Showing posts with label ancient indian science. Show all posts
Showing posts with label ancient indian science. Show all posts

Sunday, November 4, 2018

GRAVITATIONAL FORCE and Eclipse in Vedas


GRAVITATIONAL FORCE
Rig Veda 8.12.28
“O Indra! by putting forth your mighty rays, which possess the qualities of gravitation and attraction-illumination and motion – keep up the entire universe in order through the Power of your attraction.”
Rig Veda 1.6.5, Rig Veda 8.12.30
“O God, You have created this Sun. You possess infinite power. You are upholding the sun and other spheres and render them steadfast by your power of attraction.
Yajur Veda 33.43
“The sun moves in its own orbit in space taking along with itself the mortal bodies like earth through force of attraction.”
Rig Veda 1.35.9
“The sun moves in its own orbit but holding earth and other heavenly bodies in a manner that they do not collide with each other through force of attraction.
Rig Veda 1.164.13
“Sun moves in its orbit which itself is moving. Earth and other bodies move around sun due to force of attraction, because sun is heavier than them.
Atharva Veda 4.11.1
“The sun has held the earth and other planets”
ECLIPSE
Rig Veda 5.40.5
“O Sun! When you are blocked by the one whom you gifted your own light (moon), then earth gets scared by sudden darkness.”

Rig Veda 10.149.1
“The sun has tied Earth and other planets through attraction and moves them around itself as if a trainer moves newly trained horses around itself holding their reins.”

In this mantra,
Savita = Sun
Yantraih = through reins
Prithiveem = Earth
Aramnaat = Ties
Dyaam Andahat = Other planets in sky as well
Atoorte = Unbreakable
Baddham = Holds
Ashwam Iv Adhukshat = Like horses
MOTION OF EARTH
Rig Veda 10.22.14
“This earth is devoid of hands and legs, yet it moves ahead. All the objects over the earth also move with it. It moves around the sun.
In this mantra,
Kshaa = Earth (refer Nigantu 1.1)
Ahastaa = without hands
Apadee = without legs
Vardhat = moves ahead
Shushnam Pari = Around the sun
Pradakshinit = revolves

Saturday, October 1, 2016

Eclipses scientifically explained in Rig Veda


There are many myths across many cultures about how eclipses occur.
In Rigveda (5-40-5 to 9), seer Atri explained scientifically why eclipse occurs.
Puranas have described the story of Rahu, Ketu (North Node and South Node of Moon) in a mystical way.
But the essence remains same as in Rig Veda, which was composed more than 23,000 years ago.
यत तवा सूर्य सवर्भानुस तमसाविध्यद आसुरः |
अक्षेत्रविद यथा मुग्धो भुवनान्य अदीधयुः ||
सवर्भानोर अध यद इन्द्र माया अवो दिवो वर्तमाना अवाहन |
गूळ्हं सूर्यं तमसापव्रतेन तुरीयेण बरह्मणाविन्दद अत्रिः ||
मा माम इमं तव सन्तम अत्र इरस्या दरुग्धो भियसा नि गारीत |
तवम मित्रो असि सत्यराधास तौ मेहावतं वरुणश च राजा ||
गराव्णो बरह्मा युयुजानः सपर्यन कीरिणा देवान नमसोपशिक्षन |
अत्रिः सूर्यस्य दिवि चक्षुर आधात सवर्भानोर अप माया अघुक्षत ||
यं वै सूर्यं सवर्भानुस तमसाविध्यद आसुरः |
अत्रयस तम अन्व अविन्दन नह्य अन्ये अशक्नुवन ||
The sage here described how Svarbhanu created eclipses of Sun and Moon and how Sun appeared after eclipse in sky.
Svarbhanu is Sva + Bha+ Anu. Sva means sky. Bha means light. Anu means follower.
Follower of light is shadow, which is present in the sky.
Eclipse is seen due to this shadow. It is a miracle or phenomenon and Asura means the same (not demon).
Stephen Hawking states that, according to Viking mythology, eclipses occur when two wolves, Skoll and Hati, catch the sun or moon.
At the onset of an eclipse people would make lots of noise, hoping to scare the wolves away.

Saturday, April 2, 2016

Ancient India ,Egypt, South America and Yugas

 

  The duration of the Satya Yuga millennium equals 4,800 years of the demigods; the duration of the Dvāpara millennium equals 2,400 years; and that of the Kali millennium is 1,200 years of the demigods […] As aforementioned, one year of the demigods is equal to 360 years of the human beings. The duration of the Satya-yuga is therefore 4,800 x 360, or 1,728,000 years. The duration of the Tretā-yuga is 3,600 x 360, or 1,296,000 years. The duration of the Dvāpara-yuga is 2,400 x 360, or 864,000 years. And the last, the Kali-yuga, is 1,200 x 360, or 432,000 years in total.’
The Dvapara Yuga is the third out of four yugas, or ages, described in the scriptures of Hinduism. This yuga comes between Treta Yuga and Kali Yuga.
According to thePuranas, this yuga ended at the moment when Krishnareturned to his eternal abode of Vaikuntha. According to theBhagavata Purana, the Dvapara Yuga lasts 864,000 years.

