in sleeping position and wrapped in cloth after applying several layers of chemicals.
But Ramanujacharya original body is kept in normal sitting position and open to all for viewing.
This is the only instance where an actual human body is kept inside a hindu temple for so many years.

Ramanujacharya original body preserved in Srirangam Temple

In the year 1017 A.D., Ramanuja was born in the village of Perumbudur, about twenty-five miles west of Madras. His father was Kesava Somayaji and his mother was Kantimathi, a very pious and virtuous lady. Ramanuja’s Tamil name was Ilaya Perumal. Quite early in life, Ramanuja lost his father.
Then he came to Kancheepuram to prosecute his study of the Vedas under one Yadavaprakasha, a teacher of Advaita philosophy.
Ramanuja had re-installed Govindaraja idol in Tirupati, which was initially thrown into sea by Kulotthunga Chola, a Saivaite.
He attained his Acharyan Thiruvadi (the lotus foot of his Acharya) in Lord Ranganatha temple at Srirangam and ever since, Ramanujacharya original body was mummified and preserved there.

Sunday, October 2, 2016

God Indra in various culture

Indra is the leader or King of the Devas or gods and the lord of Svargaloka or heaven according to vedas.

He is also known as Śakra (mighty one) in the Rigveda and is the god of rain and thunderstorms.
In the Vedic period, the number of gods was assumed to be thirty-three and Indra was their lord. (Some early post Rigvedic texts such as the Khilas and the late Vedic Brihad-Aranyaka Upanishad enumerates the gods as the eight Vasus, the eleven Rudras, the twelve Adityas, Indra, and Prajapati).
As lord of the Vasus, Indra was also referred to as Vāsava.
Later, Indra became the prototype for all lords and thus a king could be called Mānavēndra or Narendra (Indra or lord of men) and Rama, the hero of the Ramayana, was referred to as Rāghavendra (Indra of the clan of Raghu).
Krishna mentions himself as Indra among gods :
Of the Vedas I am the Sama Veda; of the demigods I am Indra, the king of heaven; of the senses I am the mind; and in living beings I am the living force [consciousness].” (Bhagavad Gita 10.22)
As the god of war, he is also regarded as one of the Guardians of the directions, representing the east. As the favourite ‘national‘ god of the Vedic Indians, Indra has about 250 hymns dedicated to him in the Rigveda.
In the balakanda of the Valmiki Ramayanam, 15th sarga, Indra is described as “tridasha raajaanam sakram”. Megasthanes wrote about that 30 walled cities of the powerful Andhras in his Indica, They have been recently unearthed by ASI.
Andhra” must be derived from “Indra” as is in the french “andrei”.
He wields a lightning thunderbolt known as vajra and rides on a white elephant known as Airavata. Indra is the supreme deity and is the twin brother of Agni and is also mentioned as an Āditya, son of Aditi. His home is situated on Mount Meru in the heaven.
Indra appears as the name of a daeva in Zoroastrianism. He is known in Burmese as ðadʑá mɪ́ɴ, in Thai as พระอินทร์ (Phra In), in Malay as Indera, in Telugu as ఇంద్రుడు (Indrudu), in Tamil as இந்திரன் (Inthiran), Chinese as 帝释天 (Dìshìtiān), and in Japanese as 帝釈天 (Taishakuten).
He is associated with Vajrapani – the Chief Dharmapala or Defender and Protector of the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha who embodies the power of the Five Dhyani Buddhas.
Indra as a deity is cognate to other Indo-European gods; they are either thunder gods such as Thor, Perun, and Zeus, or gods of intoxicating drinks such as Dionysus. The name of Indra (Indara) is also mentioned among the gods of the Mitanni, a Hurrian-speaking people who ruled northern Syria from ca.1500BC-1300BC.
According to Rigveda,
  • He under whose supreme control are horses, all chariots, the villages, and cattle;
    He who gave being to the Sun and Morning, who leads the waters, He, O men, is Indra. (2.12.7)
  • Indra, you lifted up the pariah who was oppressed, you glorified the blind and the lame. (Rg-Veda 2:13:12)

