Showing posts with label SRIMAD -BHAGVAT PURAN. Show all posts
Showing posts with label SRIMAD -BHAGVAT PURAN. Show all posts

Friday, January 16, 2015

GITA.PPT in simplest form#gita

Become a Yogi i.e. merge yourself in Brahman for a Yogi is the one who has become non-different from God.

Hare KrishnaKeep your mind stable in sorrow, happiness, anxiety, anger, passion and fear and become a "STABLE MINDED" saint and attain Brahman [Liberation].

Om Tat SatAbout REBIRTH in Shrimad Bhagvat Gita पार्थ नैवेह नामुत्र विनाशस्तस्य विद्यते। न हि कल्याणकृत्कश्चिद्दुर्गतिं तात गच्छति॥ श्री भगवान् बोले- हे पार्थ! उस पुरुष का न तो इस लोक में नाश होता है और न परलोक में ही। क्योंकि हे प्यारे! आत्मोद्धार के लिए अर्थात भगवत्प्राप्ति के लिए कर्म करने वाला कोई भी मनुष्य दुर्गति को प्राप्त नहीं होता।(गीता:6:40) The Lord tends to explain Arjuna about any man who walks on a path to reach the Almighty. Lord says, "Oh Parth (Arjuna)! A man who walks on the path to reach God never gets destroyed either in this world or in the divine world(s) [after this world]. Oh Beloved! It is so because, a man who works for the purpose of attaining absolution/emanicipation i.e. attaining God, never falls or attains misery. (Gita:6:40)

Pass out of the dense forest of delusion. Go beyond Maya and attain That Supreme.

Hari Om Tat Sat
Antakaale cha maameva smaran muktwaa kalevaram;
Yah prayaati sa madbhaavam yaati naastyatra samshayah.
Adhibhootam ksharo bhaavah purushashchaadhidaivatam;
Adhiyajno’hamevaatra dehe dehabhritaam vara.
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha:

Aksharam brahma paramam swabhaavo’dhyaatmamuchyate;
Bhootabhaavodbhavakaro visargah karmasamjnitah.
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Holy Scriptures's photo.
Pitaahamasya jagato maataa dhaataa pitaamahah;
Vedyam pavitramonkaara riksaama yajureva cha.

The sacred monosyllable (Om).

Background : google search.
Omityekaaksharam brahma vyaaharan maamanusmaran;
Yah prayaati tyajan deham sa yaati paramaam gatim.

Om—the Brahman.
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|| Jai Sri Krishna ||

Holy scriptures wishers all a very Happy Gita Jayanti.

This day Lord Krishna gave the eternal divine message of Bhagavad Gita to mankind.

What have you learnt from Bhagavad Gita please share. _/\_
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Holy Scriptures's photo.
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"With a single fragment of My Power (Yogashakti) I pervade and support this entire Universe"
---------- Shri Krishna (Ishvar) in the Gita: 10: 42
"मैं इस सम्पूर्ण जगत को अपनी योगशक्ति के एक अंश मात्र से धारण करके स्थित हूँ"
----------श्री कृष्ण [ईश्वर]: श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता: 10: 42
"With a single fragment of My Power (Yogashakti) I pervade and support this entire Universe"
---------- Shri Krishna (Ishvar) in the Gita: 10: 42

"मैं इस सम्पूर्ण जगत को अपनी योगशक्ति के एक अंश मात्र से धारण करके स्थित हूँ"
----------श्री कृष्ण [ईश्वर]: श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता: 10: 42
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|| JSK ||

Verily mind is difficult to controls and is restless. 

What to do to restrain is disclosed by the Divine Creator in His sixth disclosure, path of meditation, in Bhagavad Gita chapter 6 verse no. 35.

Vedanta describes that consciousness is beyond the mind and the intellect and give the following hierarchy. 

Indriyaani paraanyaahur indriyebhyah param manah;
Manasastu paraa buddhir yo buddheh paratastu sah.

The senses are superior (to the body); superior to the senses is the mind;
superior to the mind is the intellect; and one who is superior even to the intellect is He—the Self.

Bhagavad Gita 3:42

Kathaponishad  1:3:3
Know the atman (soul) to be the master of the chariot; the body, chariot; the intellect, the charioteer; and the mind, the reins.

Kathaponishad 1:3:4
The senses, they say, are the horses; the objects, the roads. The wise call the atman−united with the body, the senses and the mind−the enjoyer.

Kathaponishad  1:3:5
If the buddhi, being related to a mind that is always distracted, loses its discrimination, then the senses become uncontrolled, like the vicious horses of a charioteer.

Kathaponishad  1:3:6
But if the buddhi (intellect), being related to a mind that is always restrained, possesses discrimination, then the senses come under control, like the good horses of a charioteer.

