Showing posts with label lost city of dwarka. dwarka. krishna. indian mythology. mahabharat. Show all posts
Showing posts with label lost city of dwarka. dwarka. krishna. indian mythology. mahabharat. Show all posts

Saturday, April 2, 2016

Ancient India ,Egypt, South America and Yugas

 

  The duration of the Satya Yuga millennium equals 4,800 years of the demigods; the duration of the Dvāpara millennium equals 2,400 years; and that of the Kali millennium is 1,200 years of the demigods […] As aforementioned, one year of the demigods is equal to 360 years of the human beings. The duration of the Satya-yuga is therefore 4,800 x 360, or 1,728,000 years. The duration of the Tretā-yuga is 3,600 x 360, or 1,296,000 years. The duration of the Dvāpara-yuga is 2,400 x 360, or 864,000 years. And the last, the Kali-yuga, is 1,200 x 360, or 432,000 years in total.’
The Dvapara Yuga is the third out of four yugas, or ages, described in the scriptures of Hinduism. This yuga comes between Treta Yuga and Kali Yuga.
According to thePuranas, this yuga ended at the moment when Krishnareturned to his eternal abode of Vaikuntha. According to theBhagavata Purana, the Dvapara Yuga lasts 864,000 years.

Submarine megalithic structures off the coasts of Malta, Egypt, Lebanon, India, China, andJapan in waters up to 70 meters deep, were evidently submerged when the Ice Age ended and sea-level rose about 100 meters because of runoff from the melting of the Ice Age ice-packs.

Many of these megaliths were astronomical measuring devices, which indicates that their Ice Age constructors had map-making capabilities and sailed the seas, as demonstrated by a commonality of the architectural motifs of the megaliths worldwide, and as demonstrated by Turkish navigational maps which were sourced from ancient Phoenician maps and show coastlines of the Ice Age world with accuracies of latitude and longitude to not be matched until modern times.
Mainstream earth-chronologists insist that the Ice Age ended around 10000 B.C., at which point the sea-level rose to submerge these megaliths. However, the submerged megaliths are of designs and uses characteristic of around 2000 B.C. Are we therefore to believe that advanced civilizations actually began before 10000 B.C., and not around 3000 B.C. (as is commonly published)?
Mainstream archaeologists have said that the advanced civilizations of the Old and New Worlds appeared suddenly around 3000 B.C. without evidence of cultural and technological evolution to that pyramid-building level of mathematical and engineering sophistication. Therefore, how can it be that the megaliths were submerged 12,000 years ago?
In the Rig Veda of ancient Hinduism, the text says that the N.W. Indian city of Dwarka was submerged by the encroaching ocean when the ancient patriarch Krishna died.
Are we to believe that Krishna died around 10,000 B.C, and therefore that Hinduism is over 12,000 years old?
The megaliths of ancientDwarka are in fact found submerged just offshore from modern Dwarka, and the huge stone walls built of megalithic blocks which had been interlocked with chiseled L-shaped dovetails are characteristic of the Indus Civilization that popularly is advertised to have had flourished near 2,000 B.C., not 10,000 B.C.
he Gulfs of Cambay and Kutch, just south of Dwarka, also hold submerged megalithic Indus Civilization structures that were covered by the ocean at the melting of the Ice Age. Computer-generated maps of the world as it was during the Ice Age reveal thatancient Dwarka was about 100 km inland during the Ice Age.
Also inland were the now submerged Indus Civilization megaliths on the floor of the Gulfs of Kutch and Cambay, as were the megaliths of Tamil pyramidal construction off the coast of southern India at Cape Cormorin and Madurai.
Ancient Hindu legends reveal that two Sangams (schools) were submerged by encroaching seas, and local divers say that thesubmerged pyramids look like the current Sangam pyramid at Madurai.
According to the computer-generated Ice Age maps, about 25 million square miles of land were submerged by the rising sea-level because of the melting of the Ice Age ice-pack, and much of that land is now the floor of the shallow seas of southern Asia.
To the east of India, Ice Age megaliths of the Jomon Civilization are found on the sea-floor between Japan and Taiwan (at Yonaguni, Kerama, Chatan, and more). These stone circles, tiered plazas, and step-pyramids of astronomical measuring significance are found on the sea-floor, as they are on land, thus proving that these buildings were of the same time period.
Are we to believe that these astronomically significant megaliths were built some 12,000 years ago at a time when mainstream earth-chronologists insist that the Ice Age ended and sea level as a result rose about 100 meters to engulf these megaliths which are evidently and contradictorily of 2,000 B.C. vintage?
Are we to believe that the Hindu and Tamil recounts of history have been going on for 12,000 years, and that humanity developed no further and built no more for 7,000 years (from 10,000 B.C. to 3,000 B.C.) until advanced cultures reemerged in Egypt and Sumeria (Babylon)?
Such a torturous manipulation of the evidences from the archaeology and the ancient legends is unnecessary with the realization that the Ice Age did in fact end much later than is popularly advertised.
Egypt and Sumeria were building their megaliths when the Indus,Tamil, and Jomon people were building theirs during the Ice Age.
The ancient history book Popol Vuh of the Olmec-descendedMayans recalls the time when their seafaring ancient ancestors arrived from the east because of their sophisticated navigational skills as they “studied and measured the round face of the earth and the arch of the sky” in a time of “constant twilight” and “black rain.”
The obviously heavy volcanic ash content of this rain and the dense cloud-cover from which this rain came that blocked the sun to cause “constant twilight”, shows that the Mayan ancestors arrived during the Ice Age.

Link

Saturday, February 7, 2015

Legend Of Dwaraka

Legend of Dwaraka
Krishna- the protector of Mathura, the lord of Dwaraka and the reciter of the Bhagwad Gita on the battlefield of Kurukshetra-is one of the most enduring legends of India. But was he also a mortal, historical figure? Two books look at connections between the ancient texts and archaeology
By T.R. Gopaalakrushnan
After killing Kamsa, Krishna and his brother Balarama placed Ugrasena on the throne and remained in Mathura. This greatly angered Kamsa's father-in-law Jarasandha, the emperor of Magadha. He repeatedly attacked Mathura to avenge Kamsa's death. Although Krishna and his small Yadava army were able to defeat Jarasandha's hordes every time, it was an unequal contest in which superior numbers were bound to tell in the long run. So Krishna led the Yadavas to the west coast. They built the fortified town of Dwaraka on the site of the ancient Kushastali, which became Krishna's seat for the rest of his eventful life. Dwaraka was submerged in the sea 36 years after the Mahabharata War. Forewarned, Krishna had persuaded the Yadavas to move to higher ground in Prabhas (near modern Somnath). Shortly thereafter, the Yadavas, or at least their leaders, destroyed themselves. Krishna himself died a few days later, killed by a hunter's arrow.
Does this bare-bones out- line of the colourful story of Krishna have a true, historical core? Are Krishna and Dwar-aka actual historical entities? For a majority of Indians, the answer is an unequivocal yes. Some archaeologists and historians too are now willing to accept that the common man's faith does have a basis in fact. 