Appearance and Characteristics of Indra

One Atharva Vedic verse reads, “In Indra are set fast all forms of golden hue.
In the RV 1.65 reads, “SAKRA, who is the purifier (of his worshipers), and well-skilled in horses, who is wonderful and golden-bodied.
Rigveda also reads that Indra “is the dancing god who, clothed in perfumed garments, golden-cheeked rides his golden cart.
One passage calls him both brown and yellow.
Him with the fleece they purify, brown, golden-hued, beloved of all, Who with exhilarating juice goes forth to all the deities“.
In Hindu mythology, the rainbow is called Indra’s Bow (Sanskrit: indradhanus इन्द्रधनुस्).
In mythologies, he is the father of Sugreeva (Vanara king who helped Lord Rama to fight Raavana in Ramayana) and Arjuna (3rd among Pandavas) in Mahabharata.
Indra’s weapon “Vajrayudha“, which Indra possessed, is believed to be prepared from backbone of a sage Dadhichi to kill the asuras (demons).
He also uses a white horse named ‘UchchaiSrava‘ which is derived from churning of Milky Ocean.
Infact, INDRA is a post or title and not name of a king or person.
Anyone who conquered Indriyas (both internal and external sense organs) is an Indra.

Indra and the Ants story in Brahma Vaivarta Purana

Indra on AiravataIndra defeats Vṛtrá and releases the waters. Elevated to the rank of King of the gods, Indra orders the heavenly craftsman, Vishvakarma, to build him a grand palace. Full of pride, Indra continues to demand more and more improvements for the palace. At last, exhausted, Vishvakarma asks Brahma the Creator for help. Brahma in turn appeals to Vishnu, the Supreme Being. Vishnu visits Indra’s palace in the form of a Brahmin boy; Indra welcomes him in. Vishnu praises Indra’s palace, casually adding that no former Indra had succeeded in building such a palace. At first, Indra is amused by the Brahmin boy’s claim to know of former Indras. But the amusement turns to horror as the boy tells about Indra’s ancestors, about the great cycles of creation and destruction, and even about the infinite number of worlds scattered through the void, each with its own Indra. The boy claims to have seen them all. During the boy’s speech, a procession of ants had entered the hall. The boy saw the ants and laughed. Finally humbled, Indra asks the boy why he laughed. The boy reveals that the ants are all former Indras. Another visitor enters the hall. He is Shiva, in the form of a hermit. On his chest lies a circular cluster of hairs, intact at the circumference but with a gap in the middle. Shiva reveals that each of these chest hairs corresponds to the life of one Indra. Each time a hair falls, one Indra dies and another replaces him. No longer interested in wealth and honor, Indra rewards Vishvakarma and releases him from any further work on the palace. Indra himself decides to leave his life of luxury to become a hermit and seek wisdom. Horrified, Indra’s wife Shachi asks the priest Brihaspati to change her husband’s mind. He teaches Indra to see the virtues of both the spiritual life and the worldly life. Thus, at the end of the story, Indra learns how to pursue wisdom while still fulfilling his kingly duties.

The 14 Indras for each Manvantara

Each Manu rules during an eon called a Manvantara. 14 Manvantaras make up a Kalpa, a period corresponding to a day in the life of Brahma. Every Manvantara has 1 Indra that means with every Kalpa 14 Indras changes. Markandye Rishi is said to have a complete age of one Kalpa and in a Purana on his name called “Markandeya Purana” the exact age corresponding to the human age or solar year is described in details. The following list is according to Vishnu Purana (3.1–2)
SvayambhuvaYajna (Avatar of Vishnu)
Shraaddhdev / VaivasvataPurandar (the present Indra)
SavarniBali (next Indra)
Daksha SaavarniAdbhut
Brahma SaavarniShanti
Dharma SaavarniVish
Rudraputra SaavarniRitudhaama
Ruchi (Deva Saavarni)Devaspati
Bhaum (Indra Saavarni)Suchi

