Showing posts with label Ancient Indian Astrologer. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Ancient Indian Astrologer. Show all posts

Monday, December 21, 2015

Shocking scientific inventions by ancient saints!

Shocking scientific inventions by ancient saints!
    Indian Scriptures have answers that 
modern science needs? 
 During the growth of the 
ancient civilizations, ancient 
  1. 1. Shocking Scientific Inventions by Ancient Saints! Our Rich Heritage !!!
  2. 2. Indian Scriptures have answers that modern science needs?  During the growth of the ancient civilizations, ancient technology was the result of incredible advances in engineering in ancient times.  These advances in the history of technology stimulated societies to adopt new ways of living and governance.  However, many ancient inventions were forgotten, lost to the pages of history, only to be re-invented millennia later.  Here are the best examples of ancient technology and inventions that demonstrate the ingenuity of our ancient ancestors.  So, get ready to be awed...
  3. 3. Saints or scientists?  The land of India is known to be the land of saints and Gods. It is filled with various types of unexplainable things.  In ancient times, various saints after doing years of hard meditation, their work and with their patience found the secrets hidden in the Vedas 1,000 years ago.  These inventions later came to be known as modern science.  Some of the saints came out with such amazing inventions that shocked the kings of those times as well.  Click on to know…
  4. 4. The Indian Sage who developed Atomic Theory 2,600 years ago  John Dalton (1766 – 1844), an English chemist and physicist, is the man credited today with the development of atomic theory.  However, a theory of atoms was actually formulated 2,500 years before Dalton by an Indian sage and philosopher, known as Acharya Kanad.  Acharya Kanad was born in 600 BC in Prabhas Kshetra (near Dwaraka) in Gujarat, India. His real name was Kashyap. It was Kanada who originated the idea that anu (atom) was an indestructible particle of matter.
  5. 5. The Indian Sage who developed Atomic Theory 2,600 years ago II  An interesting story states that this theory occurred to him while he was walking with food in his hand.  As he nibbled at the food in his hand, throwing away the small particles, it occurred to him that he could not divide the food into further parts and thus the idea of a matter which cannot be divided further came into existence.  He called that indivisible matter anu, i.e. molecule, which was misinterpreted as atom.  He also stated that anu can have two states - Absolute rest and a State of motion.
  6. 6. Newton’s Law… 1200 Years before Newton  “Objects fall on the earth due to a force of attraction by the earth. Therefore, the earth, planets, constellations, moon and sun are held in orbit due to this attraction.”  The meaning of these lines is parallel to that of Newton’s Law of Gravity.  But these lines are not said by the European scientist. They are said by an Indian - in Surya Siddhanta, dated 400-500 AD, the ancient Hindu astronomer Bhaskaracharya states these lines.  Approximately 1200 years later (1687 AD), Sir Isaac Newton rediscovered this phenomenon and called it the Law of Gravity.
  7. 7. Acharya Charak: Father of Medicine  Acharya Charak has been crowned as the Father of Medicine. His renowned work, the "Charak Samhita," is considered as an encyclopedia of Ayurveda.  His principles, diagnoses, and cures retain their potency and truth even after a couple of millennium.  When the science of anatomy was confused with different theories in Europe, Acharya Charak revealed through his innate genius and inquires the facts on human anatomy, embryology, pharmacology, blood circulation and diseases like diabetes, tuberculosis, heart disease, etc.
  8. 8. Charak Samhita  In the "Charak Samhita" he has described the medicinal qualities and functions of 100,000 herbal plants.  He has emphasized the influence of diet and activity on mind and body.  He has proved the correlation of spirituality and physical health contributed greatly to diagnostic and curative sciences.  He has also prescribed and ethical charter for medical practitioners two centuries prior to the Oath.  Through his genius and intuition, Acharya Charak forever remains etched in the annals of history as one of the greatest and noblest of rishi-scientists.
  9. 9. Sage Bharadwaj  In 1875, the Vymaanika- Shaastra, a fourth century BC text written by Maharshi Bhardwaj, was discovered in a temple in India.  The book dealt with the operation of ancient vimanas and included information on steering, precautions for long flights, protection of the airships from storms and lightning, and how to switch the drive to solar energy, or some other “free energy” source. Vimanas were said to take off vertically or dirigible.  Bharadwaj the Wise refers to no less than 70 authorities and 10 experts of air travel in antiquity.