RECREATING A PAST THAT WAS CONSIDERED A MYTH: A scale model of coastline and township of Dwaraka displayed in the Birla Science Museum in Hyderabad; (above) The main temple at Dwaraka
The strongest archaeological support comes from the structures discovered under the sea-bed off the coast of Dwaraka in Gujarat by the pioneering team led by Dr S.R. Rao, one of India's most respected archaelogists. An emeritus scientist at the marine archaeology unit of the National Institute of Oceanography, Rao has excavated a large number of Harappan sites including the port city of Lothal in Gujarat. In his book The Lost City of Dwaraka (Aditya Prakashan, Rs 1500), published in 1999 he writes about his undersea finds: "The discovery is an important landmark in the history of India. It has set to rest the doubts expressed by historians about the historicity of Mahabharata and the very existence of Dwaraka city. It has greatly narrowed the gap in Indian history by establishing the continuity of the Indian civilisation from the Vedic Age to the present day."
But not all are convinced. Some point to 'contradictions' in his findings and lack of other corroboration. Others believe that the entire story of Krishna as written in the Mahabharata is pure mythology, and any claims of archaeological evidence must necessarily be incorrect. As historian R.S. Sharma has written in his history textbook for class X students: "Although Lord Krishna plays an important role in the Mahabharata, the earliest inscriptions and sculpture pieces found in Mathura between 200 BC and 300 AD do not attest his presence." (The BJP has attempted to have these lines deleted from the textbook.)
But there are archaeological finds that do attest to Krishna as a historical figure. For instance excavations in Bedsa (near Vidisha in Madhya Pradesh) have unearthed the remains of a temple of 300 BC in which Krishna (Vasudeva) and Balarama (Samkarshana) are identified from their flagstaff. Krishna's son Pradyumna, grandson, Aniruddha and another Yadava hero, Satyaki, have also been identified. 

A more recent historical record, dated 574 AD, occurs in what are called the Palitana plates of Samanta Simhaditya. This inscription refers to Dwaraka as the capital of the western coast of Saurashtra and states that Krishna lived here.
No one has so influenced the course of India's religion, philosophy, art and literature as Krishna. Traditional belief is that Krishna lived in Dwaraka at the end of the Dwapara Yuga. Dwaraka, in fact, is considered one of the seven holiest and most ancient Indian cities. The others are Ayodhya, Mathura, Haridwar, Varanasi, Kanchi and Ujjain, which together are known as Mokshada-that which leads to salvation.
According to Hindu historical tradition, Kali Yuga began with the death of Krishna more than 5,000 years ago. The Puranas are emphatic on the cultural degradation that set in after the Mahabharata war, which is seen as one of the most important turning points in ancient Indian history. Krishna, according to traditional belief, participated in that transition.
Artefacts recovered from the sea bed, like the reconstructed perforated jar (left) found in Bet Dwaraka, included a low footed stool of basalt and a pestle of granite and a grinder cum pounder of dolerite, among others.
"Krishna very much existed in flesh, blood and bones," said Madhav Acharya, archaeologist at the Haryana archaeological department. "It is difficult, if not impossible, for a thing like the Mahabharata to be believed till today in the same spirit and faith unless there is some truth to the story. And that truth is the power struggle, and the main characters. One of them was Krishna. The power struggle is not a myth. If the heart of the story is to be believed as a historical event, then Krishna too should be seen as a historical character."
Excavations all over north and western India, however, show that a highly developed society had existed long before the accepted dates and theories of ancient Indian history. But researchers like N.S. Rajaram and David Frawley argue that the Harappan civilisation represents the material remains of the Vedic Age. 

The postulate has its opponents, notably the well-known historian Romila Thapar. "The latest entrants into the field (of history) are Indian scientists from the US, who in the guise of using science and computers are now holding forth on the Aryan problem," she wrote some time ago in an article. "They are neither willing to acknowledge that they know little about archaeology, history or linguistics nor willing to work with such specialists."
A few others are straddling the fence. "This debate about ancient Indian history is in fact not at all about finding the truth," said Dr Bhagwant Josh, professor of contemporary history at Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi. "One side wants to appropriate the glory and pride of what is considered the most systematised civilisation of city dwellers, by linking their past to it, and the others want to deny them that." On the specific issue of the legend of Dwaraka, Josh said, "Krishna must have been historical as well as mythical. Much before the historical Krishna was born, the mythical Krishna must have existed (there is a reference to a Krishna in the Rig Veda); the historical Krishna would have been named after the mythical one."
The other important issue is the nature of the connection between archaeology and India's ancient texts and literature. Pratnakirtim apavirnu, know thy past, exhort the Vedas and Upanishads, which for long had been described as myth and legend or as religious texts without much historical value. Some historians have consistently opposed making any connection between Harappan archaeology and Vedic literature as part of the same historical and cultural stream. A position that is increasingly being challenged. "The core reality of these texts must be taken as the basis of further exploration of the sites of the Mahabharata tradition," said Rao, "as whatever was there in the late Indus Valley civilisation period is reflected in the civilisation of the Mahabharata."
Inevitably, some scholars and historians disagree. "No individual character like Krishna or Rama can be found through archaeology," said Prof. B.D. Chatopadhyay of the Centre for Historical Studies at JNU. "Archaeology can reconstruct the material culture of a people. Krishna is known from legends, epics and puranas. Interpolating archaeology with literature is fraught with difficulties. The efforts of some historians and archaeologists to correlate textual evidence with archaeological finds have not found a consensus even among themselves, and serious archaeologists are questioning the exercise."
AN ARTIST'S IMPRESSION OF FORTIFIED DWARAKA: The general layout of the city described in ancient texts agrees with that of the submerged city
Not so, said R. S. Bisht, director of excavations and exploration at the Archaeological Survey of India, Delhi, who is a strong believer in correlating archaeological finds with the ancient literature, as he did in the case of the Harappan civilisation and Rig Veda. "The Rig Vedic people were the authors of the Harappan civilisation," he said. He has little doubt of the historicity of Krishna. "In the Upanishads, as I see it, there are no fictitious kings. So Krishna was a historical figure."
Other well-known historians like Prof. B.B. Lal, former director-general of ASI and author of a recent book on the Saraswati civilsation, too have said that it is time for a rethink. But while the numbers of those who agree on this point is increasing, there is as yet no consensus on the period mentioned in the texts, especially the Mahabharata, which is pounced upon by critics of this approach. As Chatopadhyay pointed out, "If one is sure about the dates of the texts, then some idea of the society that produced it can be had, but we have no knowledge of the dates, and the Mahabharata was authored over a long-drawn period." 