Kathaponishad  1:3:7
If the buddhi, being related to a distracted mind, loses its discrimination and therefore always remains impure, then the embodied soul never attains the goal, but enters into the round of births.
सात्विक्, राजस या तामस?

भोजन का अपनी प्रकृति पर गहरा प्रभाव पड़ता है। इसलिए अपने आहार पर अवश्य विचार कीजिए।

For English version:

Is there any? 

Yes, it is. Please read and share.

"The mind, consists of food, the prana of water and speech of heat."

The subtlest part of food becomes mind as mentioned in Chhandogya Upanishad in Part 6 Chapter 5.
Who is a Sanyasi (संन्यासी)?

जो पुरुष न किसी से द्वेष करता है और न ही किसी की आकांक्षा करता है; वह कर्मयोगी सदा संन्यासी ही समझने योग्य है क्योंकि राग-द्वेष आदि द्वन्द्वों से रहित पुरुष सुखपूर्वक संसार बंधन से मुक्त हो जाता है।
गीता: 5: 3
Almighty resides in every living being. Field (kshetra) is this body.
Karai Ma's photo.
Karai Ma's photo.
Why we feel unhappy? Is there any revelation by Almighty in His Scriptures? 

Yes. Lord sermon in Bhagavad Gita Chapter 2 Verse 66.

<3 Please share in your wall. :)
How is the Supreme Abode (Siddha Loka)?

Where the liberated soul goes?

We can know if we refer Almighty’s Divine Disclosure.
HE disclosed His Supreme Abode in Bhagavad Gita.
Share this to let all know. Let we all get the light of wisdom and take the right path to achieve liberation. Be it the path of action, wisdom, mediation or devotion.

“Free from pride and delusion, victorious over the evil of attachment, dwelling constantly in the Self, their desires having completely turned away, freed from the pairs of opposites known as pleasure and pain, the undeluded reach the eternal goal”. BG 15:5
Only Supreme can grant Supreme!!!!!

हे अर्जुन! ब्रहमलोकपरयन्त सब लोक पुनरानर्ती हैं, परन्तु हे कुन्तीपुत्र! मुझको प्राप्त होकर पुनरजन्म नहीं होता; क्योंकि मैं कालातीत हूँ और ये सब ब्रह्मादी के लोक काल के द्नारा सीमीत होने से अनित्य हैं।
(श्रीमद्भग्वद्गीता - अध्याय 8 - श्लोक 26)

After doing a sin/demerit, what that can do? Almighty ordinance clearly on this in His revelation in Bhagavad Gita. 

Please share to create the awareness that sin/demerit can’t be reduced by confession. Myths need to be wiped out.
Gita preaches the eternal rule of Humanity.
How one can know which is predominant in self,  sattva or rajo or tama. This is a test on self to determine next course of action. Read it. You will surely like it. This is truth. Words of Almighty.

SATTAV (good, noble), RAJO (passionate) and TAMA (ignorant), the knowledge of these three Gunas (virtues/qualities), which hold the entire universe and all creatures under their sway, is of vital importance to each and everyone for their progress and happiness in life.

The highest of the three qualities is Sattva. It is pure. It brings about happiness, wisdom and
illumination. The second quality of Rajo gives rise to passion manifested by intense
attachment and greed. It causes sorrow and suffering. The third, termed Tama, is the worst of all. It arises due to ignorance and results in darkness, lethargy and delusion.

Lord Krishna reveals that these three qualities compose the Cosmic Nature. This Cosmic
Nature is the primal source and origin of the entire creation and all things in it. Hence all things
created are subject to their influence and irresistible power. The individual soul also is bound to the body by these three qualities present in Cosmic Nature. The Supreme Being brings about creation through the help of His Prakriti (Nature) endowed with these threefold qualities.

The three Gunas are present in all human beings. None is free from the operation of any one of the three qualities. They are not constant. Sometimes Sattva predominates and at other times Rajos or Tamas predominates. One should analyse and stand as a witness of these three qualities.

Almighty declares in the Fourteenth Discourse i.e. Gunatraya-vibhaga-yoga in Bhagavad Gita, that one who rises beyond all the three Gunas through spiritual practices, becomes free from birth, death, old age and sorrow, and enjoys immortality.
News papers, News channels hardly get a day off from such news. Did our Divine Creator alert mankind on anger, greed and lust?

Yes ofcourse. Almighty ordinance everything. Share please.

What exactly this syllable says. 

BG 17:23. “Om Tat Sat”: this has been declared to be the triple designation of Brahman. By that were created formerly the Brahmanas, the Vedas and the sacrifices".
Bhagavad Gita is an eighteen chapter disclosure of the Divine Almighty.

Here is a breakthrough!!!