Submarine megalithic structures off the coasts of Malta, Egypt, Lebanon, India, China, andJapan in waters up to 70 meters deep, were evidently submerged when the Ice Age ended and sea-level rose about 100 meters because of runoff from the melting of the Ice Age ice-packs.

Many of these megaliths were astronomical measuring devices, which indicates that their Ice Age constructors had map-making capabilities and sailed the seas, as demonstrated by a commonality of the architectural motifs of the megaliths worldwide, and as demonstrated by Turkish navigational maps which were sourced from ancient Phoenician maps and show coastlines of the Ice Age world with accuracies of latitude and longitude to not be matched until modern times.
Mainstream earth-chronologists insist that the Ice Age ended around 10000 B.C., at which point the sea-level rose to submerge these megaliths. However, the submerged megaliths are of designs and uses characteristic of around 2000 B.C. Are we therefore to believe that advanced civilizations actually began before 10000 B.C., and not around 3000 B.C. (as is commonly published)?
Mainstream archaeologists have said that the advanced civilizations of the Old and New Worlds appeared suddenly around 3000 B.C. without evidence of cultural and technological evolution to that pyramid-building level of mathematical and engineering sophistication. Therefore, how can it be that the megaliths were submerged 12,000 years ago?
In the Rig Veda of ancient Hinduism, the text says that the N.W. Indian city of Dwarka was submerged by the encroaching ocean when the ancient patriarch Krishna died.
Are we to believe that Krishna died around 10,000 B.C, and therefore that Hinduism is over 12,000 years old?
The megaliths of ancientDwarka are in fact found submerged just offshore from modern Dwarka, and the huge stone walls built of megalithic blocks which had been interlocked with chiseled L-shaped dovetails are characteristic of the Indus Civilization that popularly is advertised to have had flourished near 2,000 B.C., not 10,000 B.C.
he Gulfs of Cambay and Kutch, just south of Dwarka, also hold submerged megalithic Indus Civilization structures that were covered by the ocean at the melting of the Ice Age. Computer-generated maps of the world as it was during the Ice Age reveal thatancient Dwarka was about 100 km inland during the Ice Age.
Also inland were the now submerged Indus Civilization megaliths on the floor of the Gulfs of Kutch and Cambay, as were the megaliths of Tamil pyramidal construction off the coast of southern India at Cape Cormorin and Madurai.
Ancient Hindu legends reveal that two Sangams (schools) were submerged by encroaching seas, and local divers say that thesubmerged pyramids look like the current Sangam pyramid at Madurai.
According to the computer-generated Ice Age maps, about 25 million square miles of land were submerged by the rising sea-level because of the melting of the Ice Age ice-pack, and much of that land is now the floor of the shallow seas of southern Asia.
To the east of India, Ice Age megaliths of the Jomon Civilization are found on the sea-floor between Japan and Taiwan (at Yonaguni, Kerama, Chatan, and more). These stone circles, tiered plazas, and step-pyramids of astronomical measuring significance are found on the sea-floor, as they are on land, thus proving that these buildings were of the same time period.
Are we to believe that these astronomically significant megaliths were built some 12,000 years ago at a time when mainstream earth-chronologists insist that the Ice Age ended and sea level as a result rose about 100 meters to engulf these megaliths which are evidently and contradictorily of 2,000 B.C. vintage?
Are we to believe that the Hindu and Tamil recounts of history have been going on for 12,000 years, and that humanity developed no further and built no more for 7,000 years (from 10,000 B.C. to 3,000 B.C.) until advanced cultures reemerged in Egypt and Sumeria (Babylon)?
Such a torturous manipulation of the evidences from the archaeology and the ancient legends is unnecessary with the realization that the Ice Age did in fact end much later than is popularly advertised.
Egypt and Sumeria were building their megaliths when the Indus,Tamil, and Jomon people were building theirs during the Ice Age.
The ancient history book Popol Vuh of the Olmec-descendedMayans recalls the time when their seafaring ancient ancestors arrived from the east because of their sophisticated navigational skills as they “studied and measured the round face of the earth and the arch of the sky” in a time of “constant twilight” and “black rain.”
The obviously heavy volcanic ash content of this rain and the dense cloud-cover from which this rain came that blocked the sun to cause “constant twilight”, shows that the Mayan ancestors arrived during the Ice Age.

Link

Thursday, January 14, 2016

Hindus Gotra System: Scientific Ancestry



gotra
In Hindu society, the term gotra means is same of what modern day Ancestry is. t comes from Sages whose name Gotra comes from .