Leaving aside the date issue for now, it seems reasonable to accept the postulate that the Harappan sites relate to the Vedic culture described in the Vedas, Puranas and the Mahabharata. "The Vedic literature matches with the description of the archeological finds," said Madhav Acharya. As Rao said, "religion, language, yoga, town planning and maritime activities point to the mature Harappan as the Vedic period. And the connecting link between this and the Mahabharata or late Harappa period is what some call the ochre coloured pottery and what we call late Harappan pottery. Geography also shows similar evidence."
"Krishna very much existed," said Madhav Acharya. "If the Mahabharata is to be
believed then Krishna too should be seen as a historical character."
Rajaram and fellow researcher N. Jha say the Harappan seals are full of Vedic motifs. Madhav Acharya feels that that was a time "when people had language but no script. Till Brahmi, which can be read, there was no script but there was an oral tradition. The Harappan script has not been found in huge volumes." Rao said people who recited the Vedas might not have written it down because of difficulties with pronunciation. But he is convinced the Harappan civilisation could not have been built without writing and advanced knowledge.
Be that as it may, archaeological finds do show that coastal Gujarat could well have been an important part of the Vedic and pre-Harappan fold. As Rao writes in his book, "Long before the Mahabharata period the Indus valley civilisation had penetrated deep into Kutch at Dholavira and Surkotada by 3000 BC. It reached its climax between 2800-1900 BC at Lothal. They spoke a proto-Aryan language akin to Old Indo-Aryan (Vedic Sanskirt) and their basic concept of cosmic, moral and religious order mentioned in the Indus seals was similar to that of the Rig Veda." 