Indra in Buddhism, Jainism, Taoism and Bali

In Buddhism and Jainism, Indra is commonly called by his other name, Śakra or Sakka, ruler of the Trāyastriṃśa heaven. However, Śakra is sometimes given the title Indra, or, more commonly, Devānām Indra, “Lord of the Devas“. The ceremonial name of Bangkok claims that the city was “given by Indra and built by Vishvakarman.” The provincial seal of Surin Province, Thailand is an image of Indra atop Airavata.
In Jainism, Indra is also known as Saudharmendra, and always serves the Tirthankaras. Indra most commonly appears in stories related to Mahavira, in which Indra himself manages and celebrates the five auspicious events in that Tirthankara’s life, such as Chavan kalyanak, Janma kalyanak, Diksha kalyanak, Kevalgyan kalyanak, and moksha kalyanak.
In China, Korea, and Japan, he is known by the characters 帝释天 (Chinese: 釋提桓因, pinyin: shì dī huán yīn, Korean: “Je-seok-cheon” or 桓因 Hwan-in, Japanese: “Tai-shaku-ten“, kanji: 帝釈天). In Japan, Indra always appears opposite Brahma (梵天, Japanese: “Bonten“) in Buddhist art. Brahma and Indra are revered together as protectors of the historical Buddha (释迦, Japanese: “Shaka“, kanji: 釈迦), and are frequently shown giving Shaka his first bath. Although Indra is often depicted like a bodhisattva in the Far East, typically in Tang dynasty costume, his iconography also includes a martial aspect, wielding a thunderbolt from atop his elephant mount.
Some Buddhists regard the Daoist Jade Emperor as another interpretation of Indra.
In the Huayan school of Buddhism and elsewhere, the image of Indra’s net is a metaphor for the emptiness of all things.
In Bali, the legend of Tirta Empul Temple origin is related to Indra. The sacred spring was created by the Indra, whose soldiers were poisoned at one time by Mayadanawa. Indra pierced the earth to create a fountain of immortality to revive them.


Saturday, October 1, 2016

Eclipses scientifically explained in Rig Veda

There are many myths across many cultures about how eclipses occur.
In Rigveda (5-40-5 to 9), seer Atri explained scientifically why eclipse occurs.
Puranas have described the story of Rahu, Ketu (North Node and South Node of Moon) in a mystical way.
But the essence remains same as in Rig Veda, which was composed more than 23,000 years ago.
यत तवा सूर्य सवर्भानुस तमसाविध्यद आसुरः |
अक्षेत्रविद यथा मुग्धो भुवनान्य अदीधयुः ||
सवर्भानोर अध यद इन्द्र माया अवो दिवो वर्तमाना अवाहन |
गूळ्हं सूर्यं तमसापव्रतेन तुरीयेण बरह्मणाविन्दद अत्रिः ||
मा माम इमं तव सन्तम अत्र इरस्या दरुग्धो भियसा नि गारीत |
तवम मित्रो असि सत्यराधास तौ मेहावतं वरुणश च राजा ||
गराव्णो बरह्मा युयुजानः सपर्यन कीरिणा देवान नमसोपशिक्षन |
अत्रिः सूर्यस्य दिवि चक्षुर आधात सवर्भानोर अप माया अघुक्षत ||
यं वै सूर्यं सवर्भानुस तमसाविध्यद आसुरः |
अत्रयस तम अन्व अविन्दन नह्य अन्ये अशक्नुवन ||
The sage here described how Svarbhanu created eclipses of Sun and Moon and how Sun appeared after eclipse in sky.
Svarbhanu is Sva + Bha+ Anu. Sva means sky. Bha means light. Anu means follower.
Follower of light is shadow, which is present in the sky.
Eclipse is seen due to this shadow. It is a miracle or phenomenon and Asura means the same (not demon).
Stephen Hawking states that, according to Viking mythology, eclipses occur when two wolves, Skoll and Hati, catch the sun or moon.
At the onset of an eclipse people would make lots of noise, hoping to scare the wolves away.