Gotra means cowshed (Go=Cow, tra=shed) in Sanskrit. Paini defines gotra for grammatical purposes as apatyam pautraprabhrti gotram (IV. 1. 162), which means the word gotra denotes the progeny (of a sage) beginning with the son’s son. The system does not mean coming from Brahman(not cast basis), but all who were educated were called Brahman, means know er.
Hindu Brahmins identify their male lineage by considering themselves to be the descendants of the 8 great Rishis i.e Saptarishis (The Seven Sacred Saints) + Bharadwaja Rishi. So the list of root  Gotras is as follows :
. Angirasa
. Atri
. Gautam
. Kashyapa
. Bhrigu
. Vasistha
. Kutsa
. Bharadwaja
The offspring (apatya) of these eight are gotras and others than these are called  gotravayava. These eight sages are called gotrakarins from whom all the 49 gotras have evolved.
For instance, from Atri sprang the Atreya and Gavisthiras gotras.In almost all Hindu families, marriage within the same gotra is prohibited, since people with same gotra are considered to be siblings.
It connects to the root Seer. Gotra does not have to pass from father to children ,as in  Malayalis and Tulu’s its passed on from mother to children.

Additional rule in the Gotra system is that, even if the Bride and Bridegroom belong to different Gotras, they still cannot get married even if just one of their Gotra Pravara matches. Now, why only male carries fixed lastname and gotra and why female can change her last name, gotra after marriage?
Genes and Chromosomes Among Humans
Humans have 23 pairs of Chromosomes and in each pair one Chromosome comes from the father and the other comes from the mother. So in all we have 46 Chromosomes in every cell, of which 23 come from the mother and 23 from the father.
Of these 23 pairs, there is one pair called the Sex Chromosomes which decide the gender of the person. During conception, if the resultant cell has XX sex chromosomes then the child will be a girl and if it is XY then the child will be a boy. X chromosome decides the female attributes of a person and Y Chromosome decides the male attributes of a person.
When the initial embryonic cell has XY chromosome, the female attributes get suppressed by the genes in the Y Chromosome and the embryo develops into a male child. Since only men have Y Chromosomes, son always gets his Y Chromosome from his father and the X Chromosome from his mother. On the other hand daughters always get their X Chromosomes, one each from both father and mother.
So the Y Chromosome is always preserved throughout a male lineage  because a Son always gets it from his father, while the X Chromosome is not preserved in the female lineage (Mother, Daughter, Grand Daughter etc) because it comes from both father and mother.
A mother will pass either her mother’s X Chromosome to her Children or her father’s X Chromosome to her children or a combination of both because of both her X Chromosomes getting mixed (called as Crossover).
But Mitochondrial  gene in offspring comes only from mother so you can trace all son and daughter to mother by Mitochondrial gene.

On the other hand, a Son always gets his father’s Y Chromosome and that too almost intact without any changes because there is no corresponding another Y chromosome in his cells to do any mixing as his combination is XY, while that of females is XX which hence allows for mixing as both are X Chromosomes.
Women never get this Y Chromosome in their body. And hence Y Chromosome plays a crucial role in modern genetics in identifying the Genealogy ie male ancestry of a person. And the Gotra system was designed to track down the root Y Chromosome of a person quite easily. If a person belongs to Angirasa Gotra then it means that his Y Chromosome came all the way down over thousands of years of timespan from the Rishi Angirasa!
And if a person belongs to a Gotra (say Bharadwaja) with Pravaras (Angirasa, Bhaarhaspatya, Bharadwaja), then it means that the person’s Y Chromosome came all the way down from Angirasa to Bhaarhaspatya to Bharadwaja to the person.
This also makes it clear why females are said to belong to the Gotra of their husbands after marriage. That is because women do not carry Y Chromosome, and their Sons will carry the Y Chromosome of the Father and hence the Gotra of a woman is said to be that of her husband after marriage.






gotra5
Y is the only Chromosome which does not have a similar pair in the human body. The pair of the Y Chromosome in humans is X Chromosome which is significantly different from Y Chromosome. Even the size of the Y Chromosome is just about one third the size of the X Chromosome. In other words throughout evolution the size of the Y Chromosome has been decreasing and it has lost most of its genes and has been reduced to its current size.
Scientists are debating whether Y Chromosome will be able to survive for more than a few million years into the future or whether it will gradually vanish, and if it does so whether it will cause males to become extinct! Obviously because Y Chromosome is the one which makes a person male or a man.
Y Chromosome has to depend on itself to repair any of its injuries and for that it has created duplicate copies of its genes within itself. However this does not stop DNA damages in Y Chromosome which escape its local repair process from being propagated into the offspring males.
This causes Y Chromosomes to accumulate more and more defects over a prolonged period of evolution and scientists believe that this is what is causing the Y Chromosome to keep losing its weight continuously.
Y Chromosome which is crucial for the creation and evolution of males has a fundamental weakness which is denying it participation in the normal process of evolution via Chromosomal mix and match to create better versions in every successive generation, and this weakness MAY lead to the extinction of Y Chromosome altogether over the next few million years, and if that happens scientists are not sure whether that would cause males to become extinct or not.
And that is because Scientists are not sure whether any other Chromosome in the 23 pairs will be able to take over the role of the Y Chromosome or not.
On the other hand, it is not necessary that humanity will not be able to survive if males become extinct. Note that females do not need the Y Chromosome, and since all females have X Chromosomes, it would be still possible to create a mechanism where X Chromosomes from different females are used to create offspring, say like injecting the nuclei from the egg of one female into the egg of another female to fertilize it and that would grow into a girl child. So yes, that would be a humanity where only females exist.
Even modern scientists have concluded that children born to parents having blood relation (like cousins) can have birth defects. For example, there is a recessive dangerous gene in one person.
 Mathomathis

Monday, December 21, 2015

Shocking scientific inventions by ancient saints!