The underwater discoveries in the Gulf of Cambay subsequent to Rao's expeditions off Dwaraka, and other excavations off the coast show that the region probably had human settlements from very ancient times, 5,000 to 6,000 years ago. One of them could well have been Krishna's Dwaraka (known in ancient times as Kushastali or 'Place of Kusha'), the destruction of which is so graphically described by Arjuna in the Mausala Parva of the Mahabharata: "The sea, which had been beating against the shores, suddenly broke the boundary that was imposed on it by nature. The sea rushed into the city. It coursed through the streets of the beautiful city. The sea covered up everything in the city. I saw the beautiful buildings becoming submerged one by one. In a matter of a few moments it was all over. The sea had now become as placid as a lake. There was no trace of the city. Dwaraka was just a name; just a memory."
According to the ancient texts, the west coast around Gujarat has been the traditional land of the Yadavas, or Yadus who claimed descent from Yadu, the eldest son of Yayati. Centuries before Krishna, the Yadu king Arjuna Kartavirya had been defeated by Parashurama. Bhrigukaccha, the modern Broach, is named after the Bhrigu clan of Parashurama. (Krishna undertook a sea voyage from Bhrigukaccha to Prabhas, according to Bhagavata Purana.) So Krishna was only returning to the land of his ancestors.
The location and topography of the site selected by Krishna made it safe from Jarasandha's attacks. Reaching Dwaraka bounded by the sea and Rann was a hazardous task for Jarasandha's army. Secondly, being a good port, Dwaraka promised prosperity to the enterprising people. Not that it was totally immune from attack. Krishna's Dwaraka was attacked by the king of Salva (modern Sind) while he was away at Indraprastha to attend Yudhishtira's rajasuya ceremony.
Many scholars accept all this mainly on literary grounds. What was lacking was archaeological evidence linking Gujarat, Dwaraka and Krishna. Which is what prompted Rao to lead a marine archaeological expedition to the coastal region near modern Dwaraka in search of submerged settlements that might correspond to Krishna's capital.
The underwater expeditions-which won Rao the first World Ship Trust Award for Individual Achievement-were undertaken after extensive on-shore excavations had yielded incontrovertible evidence of a protohistoric settlement of 1600 BC destroyed by the sea. Conducting 12 expeditions during 1983-1990, Rao identified two underwater settlements, one near the present-day Dwaraka and the other in the nearby island of Bet Dwaraka. In the book The Lost City of Dwaraka describing his discoveries, Rao suggested that Krishna occupied these places around 1500 BC.
In search of submerged human settlements: A diver inspecting the rocky ridge having man-made holes for securing boats
What Rao and his team discovered was a well-fortified township that extended more than half a mile from the shore. The sketch plan of Dwaraka, prepared on the basis of structural remains exposed in the sea-bed, suggests six different sectors of the town all fortified and some interconnected. Two major roads, each about 18m wide, connect a group of three buildings on the east which formed another designated enclosure, in which six bastions were found in a line.
The foundation of boulders on which the city's walls were erected showed that the land had been reclaimed from the sea some 3,600 years back. The submerged township extended in the north up to Bet Dwaraka (Also known as Sankhodhara-said to have been the pleasure resort of Krishna and his consorts Satyabhama and Jambavati. The area is noted for its conch shell of good quality which was in great demand as a non-corrosive substitute for metal). It extended up to Okhamadhi in the south, and Pindara in the east. (A pearl fishing village for more than 3,000 years, Pindara is a holy place-Pinda Taraka is mentioned in the Mahabharata where sage Durvasa had his hermitage.)
The general layout of the city of Dwaraka described in ancient texts agrees with that of the submerged city and shows evidence of town planning. For example: "Land was reclaimed from the sea near the western shores of Saurashtra. A city was planned and built here. Dwaraka was a planned city, on the banks of the river Gomati. This beautiful city was also known as Dwaramati, Dwarawati and Kushastali. It had well-organised six sectors, residential and commercial zones, wide roads, plazas, palaces and many public utilities. A hall called Sudharma Sabha was built to hold public meetings. The city also boasted of a good harbour."
The excavations show that Dwaraka was an urban centre with certain specialised industries such as boat building and metal working as evidenced by this copper lota (left) found in the sea bed. Iron too was known to the smiths of Bet Dwaraka.
The Sabha Parva text of the Mahabharata describes houses, but none had survived the sea. A few paved paths, drains, etc. were traced. Some houses or public buildings had pillared halls. "An idea of the houses built of dressed and undressed stones in ancient Dwaraka can be had from the structures laid bare in the Harappan town of Surkotada in Kutch," said Rao.
Kushastali is the name given to a pre-Dwaraka (or Harappan) settlement that had been abandoned and reoccupied and rebuilt during the Mahabharata period, said Rao, who identifies Bet Dwaraka with Antardvipa of the epic. "The word dvipa as used in the Mahabharata often conveys the sense of any land between two rivers or two waters, although it is also used for a continent," said Rao. "The Harappan seal inscriptions mention happta dvappa (sapta dvipa-seven lands) and bhadrama dvappa (bhadrama dvipa-a seal found at Kalibanga meaning most auspicious land). Also, "the fort wall and submerged walls in the sea confirm the appellation varidurga, citadel in the water, given to Dwaraka in the Mahabharata."
Rao also finds confirmation of the reference to Dwaraka as nagara (city) in the epic. The high level of civilisation in ancient Dwaraka is borne out by the engineering skill, advanced technology and the high literacy of the people. "It was an urban centre with certain specialised industries such as boat building, shell working, pearl diving and perhaps metal working also," said Rao.
The stone mould found in the intertidal zone compares favourably with similar moulds found in Lothal and other Indus towns just as the tidal dock at Lothal built in 2300 BC is seen as the precursor of the port installation of Dwaraka. Iron was already known to the smiths of Bet Dwaraka as attested to by iron stakes, nails and other iron objects. Terracotta wheels of toy carts were also recovered.
By 1500 BC almost the entire township seems to have been destroyed. But while it existed, one later description of the city reads, "The yellow glitter of the golden fort of the city in the sea throwing yellow light all round looked as if the flames of vadavagni (volcano) came out tearing asunder the sea."
Among the objects recovered from the sea-bed that establish the submerged township's connection with the Dwaraka of the Maha-bharata was a seal (just 18mmx20mm) with the images of a bull, unicorn and goat engraved in an anticlockwise direction. "The motif is no doubt of Indus origin but the style shows considerable influence from Bahrain," writes Rao. "The bull, unicorn and goat motif on seals from mature Harappan levels of Kalibangan and Mohenjo Daro is distinct from that of Bet Dwaraka which belongs to the late Indus period." But the seal does corroborate the reference made in the ancient text, the Harivamsa, that every citizen of Dwaraka should carry a mudra as a mark of identifiction and none without a seal should enter it.
"When we got the seal we were really excited," said Dr. Rao. "Secondly, we got a stone mound in which they cast some spear heads. So some weapons were definitely locally manufactured. The Mahabharata mentions that when Dwaraka was attacked they inserted iron stakes. We got one of those. These are evidences which corroborate what the texts said. But the evidence that really clinched the issue was the mudra and the references to two Dwarakas at the place mentioned in the ancient texts like Sabha Parva."
Over 12 expeditions during 1983-1990, with funding for just 20 days in a year: Dr Rao and his pioneering team working off the coast of Dwaraka
The topography of the Okha region reveals seven parts interspersed by the Rann. They may be the seven islands that existed during the Mahabharata period and referred to in later texts. The occurrence of proto-historic (1600 BC) pottery on land suggests there were smaller towns between Dwaraka and Kushastali in ancient times. "With a large port town of Dwaraka, a shipyard in Bet Dwaraka and three other satellite towns at Aramda, Varwala and Nagewsar, the concept of the city state of Darukavana or Dwaravati must have been given a concrete shape," speculates Rao. If all these settlements are taken as one unit, Darukavana extended over 45 km from north to south and at least 25 km from east to west approximating to eight yojanas, if not more.