We live in society. Have our families. Do our duties. What is the way out for us for divine peace who can’t do practices of meditation or acquire knowledge (wisdom). Is there any disclosure by our Divine Creator? YES HE DISCLOSED a simple way in Bhagavad Gita in Chapter 12 (Yoga of Devotion). IT IS RENUNCIATION OF THE FRUITS OF ACTION. 12:12
On our presentation so far from Scriptures of Almighty, if you feel enriched, please click LIKE. 

We shared Almighty’s ordinance on rebirth. Now let us check how we can judge from the time of depart of a soul from body about its journey (rebirth or liberation) which is mentioned clearly in Bhagavad Gita.
Why morality, humanity, honesty are showing a downward trend over the years? Is there any commandment given by our Divine Creator in any of our scriptures? Yes, HE HAS GIVEN.
What is the fate of the people having lot of doubt? Let us check in the light of Holy Scripture. Share this to save people live in doubt.
Love people are also lift people from the coffer of ignorance. We wish that this disclosure of Almighty be shared overwhelmingly to let us judge our own position with self (self is the best judge of self). Why there is degradation in our living mentally leading to non righteousness? 

It is not the law of the lands only but doctrine of the Divine Creator on living which can be the best solution for us to get out of this adverse climate. Please share and share to save one and all to make this world a better place for the one to come.
Divine Creator narrates the plight of the demoniacal human beings who say: “This universe is without truth, without a (moral) basis, without a God, brought about by mutual union, with lust for its cause; what else?” BG 16:8
Meditation as sermoned by Almighty in Bhagavad Gita is herewith having two revelations as below:-

Thus, always keeping the mind balanced, the Yogi, with the mind controlled, attains to the peace abiding in Me, which culminates in liberation. 6:15

When the perfectly controlled mind rests in the Self only, free from longing for the objects of desire, then it is said: “He is united.”

The Sharad Purnima or Kojaagari Purnima  is a harvest festival celebrated on the full moon day of the Hindu lunar month of Ashvin (September–October). It marks the end of monsoon. There is a traditional celebration of the moon and is also called the 'Kaumudi celebration', Kaumudi meaning moonlight. Some people believe that on this night Laxmi goes around from place to place asking, "Who is awake?" ("Kojagarti?") and shows her pleasure on those she finds awake. Hence, the night is spent in festivity, in the honour of the goddess. So people sit in the moonlight singing songs, or keep themselves entertained in some other way. They fast from solid food and take only fluids like coconut water or milk. Milk is boiled until it thickens, and milk masala (called kheer, a readymade combination of dry fruits) is added to it and drunk. There is also a tradition to have cool milk and rice flakes on this night. It is a harvest festival.

In which category of devotee/disciple one is, let us check by self (means what we ask from Almighty when we pray) in the light of Holy Scripture.
हम यहाँ, पवित्र ग्रंथों में  नए मित्रों का स्वागत करते हैं.
We welcome new friends here in Holy Scriptures.

एक प्रस्तावना के रूप में, सर्वशक्तिमान के पवित्र शास्त्र से शुरू किया, कैसे जीवन के दु:ख से मुक्त करके हम बेहतर रह सकते हैं || 
यह भगवत गीता अध्याय नं 9 (राजविद्याराजगुह्ययोग) में उल्लेख किया गया है ||
As a prelude, we are sharing now the most secret disclosure of Almighty that "How to be free from sorrow?" This is mentioned in Bhagavat Gita Chapter No. 9 (Rajavidyarajaguhyayog). 

हम एक बार फिर पहली श्लोक पढ़ें ताकि हमारी समझ जारी रखने के लिए  आसान हो और वह है, "श्री भगवान बोले- तुझ दोषदृष्टिरहित भक्त के लिए इस परम गोपनीय विज्ञान सहित ज्ञान को पुनः भली भाँति कहूँगा, जिसको जानकर तू दुःखरूप संसार से मुक्त हो जाएगा"॥
At the cost of repeat we share again verse No. 1 to understand the context which reads as, "To you who do not cavil, I shall now declare this, the greatest secret, the most profound knowledge combined with experience and realization, which having known, you shall be free from the sorrows of life".

अब हम श्लोक संख्या 9 पर हैं... We are on verse no. 9 now...
Almighty discloses in JNANAVIJNANAYOG (Chapter 7: Bhagavat Gita) that whatever exists is nothing but Himself. He is the cause of the appearance of the universe and all things in it. Everything is strung on Him like clusters of gems on a string. He is the essence, substance and substratum of everything, whether visible or invisible. Although everything is in Him, yet He transcends everything as the actionless Self. Prakriti or Nature is made up of the three Gunas or qualities—Sattwa, Rajas and Tamas. These three qualities delude the soul and make it forget its true nature, which is one with God. This delusion is termed Maya. As narrated by SWAMI SIVANANDA.
We start to know from the Holy Scriptures of Creator of all living and nonliving, Eternal Almighty on better living by freeing from the sorrows of life.