Shocking scientific inventions by ancient saints!
    Indian Scriptures have answers that 
modern science needs? 
 During the growth of the 
ancient civilizations, ancient 
te...
  1. 1. Shocking Scientific Inventions by Ancient Saints! Our Rich Heritage !!!
  2. 2. Indian Scriptures have answers that modern science needs?  During the growth of the ancient civilizations, ancient technology was the result of incredible advances in engineering in ancient times.  These advances in the history of technology stimulated societies to adopt new ways of living and governance.  However, many ancient inventions were forgotten, lost to the pages of history, only to be re-invented millennia later.  Here are the best examples of ancient technology and inventions that demonstrate the ingenuity of our ancient ancestors.  So, get ready to be awed...
  3. 3. Saints or scientists?  The land of India is known to be the land of saints and Gods. It is filled with various types of unexplainable things.  In ancient times, various saints after doing years of hard meditation, their work and with their patience found the secrets hidden in the Vedas 1,000 years ago.  These inventions later came to be known as modern science.  Some of the saints came out with such amazing inventions that shocked the kings of those times as well.  Click on to know…
  4. 4. The Indian Sage who developed Atomic Theory 2,600 years ago  John Dalton (1766 – 1844), an English chemist and physicist, is the man credited today with the development of atomic theory.  However, a theory of atoms was actually formulated 2,500 years before Dalton by an Indian sage and philosopher, known as Acharya Kanad.  Acharya Kanad was born in 600 BC in Prabhas Kshetra (near Dwaraka) in Gujarat, India. His real name was Kashyap. It was Kanada who originated the idea that anu (atom) was an indestructible particle of matter.
  5. 5. The Indian Sage who developed Atomic Theory 2,600 years ago II  An interesting story states that this theory occurred to him while he was walking with food in his hand.  As he nibbled at the food in his hand, throwing away the small particles, it occurred to him that he could not divide the food into further parts and thus the idea of a matter which cannot be divided further came into existence.  He called that indivisible matter anu, i.e. molecule, which was misinterpreted as atom.  He also stated that anu can have two states - Absolute rest and a State of motion.
  6. 6. Newton’s Law… 1200 Years before Newton  “Objects fall on the earth due to a force of attraction by the earth. Therefore, the earth, planets, constellations, moon and sun are held in orbit due to this attraction.”  The meaning of these lines is parallel to that of Newton’s Law of Gravity.  But these lines are not said by the European scientist. They are said by an Indian - in Surya Siddhanta, dated 400-500 AD, the ancient Hindu astronomer Bhaskaracharya states these lines.  Approximately 1200 years later (1687 AD), Sir Isaac Newton rediscovered this phenomenon and called it the Law of Gravity.
  7. 7. Acharya Charak: Father of Medicine  Acharya Charak has been crowned as the Father of Medicine. His renowned work, the "Charak Samhita," is considered as an encyclopedia of Ayurveda.  His principles, diagnoses, and cures retain their potency and truth even after a couple of millennium.  When the science of anatomy was confused with different theories in Europe, Acharya Charak revealed through his innate genius and inquires the facts on human anatomy, embryology, pharmacology, blood circulation and diseases like diabetes, tuberculosis, heart disease, etc.
  8. 8. Charak Samhita  In the "Charak Samhita" he has described the medicinal qualities and functions of 100,000 herbal plants.  He has emphasized the influence of diet and activity on mind and body.  He has proved the correlation of spirituality and physical health contributed greatly to diagnostic and curative sciences.  He has also prescribed and ethical charter for medical practitioners two centuries prior to the Oath.  Through his genius and intuition, Acharya Charak forever remains etched in the annals of history as one of the greatest and noblest of rishi-scientists.
  9. 9. Sage Bharadwaj  In 1875, the Vymaanika- Shaastra, a fourth century BC text written by Maharshi Bhardwaj, was discovered in a temple in India.  The book dealt with the operation of ancient vimanas and included information on steering, precautions for long flights, protection of the airships from storms and lightning, and how to switch the drive to solar energy, or some other “free energy” source. Vimanas were said to take off vertically or dirigible.  Bharadwaj the Wise refers to no less than 70 authorities and 10 experts of air travel in antiquity.
  10. 10. Rishi Kanva  The science of wind has been explained by Sage Kanva in Rigveda sections 8/41/6 in Jagati meter of God wind.  Sage Kashyapa has described the features and properties of this substance in Rigveda 9/64/26 in the hymns of God Pavamana Soma in meter Gayatri.  Kanva was a great Rishi, a descendent of Sage Angirasa.  He looked after Shakuntala when she was abandoned by her mother and father (rishi vishwamitra). Bharat, the son of Shakuntala was also brought up by him.