Also, the Dwaraka harbour provided the earliest clear evidence of modifying natural rock to serve the needs of a harbour. Two rock-cut slipways of varying width extending from the beach to the intertidal zone were discovered, which "could have been designed for launching boats of different sizes." This technique was adopted by the Phoenicians much later, around 900-800. The structures and the large stone anchors lying under the sea at Dwaraka are also seen as indicative of large ships being anchored out at sea while smaller boats carried men and cargo up the river.
Among artefacts reovered from Dwaraka and Bet Dwaraka were pottery carrying inscriptions in old Indo-Aryan (Vedic or archaic Sanskrit) script and were found to be 3,528 years old in thermoluminescence testing. Rao deciphers one of the potsherds recovered to read baga (God) in late Harappan characters and assignable to 1800-1600 BC and another as Mahakaccha sah pa, conveying the sense of "sea (or sea god) king (or ruler) protect"-an appeal to the sea god for protection. A similar appeal has been deciphered in a seal inscripion from Mohenjo Daro.
Triangular three-holed anchors weighing 120-150 kg, the biggest weighing 560 kg, found were similar to pre-Phoenician anchors found in Syria and Cyprus and were dated around 1500 BC. Another archaeologically significant find was a lunate shaped moonstone (chandrasila). This and a beam found in the vicinity suggested to Rao's team that there existed a temple here. Stone artefacts recovered from the sea-bed included a low footed stool of basalt, finely polished found along with brass arches, a pestle of granite and a grinder cum pounder of dolerite. Two single-holed spheroid stone objects, use unclear, datable to 1500-1400 BC were found, besides iron nails, brass objects, a copper bell, a highly corroded copper lota and a few bronze nails. Low zinc brass produced at Lothal in 2300-2000 BC is similar in composition to that found at Dwaraka.
Admittedly, there is not much dispute about the general area of Krishna's kingdom. "The dating of Rao's material was done, not by archaeologists, but by scientists at the Physical Research Lab, and that cannot be disbelieved. So it is definitely ancient Dwaraka," said Acharya. But in terms of time, Rao's explorations place Krishna and the Mahabharata in the post-Harappan period or after the break-up of the Harappan empire due to natural causes around 2200-1900 BC.
"Generally our findings have been accepted," said Rao. "There are a few who think that the date 1700-1800 BC that we have assigned is not in consonance with the traditional date of 3102 BC. But so far as the archaeological evidence from on shore and off-shore excavations and thermoluminescence dating is concerned Kushastali with its late Harappan relics where the first Dwaraka was built may be assigned to 1700 BC and the town on the mainland may be slightly later," Rao said. "Although traditional date of 3102 BC cannot be confirmed by avaiable evidence, it is better to explore deeper waters of Bet Dwaraka," said Rao. "There is one other possibility. In Bet Dwaraka there are the mudflats. We are not able to dig because you hit water at an early depth and neither diving nor excavations are possible." (Archaeological excavations show that modern Dwaraka is the seventh settlement of the name on this site. It is now generally accepted that the earlier cities have been, at various times, swallowed by the sea. Interestingly, the only ancient temple for Matsya, Vishnu's incarnation at the time of the great flood, is to be found at Sankhodhara in Bet Dwarak.)
The structures and stone anchors lying under the sea indicate large ships being anchored out at sea while smaller boats carried men and cargo up the river as visualised in this artist's impression of the harbour of ancient Dwaraka.
Madhav Acharya too favours the later dates. "There is a difference in the geographic areas as well as the time frame of the Saraswati civilisation that is wholly Vedic, and the setting of the Mahabharata," he said. According to him, while the Saraswati-or the Harappan-civilisation centres on the Saptasindhu rivers (the Indus, the Saraswati and the five rivers that make up Punjab), the Mahabharata has the Ganga and the Yamuna, besides the Kurukshetra area in Haryana, as the backdrop. "The earliest habitation in the Ganga-Yamuna region does not go back beyond 1200-1100 BC, and in Mathura and the Mahabharata sites there is no evidence of earlier inhabitation."
The date arguments notwithstanding, there can be no denying the importance of Rao's findings. With Krishna consigned to mythology, the modernists of course insist that the undersea discoveries must have an explanation different from Rao's interpretation and correlation with the ancient texts, though they have yet to come up with one. Researchers like Rajaram view Rao's findings as confirmation of their theories that the Mahabharata belongs to a much earlier period.
Rajaram, in his yet to be published book Search for the Historical Krishna, cites three main reasons as to why the site discovered by Rao is actually a later Dwaraka than the one built by Krishna. First, considering the abundant Vedic symbolism found in Harappan archaeology, which Rao too says, the lack of any Vedic motifs in the artefacts found in the undersea excavations suggests that the settlement was a later one. Rajaram theorises that Krishna's Dwaraka most probably lies below the existing ruins at a further depth of around 2.5 to 5 metres based on his calculations on the likely rise in sea levels over the past 5,000 years.
Low zinc brass produced at Lothal in 2300-2000 BC is similar in composition to that found in artefacts like this bronze bell excavated at Dwaraka. Also, a stone mould compares favourably with similar mould found in Lothal and other Indus towns.
The second reason cited is that Krishna of the Mahabharata and the archaeology of his Dwaraka must fit the picture of the region and society portrayed in the ancient texts. This, Rajaram says, better fits in the early Harappan (3100 BC) period than the post Harappan period favoured by Rao and some others. Especially since some of the artefacts recovered from the sea-bed show a strong affinity with West Asia, especially the Kassite empire of Babylon.
The third reason is the mismatch between the political situation described in the Mahabharata and the picture given by post-Harappan archaeology. "There can be little doubt that Krishna was a Vedic figure," said Rajaram. According to the Mabhabharata, Krishna's links were with the Kurus, the Panchalas and Mathura, all in the Vedic heartland to the north. "Just as there is no denying the Kassite influences on Rao's Dwaraka, there is no denying the historic Vedic link between the Purus (or Kurus) and the Yadus along the Saraswati river, which should place them before the complete drying up the ancient river around 2200-1900 BC."
This seal establishes the submerged township's connection with Dwaraka of Mahabharata. It corroborates the reference in the Harivamsa that says every citizen of Dwaraka should carry a mudra as a mark of identification.
Further, Rajaram argues, the Mahabharata describes India as made up of established kingdoms, with good communications and a common elite language. "It was an age of large kingdoms and empires and imperial aspirations," he insists. In fact the geography as described in the epic is accepted by many scholars. Historian S.M. Ali is quoted in Rao's book: "The georgrapahical matter contained in the Mahabharata is immense. It is perhaps the only great work which deals with georgraphic details and not incidentally as other works." So Krishna's Dwaraka must fit into the geography and society described in the epic, which obviously corresponds far more to the early Harappan rather than the post-Harappan period which saw the rise of regional cultures, what Rao calls Janapadas, Rajaram argues in his book. (Rao gives the following chronology: Pre-Harappa 3400-3100 BC; mature Harappa 3100-1900 BC; late Harappa 1900-1500 BC.)
The town was well-fortified with engineering skill, as seen in the hemispherical door-socket (left) and literacy as seen in the inscription in the earthern trough (right) in old Indo-Aryan script which Rao deciphers as Mahakaccha sah pa, conveying the sense of "sea (or sea god) king (or ruler) protect".
Moreover, in looking at the historical basis for the Dwaraka legend, a key question is not just about Krishna but also whether the Mahabharata war and other participants in the war were historical also. One cannot have one without the other. And Rajaram and Jha, in their yet to be universally accepted decipherment of the Harappan seals, say there are many references to Krishna and other Mahabharata characters in the Indus Valley seals, some of which date back to 5000 years.
For instance, one seal they have deciphered as Devapi, the elder brother of Bhishma's father, Shantanu. Among other names related to Krishna deciphered are Akrura (Krishna's friend), Yadu (Krishna's ancestor), and Sritirtha (old name for Dwaraka). Another seal they read as 'Murari Vrishni anga' meaning 'Murari of the Vrishnis,' and one more as 'Vrishni varpa,' implying he had a beautiful body. In fact, Jha and Rajaram say they have found the word 'Vrishni' appearing on numerous Harappan seals. Vrishni of course was Krishna's clan, living in a region where recent excavations have shown that the Harappan Civilisation was thriving.
The identification of Krishna's Dwaraka thus calls for devising methods of identifying sites and artefacts that belong to the Mahabharata period, though there is little consensus among historians and archeologists on dating this period. For this, it is necessary to get at the root of the main literary source of the period, the Mahabharata. "Recent research has shown that the epic is not a myth but a recreation of history. This is the consensus among most historians and archaeologists," Rao argues.
While one may or may not agree with Rao's conclusions, he has made an important contribution by connecting literature and archaeology. He has shown that identifying Krishna's Dwaraka and other places connected with the Krishna story as well as the larger story of the Mahabharata itself and other ancient texts is possible by looking for similar connections between literature and archaeology, and be the starting point for excavations for other historic and legendary places.
with Vijaya Pushkarna
Interview/S.R. Rao
State too busy to preserve the finds
Has there been any finding elsewhere comparable to your Gujarat ones?
In Poompuhar (Tamil Nadu), there is a structure at a depth of 23 m. This is something extraordinary and unique. Normally, at a depth of 7-10m, you get 3rd-4th century BC material. We did some work and saw that it was a kind of apsidal object. There appeared to be two structures. How to date it is a big question. We suspect it might be very early.
Mahabharata is viewed as a north Indian story...
In Andhra Pradesh, when I excavated two small neolithic sites (new stone age or around 5000 BC), I got Harappan material. In a place called Bandipur Salachenu we got typical Harappan beads How did this happen? What did they give in return? So there was some contact with the south.
Is there any attempt to preserve what you have discovered?
That is the most deplorable aspect. We prepared a project, consulted the navy people and the engineers, who can do underwater conservation. They said it was feasible. We worked out a detailed project report. The cost was Rs 9 crore, because we wanted to not only preserve, but to put acrylic tubes so that people can go and actually see the structures. All this we said in our report to then tourism minister Ananth Kumar two years ago. But nothing was done. If the government allows us to do the work, we will take care of it; it is not difficult to find the money for it. All the artefacts that were recovered are currently at the NIO in Goa. We have again approached Mr Jagmohan and hope a decision will be made soon.
We also wanted to set up an alphabet museum. The Sanskrit University in Tirupati wanted the project and I had prepared a plan. Most of the artefacts are in Delhi.
The Lothal museum is fairly well done. I took a lot of pains over it. But Kalibangan is just a heap of earth. Nothing has been done to preserve it even though it is such an important site. Now it has gone completely. In fact, when the National Geographic people came to India to make a film, they went only to Lothal. Dholavira is all stone. Some measures have been taken to preserve the excavations.
Karmayogi par excellence
"Since time immemorial learned men have known that the affairs of the world are influenced by forces both divine and human. I can only do what I can to control and influence human events. I have no control whatsoever on what the gods might do."
-Bhagavad Gita
Reading beyond the myth accumulated over millennia, Krishna is seen to be a many-sided man who lived a rich and varied life. He is, of course, best known as friend and counsellor to the Pandavas and the architect of the Pandavas' victory over the Kauravas in the great Kurukshetra battle. In fact, but for Krishna's leadership and strategy, it is quite possible that the Pandavas might not have prevailed. Then there is Krishna, the Vrishni prince of Dwaraka, the uncrowned king of the turbulent Yadu clan.
For all his greatness, Krishna's career was tinged with tragedy: he failed to prevent the Mahabharata War and failed also to prevent his Yadu clan from destroying itself. The forces of human folly ultimately proved stronger even than Krishna. This also I believe shows that Krishna was entirely a human figure. (This I recognise is ultimately a matter of faith and the statement expresses only my belief.) And yet for all his failures, he left for posterity a message that has never lost its relevance-the message embodied in his philosophy of karma yoga, the principle of action.
'MISMATCH BETWEEN ARCHAEOLOGY AND THE MAHABHARATA': N.S. Rajaram
And this brings us to the third Krishna, the most enduring of all, Krishna the reformer and practical philosopher, the sage of karma yoga. Krishna was a reformer who moved away from the ritualistic practices of the Vedic religion of his time to the action-oriented Sankhya philosophy. He lived in the late Vedic Age when rituals of the Brahmanas, deriving mainly from the Yajurveda had begun to dominate. The Rigveda, completed for the most part more than five hundred years before his time was already becoming unintelligible. It was being interpreted by ritualistic priests who had lost contact with the mystical language and the true meaning of the Rigveda.
Krishna saw the futility and irrelevance of such ritual built around practices bereft of meaning and sought reform. That Krishna was himself a peerless Vedic scholar was recognised by all, even by his adversaries like Shishupala. This is also clear from the acquiescence of princes and sages assembled during Yudhisthira's Rajasuya ceremony where Krishna was honored as the greatest figure of the age. The suggestion to so honor Krishna had come from no less a person than Bhishma, a man old enough to be his grandfather. Veda Vyasa himself was present in the assembly and raised no objection.
Krishna as a romantic hero is a later creation that receives no support from early and reliable sources like the Mahabharata. The image of Krishna that we get from the ancient sources is of an austere and studious man, whose main concerns were political stability and ethical and religious reform. The historical Krishna is the very antithesis of his portrayal in the later literature. Considering his own precarious childhood and youth his concerns are also entirely understandable.
The youthful Krishna was an introspective and philosophic man, profoundly concerned about his role in history. Many years later he volunteered to go on a mission to prevent a calamitous war between his cousins, the Kauravas and the Pandavas. Its failure was a foregone conclusion and Krishna knew it. When Vidura asked Krishna why he bothered at all considering that war was inevitable, Krishna told him: "I am thinking not of my place and my time, but of the future. Future generations will think that I allowed a great calamity to befall the world without my lifting a finger to prevent it. Failure is not an excuse for lack of effort..."
This is the central message of the great Bhagavadgita, attributed to him. Krishna firmly believed that one always had to live in action. He told his friend and disciple Arjuna: "There is nothing in the three worlds that I want for myself. There is nothing for which I need to work. But if I let myself follow a course of inaction, so will others follow me... I shall myself be the cause of degeneracy in the world."
To return to his early life, as befitting a warrior prince, Krishna received a stern education, both in military craft and in Vedic studies. Krishna and Balarama studied under the sage Sandipini. A passage in the Chandogya Upanishad suggests that Krishna was also associated with Ghora of the Angirasa clan on studies relating to the Vedas.
Krishna was something of a child prodigy and soon attained fame both as a warrior and Vedic scholar. And like every genius he quickly surpassed all his teachers, becoming a great innovator in both warfare and philosophy. Whoever was the source of the Gita, it is beyond question that he was a peerless Vedic scholar. Krishna could be its compiler, his ideas put in their final form by Veda Vyasa.
The Gita is now widely studied; at the time when Krishna began to propound his new philosophy, people must have found it radical. This helps explain the hostility shown to Krishna by the rulers of the old established order. He must have seemed to them a dangerous radical with emphasis on action and merit, away from ritual and privilege.

Thursday, November 27, 2014

SCIENTIFIC VERIFICATION OF VEDIC LITERATURE , KRISHNA -PART 2.

This is part 2 of scientific verification of Hinduism, vedic that existed millions of years before what was and is taught in schools. Time has come to reveal-


KRISHNA IS NOT A MYTH BUT A EVIDENCE PROOF-PART 1

Many Hindus are living in dark and feel bad about talking Hinduism,while many whites are going to Hinduism, its scriptures and its magic power. Must watch of this video-BE PROUD THAT YOUR FOREFATHERS DI NOT ACCEPT CONVERSION OR LUCKY NOT TO GET CONVERTED AND STILL RETAINS MYSTIC HINDUISM.

Saturday, September 13, 2014

~35000 yrs Dwarika-Another quest




Now see history of black sea- All evidence suggests that books we are read were just false.

Tuesday, March 4, 2014

HINDUISM DECODED-Deity Worship in the Vedic Tradition #DECODING #HINDUISM

There are temples in India which are older over Five Thousand years.
Some of them are damaged.
When a modern building built with the latest Technology do not seem to last for fifty years,these temples are a tribute to the Technology and skill of our ancestors.
Temple for Balarama
Dauji Temple
Near Gokul, in Village Baladeva (District Mathura), Shri Dauji Temple is situated 21 km southeast of Mathura, on the other side of Yamuna river. The name Dauji means ‘Elder Brother’. Here in the temple two metre (6×6″) Deity of Lord Balrama was installed by King Vajranabha.
Near Gokul, in Village Baladeva (District Mathura), Shri Dauji Temple is situated 21 km southeast of Mathura, on the other side of Yamuna river. The name Dauji means ‘Elder Brother’. Here in the temple two metre (6×6″) Deity of Lord Balrama was installed by King Vajranabha.

seven kilometers south of Gokula, not far from Mathura, is the Dauji temple. Dauji is the Deity of Lord Balarama that was originally installed 5,000 years ago by King Vajranabha, Krishna’s great-grandson. From Lord Krishna and His queen Rukmini was born the great warrior Pradyumna, one of His prominent sons, who married the daughter of Rukmi, Rukmavati. They gave birth to Anirudha. Anirudha married Rukmi’s son’s daughter, Rachana, and from her was born Vajra, who would remain among the few survivors of the Yadus’ battle. (Bhagavatam 10.90.35-37)
In fact, King Vajra established a number of Krishna Deities in the area. The present Dauji temple that we see today was built 200 years ago by Shyama Das of Delhi. Many people also attend this temple to get darshan of the single Deity of the 6 feet tall Lord Balarama. From the other side of the temple you can see the Deity of Revati, Lord Balarama’s wife. Nearby is the Balabhadra Kund or Kshira (milk) Sagara (sea) where the Deity of Lord Balarama had been hidden during the Moghul invasion. Near this kund is a temple to Harideva, and in the bazaar is another temple to Krishna as Banke Bihari.”
Old Krishna Temple
Krishna temple
There is also much history on the site of Krishna’s birth, the Krishna Janmasthana in Mathura. Historical records indicate that the first temple here was also built by King Vajranabha. This temple lasted for many years. The next temple was supposedly built by King Vikramaditya in 400 BCE. That was destroyed by the infamous Mahmud Ghazni in 1017-18. Ancient descriptions relate that such a magnificent building would have taken 200 years of great toil by the world’s greatest craftsmen. Thereafter, a third temple was built by a citizen named Jajja during the time of King Vijayapalavadeva, ruler of Mathura, according to an inscription on a stone slab discovered in the area. Sri Chaitanya visited this temple during His visit in 1515. Unfortunately, that was destroyed by the Muslim Sikander Lodi shortly thereafter. The next temple was built by Raja Virsinghadeva Bundela during the reign of Jehangir (around 1650). It is said that this temple stood 250 feet tall and was a stately structure made of intricately carved red sandstone, costing some 33 lakhs of rupees. But again it was destroyed by the fanatic Muslim Aurangzeb in 1669-70. Then it its place a mosque was built, which still stands today. The next temple over the place of Krishna’s birth appeared later in the mid-20th century.
Varaha Avatar by Sudhamshu. Varaha Image (Not the Mathura Temple) : Source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/sudhamshu/3338614940/
Also in Mathura, not far from the Dwarkadish Mandira, there is the temple of white Sweta-Varaha, and another of Adi-Varaha. According to local history as explained by local pandits, back in Satya-yuga this Deity had been given to Lord Indra who worshiped Him in Swarga, his heavenly abode. The Deity was later taken by Ravana when he defeated Indra who took Him to Sri Lanka. Then, after Ravana was defeated by Lord Ramachandra, the Deity was taken to Ayodhya by Lord Ramachandra. Lord Ramachandra gave it to His brother Satrughna who brought it to Mathura when he was dispatched to conquer Madhu Daitya and Lavanasura. After defeating the demonic father and son, Madhu and Lavanasura, he installed the Deity of Adi-Varaha here. This story is more fully explained in Chapter 163 of the Varaha Purana.
Source:
http://www.stephen-knapp.com/antiquity_of_deity_worship_in_vedic_tradition.htm

Wednesday, February 12, 2014

REALITY OF EXISTENCE OF LORD KRISHNA /DWARIKA-PART 2

LINK TO PART 1- 32000 year old DWARIKA
Dwaraka
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A LOST CITY RECOVERED -
Dwaraka was a western Indian city submerged by the sea right after the death of Sri Krishna. This was regarded as a grandiose metaphor, part of a story filled with great myths. But in the early eighties an important archaeological site was found at the site of the legendary city of Lord Krishna.
Situated in Saurashtra, at a point where the Gomti river meets the Arabian sea, it has acquired multifarious names down the ages: Dwaraka, the gateway to eternal happiness; Swarnapuri, the city of gold, Swarnadwarika, the golden gateway. Why is that the rediscovery of Dwaraka has not attracted the same degree of attention in the West, as that of ancient Troy by Heinrich Schliemann?
Literary texts like the Mahabharata, Harivamsha and Purana contain traditions about the foundation of Dwaraka, its planning and glory. Before the legendary city of Dwaraka was discovered some scholars were of the view that the Mahabharata being only a myth it would be futile to look for the remains of Dwaraka and that too in the sea. Others held that the Kurukshetra battle was a family feud exaggerated into a war.
Excavations done by Dr. S.R. Rao at Dwaraka prove that the descriptions as found in these texts are not to be discarded as fanciful but are to be treated as based on actualities as seen by their authors. The architecture of the old Dwaraka of Krishna is majestic and wonderful. The great poet Premanand has in his Sudamacarit described its splendid beauty and majesty. Dwaraka is mentioned as Golden City in Mahabharata, Skanda Purana, Vishnu Purana and Harivamsha.
Interesting descriptions about its construction are found in Purana. «Fearing attack from Jarasangh and Kalayvan on Mathura, Sri Krishna and Yadavas left Mathura and arrived at the coast of Saurashtra. They decided to build their capital in the coastal region and invoke the Vishwakarma, the deity of construction. However, Vishwakarma says that the task can be completed only if Samudradeva, the Lord of the sea provided some land. Sri Krishna worshipped Samudradeva, who was pleased and gave them land measuring 12 yojans and the divine architect Vishwakarma build Dwaraka, a city in gold». Another story says that at the time of the death of Sri Krishna, who was hit by the arrow of a hunter near Somnath at Bhalka Tirth, Dwaraka disappeared in the sea.
The information and material secured through underwater excavation of Dwaraka corroborates with the references to the city of Dwaraka, made in various Sanskrit literary works. In Mahabharata, there is a specific account about the submerging of Dwaraka by the sea, which reads thus: «The sea, which had been beating against the shores, suddenly broke the boundary that was imposed on it by nature. The sea rushed into the city. It coursed through the streets of the beautiful city. The sea covered up everything in the city. Even as they were all looking, Arjuna saw the beautiful buildings becoming submerged one by one. Arjuna took a last look at the mansion of Krishna. It was soon covered by the sea. In a matter of a few moments it was all over. The sea had now become as placid as a lake. There was no trace of the beautiful city which had been the favourite haunt of all the Pandavas. Dwaraka was just a name; just a memory».
The importance of the discovery of Dwaraka lies not merely in providing archaeological evidence needed for corroborating the traditional account of the submergence of Dwaraka but also indirectly fixing the date of the Mahabharata which is a landmark in Indian history. The Thermoluminiscence date of the pottery from Bet Dwaraka which is also connected with the Krishna legend is 3520 years Before Present. Identical pottery is found in the submerged city of Dwaraka. Thus the results have proved that the account in Mahabharata as to the existence of a beautiful capital city of Dwaraka of Sri Krishna was not a mere figment of imagination but it did exist.
Besides the sea-ports, there were renowned cities which were washed away by the rivers on whose banks they were situated. We may cite here the case of Hastinapura and Pataliputra, situated on the bank of the river Ganga and falling victims to flood-fury. The Mahabharata mentions that Hastinapura was washed away by the Ganga and consequently the Pandavas had to migrate to Kaudambi. Pataliputra which was the premier city of the land (agranagara) and the test of the excellence of all the cities in the words of Dandin, the author of the Dashakumaracarita, later became the worst victim of inundation. The submerged parts of these cities are to be treated as protected monuments and great treasures of the ancient heritage of India. If Dwaraka excavations throw a flood of light on the history of the city which was associated with the life events of Krishna, the underwater excavations of Ayodhya situated on the bank of the river Sarayu might yield valuable information about the historicity of Rama, his age and contemporary urban status.
Since 1983 the Marine Archaeology Unit of the National Institute of Oceanography is engaged in the offshore exploration and excavation of the legendary city of Dwaraka in the coastal waters of Dwaraka in Gujarat. Brief accounts of the findings of the underwater search for the lost city have appeared in 1987, Progress and Prospects of Marine Archaeology in India, and in 1988, Marine Archaeology of Indian Ocean Countries.
A brief account of the discovery of the submerged city of Dwaraka of Mahabarata fame and the salient features of the structures exposed as a result of underwater excavation conducted at Dwaraka and Bet Dwaraka by the Marine Archaeology Unit of the National Institute of Oceanography under the direction of Dr. S.R. Rao from 1983 to 1987 appeared in 1988 (40 years of Research - A CSIR Overview). Offshore exploration of the legendary city at Dwaraka was resumed in 1988 and continued through 1990 (see the Journal of Marine Archaeology, 1990), further seaward of the Temple of Samudranardyana (Sea God) at Dwaraka with a view to trace the plan and extent of the port-city and the purpose of the massive stone walls built on the banks of ancient Gomati. It was also necessary to ascertain whether its architectural features were in conformation with the description of the city of Dwaraka given in the epic Mahabharata. A second object was to obtain more corroborative evidence for reclamation referred to in the epic. Thirdly, the nick point where the ancient Gomati river joined the sea had to be determined. Lastly, the cause of submergence of the city was another problem that needed further investigation.
Dwaraka was a city-state extending upto Bet Dwaraka (Sankhodhara) in the north and Okhamadhi in the south. Eastward it extended upto Pindara. The 30 to 40 meter-high hill on the eastern flank of Sankhodhara may be the Raivataka referred to in the Mahabharata. The general layout of the city of Dwaraka described in ancient texts agrees with that of the submerged city discovered. Four enclosures are laid bare; each one had one or two gateways. The port Aramda on way to Bet Dwaraka was the first gateway in the outer fortifications. The bastions flanking gateways of submerged Dwaraka resemble those of Kusinagara and Sravasti carved on the Gateways of Sanchi Stupa. The prasada referred to in the epic must be the high fort walls of Dwaraka, a part of which is extant. The epic says that flags were flying in the city of Dwaraka. This can be corroborated by the stone bases of flag posts found in the sea bed excavation. Umashankar Joshi is of the view that antardvipa in the region of Kugasthali referred to in the Mahabharata must be Bet Dwaraka. The Bhagavata Purana says that before leaving his mortal frame Sri Krishna put the ladies and children in boats and sent them to Sankhodhara.
The buildings built of smaller fraction stone blocks are razed to the ground leaving only small portions of the thick fort walls, bastions and protection walls (built with massive stones) which are too heavy to be moved by tides and currents. From the structural remains in Dwaraka and Bet Dwaraka waters, it is possible to visualise that the city-ports were large and well planned.
Every significant antiquity that corroborates a statement of the Harivamsa is the seal bearing the motif of a three-headed animal representing the bull, unicorn and goat. The Harivamsha says that every citizen of Dwaraka had to carry a mudra as a mark of identifications The seal (mudra) found in the excavation belongs to 15th-16th century B.C.
Nearly two decades after marine archeologists found the lost city of Dwaraka off the coast of Gujarat the state government continues to drag its feet on a proposal to establish the world's first underwater museum to view the remains of the city submerged in the Arabian Sea.
The proposal for the museum, submitted by the Marine Archeology Center of the National Institute of Oceanography in Goa, involves laying a submarine acrylic tube through which visitors can view through glass windows the ruins of the city said to have been be ruled by Sri Krishna, 3500 years ago.
Discovered in 1981, the well-fortified township of Dwaraka extended more than half a mile from the shore and was built in six sectors along the banks of a river before it became submerged. The findings are of immense cultural importance to India.
«The search for the lost city has been going on since 1930» — S.R. Rao, who is still actively involved in the excavations, told India Abroad. «It is only after marine archaeologists started exploring the sea-bed near modem Dwaraka from 1981 that the structural remains of the city were found».
Rao said that if a fraction of the funds spent on land archeology were made available for underwater archaeology, more light could be thrown on Dwaraka, which had much archeological significance because it was built during the second urbanization that occurred in India after the Indus Valley civilization in northwestern India. Dwaraka’s existence disproves the belief held by Western archeologists that there was no urbanization in the Indian subcontinent from the period between 1700 BC. (Indus Valley) and 550 BC. (advent of Buddhism). As no information was available about that period, they had labeled it the Dark Period.
«The findings in Dwaraka and archeological evidence found compatible with the Mahabharata tradition remove the lingering doubt about the historicity of the great epic. We would say Krishna definitely existed», said Rao. What is needed, he added, is the political will to reconstruct the cultural history of the Vedic and epic periods of northern India.
Over 200 experts from 84 countries, who gathered under the aegis of UNESCO in Paris recently to examine a draft convention on the issue, unanimously agreed that underwater cultural heritage was in urgent need of protection from destruction and pillaging.
In Dwaraka, Krishna is supposed to have built a mighty kingdom on a site selected for him by Vishnu’s learned ‘vahan’, Garud. The city he built is supposed to have extended over 104 kms. It was well fortified and surrounded by a moat, spanned by bridges, which were removed in the event of attack by an enemy.
Archaeological excavations have unearthed artifacts that prove that modern Dwaraka is the sixth settlement of the name on this site. The earlier cities have been, at various times, swallowed by the sea. The waves of the sea still lap the shores of this famous town, lending scenic beauty to this important pilgrimage destination.
The Dwarkadhish temple, dedicated to Sri Krishna, is the focal point of all pilgrimages. Parts of it date from the 12th-13th century and others from the 16th, but the Jag Mandir, its sanctum sanctorum, is supposed to be 2,500 years old. The hall in front is richly carved and supported by 60 massive pillars, each one hewn out of a single stone slab. Many of the sculptures date from the Maurya, Gupta and Chalukya periods. Some of the subjects are of Jaina and Buddhist origin. The temple is 157 feet high.
Another important pilgrimage site in the ancient city of Dwarka is Gomti ghat. The myth attached to the original temple says that it was built overnight at the instructions of Vajranabh, the great-grandson of Krishna, by the divine craftsman Vishvakarma. Archaeologists are undecided about the date of construction of the temple that exists now, but it is generally believed that it was rebuilt in the 10th or 11th century AD after the original temple was destroyed, probably during the Muslim invasions.
Most of the temples and pilgrimage spots around Dwaraka are associated with Krishna and the Vaishnavite tradition. However, the temple of Somnath, which is not very far from this place, is dedicated to Shiva as Nagnath or Nageshwar Mahadev, and enshrines one of the twelve ‘Jyotirlinga’ which according to the Purana manifested themselves as columns of light in different parts of the country. The magnificent temple that stands there now is a replica of the original temple.
An archaeological site, dating back to 7500 BC and older than hitherto oldest known human civilisations including those found in the Valley of Sumer, Harappa and Egypt, was discovered by a team of Indian marine archaeologists in the Gulf of Cambay off Gujarat coast. «For India, it was the first time that such an important discovery was reported from near Dwaraka site, the off-shore region where underwater archeological exploration was in progress», Union Minister for Science and Technology Murli Manohar Joshi said at a crowded Press conference.
«Further investigation of this area was important as it might throw some light on the development of human civilisation, besides having a bearing on the Indian history», concluded Dr. Joshi.
In order to establish without any doubt wheter or not the ruins on the seabed are effectively of the city of Dwarka, a group of archaeological experts and Indian Navy divers are conducting a scientific survey off the Gujarat coast.
«We found building blocks and collected samples. These have been sent for dating to establish the antiquity of the site,» Alok Tripathi of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) told, who is the ASI’s only marine archaeologist.
A 21-member team conducted the survey in January-February 2007. It comprised 10 specialists from the ASI and 11 divers of the Indian Navy.
«While the ASI has the requisite data and archaeological expertise, the Indian Navy has the necessary wherewithal and expertise for subsurface search, exploration and recovery of artefacts,» Rear Admiral, S.P.S. Cheema, assistant chief of naval staff, explained. «Before the excavation, naval divers were indoctrinated by ASI experts on the procedures and method to be followed during the investigation. These included aspects like documentation, controlled digging, and the retrieval, packaging and transportation of samples» Cheema said. «The idea was to achieve maximum extraction without damaging the environment,» he added.
Before commencing diving operations, a specialised naval hydrographic team systematically surveyed the area off Dwarka with the help of multi-beam sonar and side-scan sonar. The navy had deployed its survey ship INS Nirdeshak for this in November 2006.
«This enabled us generate a 3D model of the seabed so we could narrow down the area of search. We initially marked out a 200 metre by 200 metre area and eventually narrowed this down to 50x50 metre area,» Tripathi explained.
 




DWARKAThe submerged palace of Dwarka kingdom.Divers maping the Fort.



Artifacts found in the submerged city of Dwarka, amongst them a copper bell.
Carbon dating shows that its about >35000 years old.