One like = oneness with Almighty who created us.
अनादि, अनन्त, सभी जीवित और निर्जीव के निर्माता, सर्वशक्तिमान इस्वर द्वारा एक बेहतर जीवन के लिए समाधान और मार्गदर्शन के अध्ययन सब साथ साथ शुरू करते हैं|| यह उपदेश ऋषियों, देवताओं या गुरु से नहीं कर रहे हैं, यह अनादि सर्वशक्तिमान से है||

एक like = सर्वशक्तिमान के साथ एकता जो हमें बनाया
So much beautiful this earth is.

All HIS creations are miracles. We see but we are not aware. The burning sun, the serene moon, the hill, the ocean, everything living and non living on this planet and across entire universe.
Holy Scriptures's photo.
We perceive by our five senses. That give signal to brain and we understand and recognize. Without senses we are unable to comprehend any object. Is it possible for someone who left this planet and who is not in a body to know, recognize or appreciate objects we offer?

What Almighty says let us check.
Mahalaya Amavasya Day. This day of Pitr Paksha or Mahalaya Amavasya has great significance and importance for all Hindus in all parts of the world. It is the annual festival for worshipping and propitiating the spirits of our ancestors, with devout prayers for peace and spiritual tranquility.

Whom we should worship with devotion? Almighty gave a judgment in Bhagavat Gita. And also His sermon clears about the path of a departed soul after leaving this body.
The Bhagavat Gita is the cream of the Vedas. It is the essence of the soul-elevating Upanishads, a software to program human beings of all temperaments and for all times.
Holy Scriptures's photo.
Holy Scriptures's photo.
Are we really taught that we have the right to perform our prescribed duties and not entitled to the fruits of action. No rituals I remember from childhood has taught me this until I came accross self. I observed that more we taught to pray to God to get out of distress or accomplish some task than to be a seeker of knowledge or to become wise (submitting to Almighty).
Does God needs to born in human form? Holy Scriptures clearly says Almighty is unborn beginningless BG 10:3. So Who is not born can't have dimensions, means idol etc. Yajur veda 32:3 confirms that He has no idol. Also this is confirmed in Swetaswatorupanishad (SU) 4:19. Also nothing is beyond Him in many verses of BG and now I find in SU 6:9. "Thee has no lord, no controller, beyond gender, reason of everything, also lord of all living having senses, has no principal.".

Saturday, January 18, 2014

श्रीमद भागवत पुराण में सापेक्षता का सिद्धांत (Theory of Relativity)

श्रीमद भागवत पुराण में सापेक्षता का सिद्धांत (Theory of Relativity) आइंस्टीन से हजारों वर्ष पूर्व ही लिख दिया गया था

आइंस्टीन के सापेक्षता के सिद्धांत को तो हम सभी जानते है । आइंस्टीन ने अपने सिद्धांत में दिक् व काल की सापेक्षता प्रतिपादित की। उसने कहा, विभिन्न ग्रहों पर समय की अवधारणा भिन्न-भिन्न होती है। काल का सम्बन्ध ग्रहों की गति से रहता है। इस प्रकार अलग-अलग ग्रहों पर समय का माप भिन्न रहता है। समय छोटा-बड़ा रहता है।

उदाहरण के लिए यदि दो जुडुवां भाइयों मे से एक को पृथ्वी पर ही रखा जाये तथा दुसरे को किसी अन्य गृह पर भेज दिया जाये और कुछ वर्षों पश्चात लाया जाये तो दोनों भाइयों की आयु में अंतर होगा।

आयु का अंतर इस बात पर निर्भर करेगा कि बालक को जिस गृह पर भेजा गया उस गृह की सूर्य से दुरी तथा गति , पृथ्वी की सूर्य से दुरी तथा गति से कितनी अधिक अथवा कम है ।

एक और उदाहरण के अनुसार चलती रेलगाड़ी में रखी घडी उसी रेल में बैठे व्यक्ति के लिए सामान रूप से चलती है क्योकि दोनों रेल के साथ एक ही गति से गतिमान है परन्तु वही घडी रेल से बाहर खड़े व्यक्ति के लिए धीमे चल रही होगी । कुछ सेकंडों को अंतर होगा । यदि रेल की गति और बढाई जाये तो समय का अंतर बढेगा और यदि रेल को प्रकाश की गति (299792.458 किमी प्रति सेकंड) से दोड़ाया जाये (जोकि संभव नही) तो रेल से बाहर खड़े व्यक्ति के लिए घडी पूर्णतया रुक जाएगी ।

इसकी जानकारी के संकेत हमारे ग्रंथों में मिलते हैं।

श्रीमद भागवत पुराण में कथा आती है कि रैवतक राजा की पुत्री रेवती बहुत लम्बी थी, अत: उसके अनुकूल वर नहीं मिलता था। इसके समाधान हेतु राजा योग बल से अपनी पुत्री को लेकर ब्राहृलोक गये। वे जब वहां पहुंचे तब वहां गंधर्वगान चल रहा था। अत: वे कुछ क्षण रुके।

जब गान पूरा हुआ तो ब्रह्मा ने राजा को देखा और पूछा कैसे आना हुआ? राजा ने कहा मेरी पुत्री के लिए किसी वर को आपने पैदा किया है या नहीं?