  11. 11. Sage Kapil Muni: Author of the Sankhya Darshan  Kapil muni was born equipped with rare intellect, dispassion and spiritual powers.  He authored Sankhya Darshan that defined the term "Dhyaan or Meditation" as “the state of mind when remains without any subjectivity / objectivity i.e. without any thought (when the mind is away from worldly objects), is called the "Dhyaan or Meditation”.  He teaches that there is an unbroken continuity from the lowest inorganic to the highest organic forms.  The source of world according to him is Prakriti (fundamental nature).
  12. 12. Kapil Muni: Finding how the Universe was created  According to Kapil Muni, there are twenty-five principles responsible for the manifestation of the Creation (Samasara), out of which Purusha and Prakriti are eternal and independent of each other.  Kapila is not concerned to deny the reality of personal God or Maheshwara. Yet his assertion is that, no arguments can irrefutably establish God's reality.  Therefore, in his model of creation the Purusha (Spirit) and Prakrity (matter) are held solely responsible for creation, without acknowledging an Almighty and intelligent Creator, the God.
  13. 13. Patanjali: The Father of Yoga  The Science of Yoga is one of several unique contributions of India to the world.  It seeks to discover and realize the ultimate Reality through yogic practices.  Acharya Patanjali, prescribed the control of prana (life breath) as the means to control the body, mind and soul.  This subsequently rewards one with good health and inner happiness.  His 84 yogic postures effectively enhance the efficiency of the respiratory, circulatory, nervous, digestive and endocrine systems and many other organs of the body.
  14. 14. Aryabhatt  He was a master Astronomer and Mathematician, born in 476 CE in Kusumpur (Bihar).  In 499 CE, he wrote a text on astronomy and an unparallel treatise on mathematics called "Aryabhatiyam"  He formulated the process of calculating the motion of planets and the time of eclipses.  Aryabhatt was the first to proclaim that the earth is round, it rotates on its axis, orbits the sun and is suspended in space - 1,000 years before Copernicus published his heliocentric theory.
  15. 15. Sushruta  Born to sage Vishwamitra, Sushruta is the father of surgery.  2600 years ago, he and health scientists of his time conducted complicated surgeries like cesareans, cataract, artificial limbs, Rhinoplasty (restoration of a damaged nose), 12 types of fractures, 6 types of dislocations, urinary stones and even plastic surgery and brain surgery.  Usage of anesthesia was well known in ancient India.  He is the author of the book "Sushruta Samhita", in which he describes over 300 surgical procedures and 125 surgical instruments.
  16. 16. Bhaskaracharya  He calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the sun hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart;  Time taken by earth to orbit the sun: (5th century) 365.258756484 days.  Born in the obscure village of Vijjadit (Jalgaon) in Maharastra, Bhaskaracharya's mathematical works called "Lilavati" and "Bijaganita" are considered to be unparalleled.  In his treatise "Siddhant Shiromani" he writes on planetary positions, eclipses, cosmography, mathematical techniques and astronomical equipment.  In the "Surya Siddhant" he makes a note on the force of gravity.
  17. 17. Varahamihira  Varahamihir's book "panch siddhant", noted that the moon and planets are lustrous not because of their own light but due to sunlight.  In the "Bruhad Samhita" and "Bruhad Jatak", he has revealed his discoveries in the domains of geography, constellation, science, botany and animal science.  In his treatise on botanical science, Varahamihir presents cures for various diseases afflicting plants and trees.
  18. 18. The galaxy is oval, Earth is spherical  Yajur Vedic verse: "Brahmaanda vyapta deha bhasitha himaruja..." describing Shiva as the one who is spread out in Brahmaanda.  Anda means an egg depicting the shape of the galaxy.  It was the middle east Europians and Greeks who wrongly believed that earth was flat.  But Indians, since long have always known that it was spherical.  In many scriptures, the word Bhoogola is used, Gola meaning round.
  19. 19. Existence of Atomic and Sub atomic particles  The world accounts discovery of atoms and sub atomic particles to Western scientists who coined these words and theories only in the early 17th century.  An excerpt from Lalitha Sahasranama, told by Hayagreeva to Agasthya muni, dating back to the distant ages of the past,describes the Goddess as the super consciousness/Brahman that pervades even the sub atomic particles within matter.  "Paranjyotih parandhamah paramanuh paratpara". The word "anuvu" means atom.  Paramanu is sub-atomic particle, finer than the finest of atom, meaning electrons and the others.