  10. 10. Rishi Kanva  The science of wind has been explained by Sage Kanva in Rigveda sections 8/41/6 in Jagati meter of God wind.  Sage Kashyapa has described the features and properties of this substance in Rigveda 9/64/26 in the hymns of God Pavamana Soma in meter Gayatri.  Kanva was a great Rishi, a descendent of Sage Angirasa.  He looked after Shakuntala when she was abandoned by her mother and father (rishi vishwamitra). Bharat, the son of Shakuntala was also brought up by him.
  11. 11. Sage Kapil Muni: Author of the Sankhya Darshan  Kapil muni was born equipped with rare intellect, dispassion and spiritual powers.  He authored Sankhya Darshan that defined the term "Dhyaan or Meditation" as “the state of mind when remains without any subjectivity / objectivity i.e. without any thought (when the mind is away from worldly objects), is called the "Dhyaan or Meditation”.  He teaches that there is an unbroken continuity from the lowest inorganic to the highest organic forms.  The source of world according to him is Prakriti (fundamental nature).
  12. 12. Kapil Muni: Finding how the Universe was created  According to Kapil Muni, there are twenty-five principles responsible for the manifestation of the Creation (Samasara), out of which Purusha and Prakriti are eternal and independent of each other.  Kapila is not concerned to deny the reality of personal God or Maheshwara. Yet his assertion is that, no arguments can irrefutably establish God's reality.  Therefore, in his model of creation the Purusha (Spirit) and Prakrity (matter) are held solely responsible for creation, without acknowledging an Almighty and intelligent Creator, the God.
  13. 13. Patanjali: The Father of Yoga  The Science of Yoga is one of several unique contributions of India to the world.  It seeks to discover and realize the ultimate Reality through yogic practices.  Acharya Patanjali, prescribed the control of prana (life breath) as the means to control the body, mind and soul.  This subsequently rewards one with good health and inner happiness.  His 84 yogic postures effectively enhance the efficiency of the respiratory, circulatory, nervous, digestive and endocrine systems and many other organs of the body.
  14. 14. Aryabhatt  He was a master Astronomer and Mathematician, born in 476 CE in Kusumpur (Bihar).  In 499 CE, he wrote a text on astronomy and an unparallel treatise on mathematics called "Aryabhatiyam"  He formulated the process of calculating the motion of planets and the time of eclipses.  Aryabhatt was the first to proclaim that the earth is round, it rotates on its axis, orbits the sun and is suspended in space - 1,000 years before Copernicus published his heliocentric theory.
  15. 15. Sushruta  Born to sage Vishwamitra, Sushruta is the father of surgery.  2600 years ago, he and health scientists of his time conducted complicated surgeries like cesareans, cataract, artificial limbs, Rhinoplasty (restoration of a damaged nose), 12 types of fractures, 6 types of dislocations, urinary stones and even plastic surgery and brain surgery.  Usage of anesthesia was well known in ancient India.  He is the author of the book "Sushruta Samhita", in which he describes over 300 surgical procedures and 125 surgical instruments.
  16. 16. Bhaskaracharya  He calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the sun hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart;  Time taken by earth to orbit the sun: (5th century) 365.258756484 days.  Born in the obscure village of Vijjadit (Jalgaon) in Maharastra, Bhaskaracharya's mathematical works called "Lilavati" and "Bijaganita" are considered to be unparalleled.  In his treatise "Siddhant Shiromani" he writes on planetary positions, eclipses, cosmography, mathematical techniques and astronomical equipment.  In the "Surya Siddhant" he makes a note on the force of gravity.
  17. 17. Varahamihira  Varahamihir's book "panch siddhant", noted that the moon and planets are lustrous not because of their own light but due to sunlight.  In the "Bruhad Samhita" and "Bruhad Jatak", he has revealed his discoveries in the domains of geography, constellation, science, botany and animal science.  In his treatise on botanical science, Varahamihir presents cures for various diseases afflicting plants and trees.
  18. 18. The galaxy is oval, Earth is spherical  Yajur Vedic verse: "Brahmaanda vyapta deha bhasitha himaruja..." describing Shiva as the one who is spread out in Brahmaanda.  Anda means an egg depicting the shape of the galaxy.  It was the middle east Europians and Greeks who wrongly believed that earth was flat.  But Indians, since long have always known that it was spherical.  In many scriptures, the word Bhoogola is used, Gola meaning round.
  19. 19. Existence of Atomic and Sub atomic particles  The world accounts discovery of atoms and sub atomic particles to Western scientists who coined these words and theories only in the early 17th century.  An excerpt from Lalitha Sahasranama, told by Hayagreeva to Agasthya muni, dating back to the distant ages of the past,describes the Goddess as the super consciousness/Brahman that pervades even the sub atomic particles within matter.  "Paranjyotih parandhamah paramanuh paratpara". The word "anuvu" means atom.  Paramanu is sub-atomic particle, finer than the finest of atom, meaning electrons and the others.
  20. 20. Ancient times and nuclear weapons  Radiation still so intense, the area is highly dangerous!  A heavy layer of radioactive ash in Rajasthan, India, covers a three-square mile area, ten miles west of Jodhpur.  For some time it has been established that there is a very high rate of birth defects and cancer in the area under construction.  Scientists have unearthed an ancient city where evidence shows an atomic blast dating back thousands of years, from 8,000 to 12,000 years, destroying everything most of the buildings and probably a half-million people.
  21. 21. Ancient times and nuclear weapons II  The Mahabharata clearly describes a catastrophic blast that rocked the continent.  "A single projectile charged with all the power in the Universe...An incandescent column of smoke and flame as bright as 10,000 suns, rose in all its splendor...  it was an unknown weapon, an iron thunderbolt, a gigantic messenger of death which reduced to ashes an entire race.”  Historian Kisori Mohan Ganguli says that Indian sacred writings are full of such descriptions.
  22. 22. Ancient ultrasound machines?  Using a variety of complicated instruments, gynecologists have gradually come to know how the embryo grows during the period of pregnancy.  But the Shrimad Bhagavatam, 3rd canto, 30th chapter, gives a vivid description of the growth of the embryo in the mother's womb.  If we compare the information given therein with the information given in a standard textbook such as the embryology section of Gray's Anatomy, there are striking similarities in the information obtained from the two sources.
  23. 23. Ancient science knows more than modern science?  The Vedas claim that there are living entities everywhere - even in fire.  Modern science, however, presumed that no life could exist in fire.  This presumption is in fact the basis for the process of sterilization.  But recent advancements in the field of medicine have shown that microbes called 'fire bacteria' survive even in fire.
  24. 24. The incredible powers of the ancient Siddharshi!  Siddharshi are a type of saint in India who are said to have had many powers and achieved a ‘god-like’ state through specific secret practices that were known only to them.  These powers spanned from controlling time and space, to transforming the body, manipulating matter at the molecular level and achieving immortality.  The Siddharshi were followers of the God Shiva and according to different texts there were 18 of them.  Their teachings and findings were written in the form of poems in the Tamil language.
  25. 25. Who were Siddharshi?  There is a debate as to who was the first Siddharshi.  Some legends talk about Sri Pathanjali, who was considered to be an incarnation of Adiseshan, the celestial five-headed snake associated with God Vishnu.  But the prevailing tradition refers to Agasthya (or Agasthyar) as the first Siddharshi, one of the seven sages (or Saptarshis) as mentioned in the Vedic texts, and he was the son of the god Brahma of the Hindu creation story.
  26. 26. Siddhas or scientists?  Agathiyar is considered to be the author of a lot of the first Siddha literature and he was supposed to have lived in the 7th century BC.  About 96 books are attributed to him and that includes writings in alchemy, medicine and spirituality.  Apart from the legends that exist, the beginnings of the Siddhars’ are lost in time.
  27. 27. Ashta Siddhis of Siddhas  The powers that the Siddhars possessed were separated in categories.  The main category included 8 powers called ashta siddhis:  To become tiny as the atom within the atom (Anima);  To become big in unshakeable proportions (Mahima);  To become as light as vapour in levitation (Laghima);  To become as heavy as the mountain (Garima);  To enter into other bodies in transmigration (Prapti);  To be in all things, omni-pervasive (Prakamya);  To be lord of all creation in omnipotence (Isatvam);  To be everywhere in omnipresence (Vasitvam)
  28. 28. Ten Siddhis of Siddhas  There are ten secondary siddhis as described in Bhagavata Purana that include the following:  Being undisturbed by hunger, thirst, and other bodily appetites;  Hearing things far away;  Seeing things far away;  Moving the body wherever thought goes (teleportation/astral projection);  Assuming any form desired;  Entering the bodies of others;  Dying when one desires;  Witnessing and participating in the past times of the gods;  Perfect accomplishment of one's determination;  Orders or commands being unimpeded
  29. 29. Ancient science and Siddhas  A famous Siddha was Tirumular, who was a Tamil mystic and writer of 6th century AD and was also one of the 18 Siddhas according to the Tamil Siddha tradition.  His main work is named “Tirumantiram”, a 3,000 verse text, which is the foundation of the Southern Shaiva Siddharta School of philosophy.  Another Siddha, Bhogar (Bhoganathar), who lived between the 3rd and 5th century AD is said to have discovered the elixir of immortality – one his main works is the Pharmacognosy.
  30. 30. The mystery remains…!  Due to the closely-guarded nature of the Siddhar records, the original knowledge of this enigmatic group of saints has remained shrouded in secrecy.  The question remains whether their powers were real and, if so, how they managed to attain them.  Manipulating space, time and matter would require knowledge far beyond what we have today.
  31. 31. Be Proud To Be An Indian Jai Bharatvarsh!!!

Saturday, March 28, 2015

Ancient Indian Astrologers

Paramesvara was an Indian astronomer and mathematician who wrote many commentaries on earlier works as well as making many observations.He is inspired from Madhava's work on mathematics in Kerala. Although his father has not been identified, we know that Paramesvara was born into a Namputiri Brahmana family who were astrologers and astronomers. The family home was Vatasseri (sometimes called Vatasreni) in the village of Alattur. This village was in Kerala and Paramesvara himself gives its coordinates with respect to Ujjain. This puts it at latitude 10° 51' north. It is on the north bank of the river Nila at its mouth.
From Paramesvara's writing we know that Rudra was his teacher, and Nilakantha, who knew Paramesvara personally, tells us that Paramesvara's teachers included Madhava and Narayana. We can be fairly confident that the dates we have given for Paramesvara are roughly correct since he made eclipe observations over a period of 55 years. We will say a little more about these observations below. He played an important part in the remarkable developments in mathematics which took place in Kerala in the late 14th and early part of the 15th century.
The commentaries by Paramesvara on a number of works have been published. For example the Karmadipika is a commentary on the Mahabhaskariyam, an astronomical and mathematical work by Bhaskara I, and its text . In the text of Paramesvara's commentary on the Laghubhaskariyam of Bhaskara I is given. Munjala wrote the astronomical work Laghumanasam in the year 932 and Paramesvara wrote a commentary . It is a work containing typical topics for Indian mathematical astronomy works of this period: the mean motions of the heavenly bodies; the true motions of the heavenly bodies; miscellaneous mathematical rules; the systems of coordinates, direction, place and time; eclipses of the sun and the moon; and the operation for apparent longitude.
Aryabhata gave a rule for determining the height of a pole from the lengths of its shadows in the Aryabhatiya. Paramesvara gave several illustrative examples of the method in his commentary on the Aryabhatiya.
Like many mathematicians from Kerala, Madhava clearly had a very strong influence on Paramesvara. One can see throughout his work that it is teachings by Madhava which direct much of Paramesvara's mathematical ideas. One of Paramesvara's most remarkable mathematical discoveries, no doubt influenced by Madhava, was a version of the mean value theorem. He states the theorem in his commentary Lilavati Bhasya on Bhaskara II's Lilavati. There are other examples of versions of the mean value theorem in Paramesvara's work which we now consider.
The Siddhantadipika by Paramesvara is a commentary on the commentary of Govindasvami on Bhaskara I's Mahabhaskariya. Paramesvara gives some of his eclipse observations in this work including one made at Navaksetra in 1422 and two made at Gokarna in 1425 and 1430. This work also contains a mean value type formula for inverse interpolation of the sine. It presents a one-point iterative technique for calculating the sine of a given angle. In the Siddhantadipika Paramesvara also gives a more efficient approximation that works using a two-point iterative algorithm which turns out to be essentially the same as the modern secant method.
The expression for the radius of the circle in which a cyclic quadrilateral is inscribed, given in terms of the sides of the quadrilateral, is usually attributed to Lhuilier in 1782. However Paramesvara described the rule 350 years earlier. If the sides of the cyclic quadrilateral are a, b, c and d then the radius r of the circumscribed circle was given by Paramesvara as:
r2 = x/y where
x = (ab + cd) (ac + bd) (ad + bc)
and y = (a + b + c - d) (b + c + d - a) (c + d + a - b) (d + a + b - c).
Paramesvara made a series of eclipse observations between 1393 and 1432 which we have referred to above. The last observation which we know he made was in 1445 but Nilakantha quotes a verse by Paramesvara in which he claims to have made observations spanning 55 years. The known observatons by Paramesvara do not quite square with this statement, there being a discrepancy of three years. Although we do not know when Paramesvara died we do know, again from Nilakantha, that the two knew each other personally. Since we have a definite date for Nilakantha's birth of 1444 it is hard to believe that Paramesvara died before 1460.
Using his observations, Paramesvara made revisions of the planetary parameters and, like many other Indian astronomers, he constantly attempted to compare the theoretically computed positions of the planets with those which he actually observed. He was keen to improve the theoretical model to bring it into as close an agreement with observations as possible.