ब्रह्मा जोर से हंसे और कहा,- जितनी देर तुमने यहां गान सुना, उतने समय में पृथ्वी पर 27 चर्तुयुगी {1 चर्तुयुगी = 4 युग (सत्य,द्वापर,त्रेता,कलि ) = 1 महायुग } बीत चुकी हैं और 28 वां द्वापर समाप्त होने वाला है। तुम वहां जाओ और कृष्ण के भाई बलराम से इसका विवाह कर देना।
अब पृथ्वी लोक पर तुम्हे तुम्हारे सगे सम्बन्धी, तुम्हारा राजपाट तथा वैसी भोगोलिक स्थतियां भी नही मिलेंगी जो तुम छोड़ कर आये हो |

साथ ही उन्होंने कहा कि यह अच्छा हुआ कि रेवती को तुम अपने साथ लेकर आये। इस कारण इसकी आयु नहीं बढ़ी। अन्यथा लौटने के पश्चात तुम इसे भी जीवित नही पाते |

अब यदि एक घड़ी भी देर कि तो सीधे कलयुग (द्वापर के पश्चात कलयुग ) में जा गिरोगे |

इससे यह भी स्पष्ट है की निश्चय ही ब्रह्मलोक कदाचित हमारी आकाशगंगा से भी कहीं अधिक दूर है

यह कथा पृथ्वी से ब्राहृलोक तक विशिष्ट गति से जाने पर समय के अंतर को बताती है। आधुनिक वैज्ञानिकों ने भी कहा कि यदि एक व्यक्ति प्रकाश की गति से कुछ कम गति से चलने वाले यान में बैठकर जाए तो उसके शरीर के अंदर परिवर्तन की प्रक्रिया प्राय: स्तब्ध हो जायेगी।

यदि एक दस वर्ष का व्यक्ति ऐसे यान में बैठकर देवयानी आकाशगंगा (Andromeida Galaz) की ओर जाकर वापस आये तो उसकी उमर में केवल 56 वर्ष बढ़ेंगे किन्तु उस अवधि में पृथ्वी पर 40 लाख वर्ष बीत गये होंगे।

काल के मापन की सूक्ष्मतम और महत्तम इकाई के वर्णन को पढ़कर दुनिया का प्रसिद्ध ब्राह्माण्ड विज्ञानी Carl Sagan अपनी पुस्तक Cosmos में लिखता है, -

"विश्व में एक मात्र हिन्दू धर्म ही ऐसा धर्म है, जो इस विश्वास को समर्पित है कि ब्राह्माण्ड सृजन और विनाश का चक्र सतत चल रहा है। तथा यही एक धर्म है जिसमें काल के सूक्ष्मतम नाप परमाणु से लेकर दीर्घतम माप ब्राह्म दिन और रात की गणना की गई, जो 8 अरब 64 करोड़ वर्ष तक बैठती है तथा जो आश्चर्यजनक रूप से हमारी आधुनिक गणनाओं से मेल खाती है।"

Monday, January 13, 2014

Mysteries of UNIVERSE PER Srimad Bhagavatam


Mysteries of Srimad Bhagavatam
Today Modern Science accepts the concept of Black Hole, Multiple Dimensions Advanced Alien Civilization etc .

What If every Thing is Explained In Detail by Ancient Hi...ndus ? AMAZING ?

What if it was written before some 30000+ BCE ? MindBoggling ?

What if SANATANA DHARMA Followed by Civilization on other Planets ?

What if Hinduism and The First Man to Land on Earth was an HINDU ? !

What if These are TRUE ?

  Welcome to Mother of All Religion and Civilization Hinduism/Sanatana Dharma .
Before You Watch this Video u can see Our Ancient Scripts talks about Unirverse , Atom , Time Travel ,Cosmic travel That too in detail. Like if we are told to write about our Dailt Trasportation and Way of Life.