  20. 20. Ancient times and nuclear weapons  Radiation still so intense, the area is highly dangerous!  A heavy layer of radioactive ash in Rajasthan, India, covers a three-square mile area, ten miles west of Jodhpur.  For some time it has been established that there is a very high rate of birth defects and cancer in the area under construction.  Scientists have unearthed an ancient city where evidence shows an atomic blast dating back thousands of years, from 8,000 to 12,000 years, destroying everything most of the buildings and probably a half-million people.
  21. 21. Ancient times and nuclear weapons II  The Mahabharata clearly describes a catastrophic blast that rocked the continent.  "A single projectile charged with all the power in the Universe...An incandescent column of smoke and flame as bright as 10,000 suns, rose in all its splendor...  it was an unknown weapon, an iron thunderbolt, a gigantic messenger of death which reduced to ashes an entire race.”  Historian Kisori Mohan Ganguli says that Indian sacred writings are full of such descriptions.
  22. 22. Ancient ultrasound machines?  Using a variety of complicated instruments, gynecologists have gradually come to know how the embryo grows during the period of pregnancy.  But the Shrimad Bhagavatam, 3rd canto, 30th chapter, gives a vivid description of the growth of the embryo in the mother's womb.  If we compare the information given therein with the information given in a standard textbook such as the embryology section of Gray's Anatomy, there are striking similarities in the information obtained from the two sources.
  23. 23. Ancient science knows more than modern science?  The Vedas claim that there are living entities everywhere - even in fire.  Modern science, however, presumed that no life could exist in fire.  This presumption is in fact the basis for the process of sterilization.  But recent advancements in the field of medicine have shown that microbes called 'fire bacteria' survive even in fire.
  24. 24. The incredible powers of the ancient Siddharshi!  Siddharshi are a type of saint in India who are said to have had many powers and achieved a ‘god-like’ state through specific secret practices that were known only to them.  These powers spanned from controlling time and space, to transforming the body, manipulating matter at the molecular level and achieving immortality.  The Siddharshi were followers of the God Shiva and according to different texts there were 18 of them.  Their teachings and findings were written in the form of poems in the Tamil language.
  25. 25. Who were Siddharshi?  There is a debate as to who was the first Siddharshi.  Some legends talk about Sri Pathanjali, who was considered to be an incarnation of Adiseshan, the celestial five-headed snake associated with God Vishnu.  But the prevailing tradition refers to Agasthya (or Agasthyar) as the first Siddharshi, one of the seven sages (or Saptarshis) as mentioned in the Vedic texts, and he was the son of the god Brahma of the Hindu creation story.
  26. 26. Siddhas or scientists?  Agathiyar is considered to be the author of a lot of the first Siddha literature and he was supposed to have lived in the 7th century BC.  About 96 books are attributed to him and that includes writings in alchemy, medicine and spirituality.  Apart from the legends that exist, the beginnings of the Siddhars’ are lost in time.
  27. 27. Ashta Siddhis of Siddhas  The powers that the Siddhars possessed were separated in categories.  The main category included 8 powers called ashta siddhis:  To become tiny as the atom within the atom (Anima);  To become big in unshakeable proportions (Mahima);  To become as light as vapour in levitation (Laghima);  To become as heavy as the mountain (Garima);  To enter into other bodies in transmigration (Prapti);  To be in all things, omni-pervasive (Prakamya);  To be lord of all creation in omnipotence (Isatvam);  To be everywhere in omnipresence (Vasitvam)
  28. 28. Ten Siddhis of Siddhas  There are ten secondary siddhis as described in Bhagavata Purana that include the following:  Being undisturbed by hunger, thirst, and other bodily appetites;  Hearing things far away;  Seeing things far away;  Moving the body wherever thought goes (teleportation/astral projection);  Assuming any form desired;  Entering the bodies of others;  Dying when one desires;  Witnessing and participating in the past times of the gods;  Perfect accomplishment of one's determination;  Orders or commands being unimpeded
  29. 29. Ancient science and Siddhas  A famous Siddha was Tirumular, who was a Tamil mystic and writer of 6th century AD and was also one of the 18 Siddhas according to the Tamil Siddha tradition.  His main work is named “Tirumantiram”, a 3,000 verse text, which is the foundation of the Southern Shaiva Siddharta School of philosophy.  Another Siddha, Bhogar (Bhoganathar), who lived between the 3rd and 5th century AD is said to have discovered the elixir of immortality – one his main works is the Pharmacognosy.
  30. 30. The mystery remains…!  Due to the closely-guarded nature of the Siddhar records, the original knowledge of this enigmatic group of saints has remained shrouded in secrecy.  The question remains whether their powers were real and, if so, how they managed to attain them.  Manipulating space, time and matter would require knowledge far beyond what we have today.
  31. 31. Be Proud To Be An Indian Jai Bharatvarsh!!!

Tuesday, August 25, 2015

Advancement of science and mathematics a gift of India to world

Advancement of science and mathematics.
AKS The Primality Test. .The AKS primality test is a deterministic primality-proving algorithm created and published by three Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur computer scientists, Manindra Agrawal, Neeraj Kayal, and Nitin Saxena on 6 August 2002 in a paper titled PRIMES is in P, Commenting on the impact of this discovery, Paul Leyland noted: "One reason for the excitement within the mathematical community is not only does this algorithm settle a long-standing problem, it also does so in a brilliantly simple manner. Everyone is now wondering what else has been similarly overlooked".
Baudhāyana, (fl. c. 800 BCE)[1] was the author of the Baudhayana sūtras, which cover dharma, daily ritual, mathematics, etc. He belongs to the Yajurveda school, and is older than the other sūtra author Āpastamba. He was the author of the earliest of the Shulba Sutras—appendices to the Vedas giving rules for the construction of altars—called the Baudhāyana Śulbasûtra. These are notable from the point of view of mathematics, for containing several important mathematical results, including giving a value of pi to some degree of precision, and stating a version of what is now known as the Pythagorean theorem. Sequences associated with primitive Pythagorean triples have been named Baudhayana sequences. These sequences have been used in cryptography as random sequences and for the generation of keys
Finite Difference Interpolation: The Indian mathematician Brahmagupta presented what is possibly the first instance[97 of finite difference interpolation around 665 CE.
Algebraic abbreviations: The mathematician Brahmagupta had begun using abbreviations for unknowns by the 7th century. He employed abbreviations for multiple unknowns occurring in one complex problem. Brahmagupta also used abbreviations for square roots and cube roots.
Basu's theorem: The Basu's theorem, a result of Debabrata Basu (1955) states that any complete sufficient statistic is independent of any ancillary statistic.
Brahmagupta–Fibonacci identity, Brahmagupta formula, Brahmagupta matrix, and Brahmagupta theorem: Discovered by the Indian mathematician, Brahmagupta (598–668 CE).
Chakravala method: The Chakravala method, a cyclic algorithm to solve indeterminate quadratic equations is commonly attributed to Bhāskara II, (c. 1114 – 1185 CE) although some attribute it to Jayadeva (c. 950~1000 CE).Jayadeva pointed out that Brahmagupta’s approach to solving equations of this type would yield infinitely large number of solutions, to which he then described a general method of solving such equations. Jayadeva's method was later refined by Bhāskara II in his Bijaganita treatise to be known as the Chakravala method, chakra (derived from cakraṃ चक्रं) meaning 'wheel' in Sanskrit, relevant to the cyclic nature of the algorithm. With reference to the Chakravala method, E. O. Selenuis held that no European performances at the time of Bhāskara, nor much later, came up to its marvellous height of mathematical complexity.
Hindu number system: With decimal place-value and a symbol for zero, this system was the ancestor of the widely used Arabic numeral system. It was developed in the Indian subcontinent between the 1st and 6th centuries CE.
Fibonacci numbers: This sequence was first described by Virahanka (c. 700 AD), Gopāla (c. 1135), and Hemachandra (c as an outgrowth of the earlier writings on Sanskrit prosody by Pingala (c. 200 BC).
Zero, symbol: Indians were the first to use the zero as a symbol and in arithmetic operations, although Babylonians used zero to signify the 'absent'. In those earlier times a blank space was used to denote zero, later when it created confusion a dot was used to denote zero (could be found in Bakhshali manuscript). In 500 AD circa Aryabhata again gave a new symbol for zero (0).
Law of signs in multiplication: The earliest use of notation for negative numbers, as subtrahend, is credited by scholars to the Chinese, dating back to the 2nd century BC. Like the Chinese, the Indians used negative numbers as subtrahend, but were the first to establish the "law of signs" with regards to the multiplication of positive and negative numbers, which did not appear in Chinese texts until 1299. Indian mathematicians were aware of negative numbers by the 7th century, and their role in mathematical problems of debt was understood. Mostly consistent and correct rules for working with negative numbers were formulated, and the diffusion of these rules led the Arab intermediaries to pass it on to Europe.
Madhava series: The infinite series for π and for the trigonometric sine, cosine, and arctangent is now attributed to Madhava of Sangamagrama (c. 1340 – 1425) and his Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. He made use of the series expansion of \arctan x to obtain an infinite series expression for π.Their rational approximation of the error for the finite sum of their series are of particular interest. They manipulated the error term to derive a faster converging series for π. They used the improved series to derive a rational expression,104348/33215 for π correct up to eleven decimal places, i.e. 3.14159265359. Madhava of Sangamagrama and his successors at the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics used geometric methods to derive large sum approximations for sine, cosin, and arttangent. They found a number of special cases of series later derived by Brook Taylor series. They also found the second-order Taylor approximations for these functions, and the third-order Taylor approximation for sine.
Pascal's triangle: Described in the 6th century CE by Varahamihira[, and in the 10th century by Halayudha,, commenting on an obscure reference by Pingala (the author of an earlier work on prosody) to the "Meru-prastaara", or the "Staircase of Mount Meru", in relation to binomial coefficients. (It was also independently discovered in the 10th or 11th century in Persia and China.)
Pell's equation, integral solution for: About a thousand years before Pell's time, Indian scholar Brahmagupta (598–668 CE) was able to find integral solutions to vargaprakṛiti (Pell's equation) \ x^2-Ny^2=1, where N is a nonsquare integer, in his Brâhma-sphuṭa-siddhânta treatise.