Saturday, January 11, 2014

The Cosmology of the Bhagavata Purana

The inquisitive human mind naturally yearns to understand the universe and man’s place within it. Today scientists rely on powerful telescopes and sophisticated computers to formulate cosmological theories. In former times, people got their information from traditional books of wisdom. Followers of India’s ancient culture, for example, learned about the cosmos from scriptures like the Srimad-Bhagavatam, or Bhagavata Purana. But the Bhagavatam’s descriptions of the universe often baffle modern students of Vedic literature. Here Bhaktivedanta Institute scientist Dr. Richard Thompson suggests a framework for understanding the Bhagavatam’s descriptions that squares with our experience and modern discoveries.
Jambudvipa: The Srimad-Bhagavatam describes that the universe lies within a series of spherical shells which is divided in two by an earth plane called Bhu-mandala. A series of dvipas, or ‘islands,’ and oceans make up Bhu-mandala. In the center of Bhu-mandala is the circular ‘island’ of Jambudvipa (inset), whose most prominent feature is the cone-shaped Mount Meru. The main illustration here shows a closer view of Jambudvipa and the base of Mount Meru.
The Srimad-Bhagavatam presents an earth-centered conception of the cosmos. At first glance the cosmology seems foreign, but a closer look reveals that not only does the cosmology of the Bhagavatam describe the world of our experience, but it also presents a much larger and more complete cosmological picture. I’ll explain.
The Srimad-Bhagavatam’s mode of presentation is very different from the familiar modern approach. Although theBhagavatam’s "Earth" (disk-shaped Bhu-mandala) may look unrealistic, careful study shows that the Bhagavatam uses Bhu-mandala to represent at least four reasonable and consistent models: (1) a polar-projection map of the Earth globe, (2) a map of the solar system, (3) a topographical map of south-central Asia, and (4) a map of the celestial realm of the demigods.
Caitanya Mahaprabhu remarked, "In every verse of Srimad-Bhagavatam and in every syllable, there are various meanings." (Caitanya-caritamrita, Madhya 24.318) This appears to be true, in particular, of the cosmological section of theBhagavatam, and it is interesting to see how we can bring out and clarify some of the meanings with reference to modern astronomy.
Figure 1
Figure 2
When one structure is used to represent several things in a composite map, there are bound to be contradictions. But these do not cause a problem if we understand the underlying intent. We can draw a parallel with medieval paintings portraying several parts of a story in one composition. For example, Masaccio’s painting "The Tribute Money" (Figure 1) shows Saint Peter in three parts of a Biblical story. We see him taking a coin from a fish, speaking to Jesus, and paying a tax collector. From a literal standpoint it is contradictory to have Saint Peter doing three things at once, yet each phase of the Biblical story makes sense in its own context.
A similar painting from India (Figure 2) shows three parts of a story about Krishna. Such paintings contain apparent contradictions, such as images of one character in different places, but a person who understands the story line will not be disturbed by this. The same is
true of the Bhagavatam, which uses one
model to represent
different features of the cosmos.
The Bhagavatam Picture at First Glance
The Fifth Canto of the Srimad-Bhagavatam tells of innumerable universes. Each one is contained in a spherical shell surrounded by layers of elemental matter that mark the boundary between mundane space and the unlimited spiritual world.
The region within the shell (Figure 3) is called the Brahmanda, or "Brahma egg." It contains an earth disk or plane—called Bhu-mandala—that divides it into an upper, heavenly half and a subterranean half, filled with water. Bhu-mandala is divided into a series of geographic features, traditionally called dvipas, or "islands," varshas, or "regions," and oceans.
In the center of Bhu-mandala (Figure 4) is the circular "island" of Jambudvipa, with nine varsha subdivisions. These include Bharata-varsha, which can be understood in one sense as India and in another as the total area inhabited by human beings. In the center of Jambudvipa stands the cone-shaped Sumeru Mountain, which represents the world axis and is surmounted by the city of Brahma, the universal creator.
To any modern, educated person, this sounds like science fiction. But is it? Let’s consider the four ways of seeing theBhagavatam’s descriptions of the Bhu-mandala.
Figure 3
Figure 4
We begin by discussing the interpretation of Bhu-mandala as a planisphere, or a polar-projection map of the Earth globe. This is the first model given by the Bhagavatam. A stereographic projection is an ancient method of mapping points on the surface of a sphere to points on a plane. We can use this method to map a modern Earth globe onto a plane, and the resulting flat projection is called a planisphere (Figure 5). We can likewise view Bhu-mandala as a stereographic projection of a globe (Figure 6).
Figure 5
Figure 6
In India such globes exist. In the example shown here (Figure 7), the land area between the equator and the mountain arc is Bharata-varsha, corresponding to greater India. India is well represented, but apart from a few references to neighboring places, this globe does not give a realistic map of the Earth. Its purpose was astronomical, rather than geographical.

Figure 7
Although the Bhagavatam doesn’t explicitly describe the Earth as a globe, it does so indirectly. For example, it points out that night prevails diametrically opposite to a point where it is day. Likewise, the sun sets at a point opposite where it rises. Therefore, the Bhagavatam does not present the naive view that the Earth is flat.
We can compare Bhu-mandala with an astronomical instrument called an astrolabe, popular in the Middle Ages. On the astrolabe, an off-centered circle represents the orbit of the sun—the ecliptic. The Earth is represented in stereographic projection on a flat plate, called the mater. The ecliptic circle and important stars are represented on another plate, called the rete. Different planetary orbits could likewise be represented by different plates, and these would be seen projected onto the Earth plate when one looks down on the instrument.
The Bhagavatam similarly presents the orbits of the sun, the moon, planets, and important stars on a series of planes parallel to Bhu-mandala.
Seeing Bhu-mandala as a polar projection is one example of how it doesn’t represent a flat Earth.
Bhu-mandala as a Map of the Solar System
Here’s another way to look at Bhu-mandala that also shows that it’s not a flat-Earth model.
Descriptions of Bhu-mandala have features that identify it as a model of the solar system. In the previous section I interpreted Bhu-mandala as a planisphere map. But now, we’ll take it as a literal plane. When we do this, it looks at first like we’re back to the naive flat Earth, with the bowl of the sky above and the underworld below.
The scholars Giorgio de Santillana and Hertha von Dechend carried out an intensive study of myths and traditions and concluded that the so-called flat Earth of ancient times originally represented the plane of the ecliptic (the orbit of the sun) and not the Earth on which we stand. Later on, according to de Santillana and von Dechend, the original cosmic understanding of the earth was apparently lost, and the Earth beneath our feet was taken literally as a flat plate. In India, the earth of the Puranas has often been taken as literally flat. But the details given in the Bhagavatam show that its cosmology is much more sophisticated.
Not only does the Bhagavatam use the ecliptic model, but it turns out that the disk of Bhu-mandala corresponds in some detail to the solar system (Figure 8). The solar system is nearly flat. The sun, the moon, and the five traditionally known planets—Mercury through Saturn—all orbit nearly in the ecliptic plane. Thus Bhu-mandala does refer to something flat, but it’s not the Earth.
Figure 8
One striking feature of the Bhagavatam’s descriptions has to do with size. If we compare Bhu-mandala with the Earth, the solar system out to Saturn, and the Milky Way galaxy, Bhu-mandala matches the solar system closely, while radically differing in size from Earth and the galaxy.
Furthermore, the structures of Bhu-mandala correspond with the planetary orbits of the solar system (Figure 9).
Figure 9
 Figure 10
If we compare the rings of Bhu-mandala with the orbits of Mercury, Venus (Figure 10), Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, we find several close alignments that give weight to the hypothesis that Bhu-mandala was deliberately designed as a map of the solar system.
Until recent times, astronomers generally underestimated the distance from the earth to the sun. In particular, Claudius Ptolemy, the greatest astronomer of classical antiquity, seriously underestimated the Earth-sun distance and the size of the solar system. It is remarkable, therefore, that the dimensions of Bhu-mandala in the Bhagavatam are consistent with modern data on the size of the sun’s orbit and the solar system as a whole.
[See BTG, Nov./Dec. 1997.]
Jambudvipa, the central hub of Bhu-mandala, can be understood as a local topographical map of part of south-central Asia. This is the third of the four interpretations of Bhu-mandala. In the planisphere interpretation, Jambudvipa represents the northern hemisphere of the Earth globe. But the detailed geographic features of Jambudvipa do not match the geography of the northern hemisphere. They do, however, match part of the Earth.
 Figure 11
Six horizontal and two vertical mountain chains divide Jambudvipa into nine regions, or varshas (Figure 11). The southernmost region is called Bharata-varsha. Careful study shows that this map corresponds to India plus adjoining areas of south-central Asia. The first step in making this identification is to observe that the Bhagavatam assigns many rivers in India to Bharata-varsha. Thus Bharata-varsha represents India. The same can be said of many mountains in Bharata-varsha. In particular, the Bhagavatam places the Himalayas to the north of Bharata-varsha in Jambudvipa (Figure 11).
A detailed study of Puranic accounts allows the other mountain ranges of Jambudvipa to be identified with mountain ranges in the region north of India. Although this region includes some of the most desolate and mountainous country in the world, it was nonetheless important in ancient times. For example, the famous Silk Road passes through this region. The Pamir mountains can be identified with Mount Meru and Ilavrita-varsha, the square region in the center of Jambudvipa. (Note that Mount Meru does not represent the polar axis in this interpretation.)
Other Puranas give more geographical details that support this interpretation.
We can also understand Bhu-mandala as a map of the celestial realm of the demigods, or devas. One curious feature of Jambudvipa is that the Bhagavatam describes all of the varshas other than Bharata-varsha as heavenly realms, where the inhabitants live for ten thousand years without suffering. This has led some scholars to suppose that Indians used to imagine foreign lands as celestial paradises. But the Bhagavatam does refer to barbaric peoples outside India, such as Huns, Greeks, Turks, and Mongolians, who were hardly thought to live in paradise. One way around this is to suppose that Bharata-varsha includes the entire Earth globe, while the other eight varshas refer to celestial realms outside the Earth. This is a common understanding in India.
But the simplest explanation for the heavenly features of Jambudvipa is that Bhu-mandala was also intended to represent the realm of the devas. Like the other interpretations we have considered, this one is based on a group of mutually consistent points in the cosmology of the Bhagavatam.First of all, consider the very large sizes of mountains and land areas in Jambudvipa. For example, India is said to be 72,000 miles (9,000 yojanas) from north to south, or nearly three times the circumference of the Earth. Likewise, the Himalayas are said to be 80,000 miles high.
Figure 12
People in India in ancient times used to go in pilgrimage on foot from one end of India to the other, so they knew how large India is. Why does the Bhagavatam give such unrealistic distances? The answer is that Jambudvipa doubles as a model of the heavenly realm, in which everything is on a superhuman scale. The Bhagavatam portrays the demigods and other divine beings that inhabit this realm to be correspondingly large. Figure 12 shows Lord Siva in comparison with Europe, according to one text of the Bhagavatam.
 Figure 13
Why would the Bhagavatam describe Jambudvipa as both part of the earth and part of the celestial realm? Because there’s a connection between the two. To understand, let’s consider the idea of parallel worlds. By siddhis, or mystic perfections, one can take shortcuts across space. This is illustrated by a story from the Bhagavatam in which the mystic yogini Citralekha abducts Aniruddha from his bed in Dvaraka and transports him mystically to a distant city (Figure 13).
Besides moving from one place to another in ordinary space, the mystic siddhis enable one to travel in the all-pervading ether or to enter another continuum. The classical example of a parallel continuum is Krishna’s transcendental realm of Vrindavana, said to be unlimitedly expansive and to exist in parallel to the finite, earthly Vrindavana in India. 
Figure 14
The Sanskrit literature abounds with stories of parallel worlds. For example, the Mahabharata tells the story of how the Naga princess Ulupi abducted Arjuna while he was bathing in the Ganges River (Figure 14). Ulupi pulled Arjuna down not to the riverbed, as we would expect, but into the kingdom of the Nagas (celestial snakelike beings), which exists in another dimension.
Mystical travel explains how the worlds of the devas are connected with our world. In particular, it explains how Jambudvipa, as a celestial realm of devas, is connected with Jambudvipa as the Earth or part of the Earth. Thus the double model of Jambudvipa makes sense in terms of the Puranic understanding of the siddhis.
Concluding Observations:
The Vertical Dimension in Bhagavata Cosmology

For centuries the cosmology of the Bhagavatam has seemed incomprehensible to most observers, encouraging many people either to summarily reject it or to accept it literally with unquestioning faith. If we take it literally, the cosmology of the Bhagavatam not only differs from modern astronomy, but, more important, it also suffers from internal contradictions and violations of common sense. These very contradictions, however, point the way to a different understanding of Bhagavata cosmology in which it emerges as a deep and scientifically sophisticated system of thought. The contradictions show that they are caused by overlapping self-consistent interpretations that use the same textual elements to expound different ideas.
Each of the four interpretations I’ve presented deserves to be taken seriously because each is supported by many points in the text that are consistent with one another while agreeing with modern astronomy. I’ve applied the context-sensitive or multiple-aspect approach, in which the same subject has different meanings in different contexts. This approach allows for the greatest amount of information to be stored in a picture or text, reducing the work required by the artist or writer. At the same time, it means that the work cannot be taken literally as a one-to-one model of reality, and it requires the viewer or reader to understand the different relevant contexts. This can be difficult when knowledge of context is lost over long periods of time.
In the Bhavagatam, the context-sensitive approach was rendered particularly appropriate by the conviction that reality, in the ultimate issue, is avak-manasam, or beyond the reach of the mundane mind or words. This implies that a literal, one-to-one model of reality is unattainable, and so one may as well pack as much meaning as possible into a necessarily incomplete description of the universe. The cosmology of the Bhagavata Purana is a sophisticated system of thought, with multiple layers of meaning, both physical and metaphysical. It combines practical understanding of astronomy with spiritual conceptions to produce a meaningful picture of the universe and reality.
Richard L. Thompson earned his Ph.D. in mathematics from Cornell University. He is the author of several books, of which Mysteries of the Sacred Universe is the most recent.