Ramanujan theta function, Ramanujan prime, Ramanujan summation, Ramanujan graph and Ramanujan's sum: Discovered by the Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan in the early 20th century.
Shrikhande graph: Graph invented by the Indian mathematician S.S. Shrikhande in 1959.
Sign convention: Symbols, signs and mathematical notation were employed in an early form in India by the 6th century when the mathematician-astronomer Aryabhata recommended the use of letters to represent unknown quantities. By the 7th century Brahmagupta had already begun using abbreviations for unknowns, even for multiple unknowns occurring in one complex problem. Brahmagupta also managed to use abbreviations for square roots and cube roots. By the 7th century fractions were written in a manner similar to the modern times, except for the bar separating the numerator and the denominator. A dot symbol for negative numbers was also employed. The Bakhshali Manuscript displays a cross, much like the modern '+' sign, except that it symbolized subtraction when written just after the number affected. The '=' sign for equality did not exist. Indian mathematics was transmitted to the Islamic world where this notation was seldom accepted initially and the scribes continued to write mathematics in full and without symbols.
Trigonometry was invented in India.* Trigonometric functions (adapted from Greek): * Trigonometric functions (adapted from Greek): The trigonometric functions sine and versine originated in Indian astronomy, adapted from the full-chord Greek versions (to the modern half-chord versions). They were described in detail by Aryabhata in the late 5th century, but were likely developed earlier in the Siddhantas, astronomical treatises of the 3rd or 4th century.Later, the 6th-century astronomer Varahamihira discovered a few basic trigonometric formulas and identities, such as sin^2(x) + cos^2(x) = 1. The first use of the idea of ‘sine’ in the way we use it today was in the work Aryabhatiyam by Aryabhata, in A.D. 500. Aryabhata used the word ardha-jya for the half-chord, which was shortened to jya or jiva in due course. When the Aryabhatiyam was translated into Arabic, the word jiva was retained as it is. The word jiva was translated into sinus, which means curve, when the Arabic version was translated into Latin. Soon the word sinus, also used as sine, became common in mathematical texts throughout Europe. An English Professor of astronomy Edmund Gunter (1581–1626), first used the abbreviated notation ‘sin’. The origin of the terms ‘cosine’ and ‘tangent’ was much later. The cosine function arose from the need to compute the sine of the complementary angle. Aryabhatta called it kotijya. The name cosinus originated with Edmund Gunter. In 1674, the English Mathematician Sir Jonas Moore first used the abbreviated notation ‘cos’.
Medicine
Cataract in the Human Eye—magnified view seen on examination with a slit lamp. Indian surgeon Susruta performed cataract surgery by the 6th century BCE.
Amastigotes in a chorionic villus. Upendranath Brahmachari (19 December 1873 – February 6, 1946) discovered Urea Stibamine, a treatment which helped nearly eradicate Visceral leishmaniasis.
Ayurvedic and Siddha medicine: Ayurveda and Siddha are ancient and traditional systems of medicine. Ayurveda dates back to Iron Age India (1st millennium BC) and still practiced today as a form of complementary and alternative medicine. It means "knowledge for longevity". Siddha medicine is mostly prevalent in South India. Herbs and minerals are basic raw materials of the Siddha system which dates back to the period of siddha saints around the 5th century BC.
Cataract surgery: Cataract surgery was known to the Indian physician Sushruta (6th century BCE). In India, cataract surgery was performed with a special tool called the Jabamukhi Salaka, a curved needle used to loosen the lens and push the cataract out of the field of vision] The eye would later be soaked with warm butter and then bandaged. Though this method was successful, Susruta cautioned that cataract surgery should only be performed when absolutely necessary. Greek philosophers and scientists traveled to India where these surgeries were performed by physicians. The removal of cataract by surgery was also introduced into China from India.
Cure for Leprosy: Kearns & Nash (2008) state that the first mention of leprosy is described in the Indian medical treatise Sushruta Samhita (6th century BCE). However, The Oxford Illustrated Companion to Medicine holds that the mention of leprosy, as well as ritualistic cures for it, were described in the Atharva-veda (1500–1200 BCE), written before the Sushruta Samhita.
Plastic surgery: Plastic surgery was being carried out in India by 2000 BCE. The system of punishment by deforming a miscreant's body may have led to an increase in demand for this practice.The surgeon Sushruta contributed mainly to the field of plastic and cataract surgery. The medical works of both Sushruta and Charak were translated into Arabic language during the Abbasid Caliphate (750 CE). These translated Arabic works made their way into Europe via intermediaries. In Italy the Branca family of Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi of Bologna became familiar with the techniques of Sushruta.
Lithiasis treatment: The earliest operation for treating lithiasis, or the formations of stones in the body, is also given in the Sushruta Samhita (6th century BCE). The operation involved exposure and going up through the floor of the bladder.
Visceral leishmaniasis, treatment of: The Indian (Bengali) medical practitioner Upendranath Brahmachari (19 December 1873 – 6 February 1946) was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1929 for his discovery of 'ureastibamine (antimonial compound for treatment of kala azar) and a new disease, post-kalaazar dermal leishmanoid.' Brahmachari's cure for Visceral leishmaniasis was the urea salt of para-amino-phenyl stibnic acid which he called Urea Stibamine. Following the discovery of Urea Stibamine, Visceral leishmaniasis was largely eradicated from the world, except for some underdeveloped regions.
Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia
Some Images: idatapix.com
Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia.