Thursday, May 8, 2014

Vedas On Human Anatomy


Human Anatomy explained in the Vedas

This Head consists of three parts.

a) Lalata (brow)
b) Kakatika
c) Kapala
- Atharva veda[ii]and the shatapatha bramhana[iii],
Four ,Sankhya aranyanka[iv]
The upper skull bones are attached to the other skull bones- Shatpad bhramhan[v].
The upper skull bone , the cranium.
The number of skull bones in modern anatomy Eight.
The Shatapada bhramhan[vi]describes the human head as made of skin, bone, and the brain.
The gopath bhramana[vii] mentions marrow in addition.
The Atharva veda[viii]further describes the head as having seven apertures (khani) – two ears, two eyes, two nostrils and the mouth.
2) Griva (neck)

The structure of the Neck. as described in the Vedas.
Posterior part – the posterior part of the neck is made of
a) One strong bone (virya) with 14 karukaras (lateral processes) on the two sides of the vertebral column.
b) One artery carrying the blood upwards (rig veda 10.163.2 . Av 11.32.2)
c) Eight manyas (carotid arteries)
Anterior part – the anterior part of the neck is the throat (kanta)- in which their lies a dhamani (should be the wind pipe in this context).
The structure given here refers to the cervical column i.e griva with 14 karukaras [posterior] and to the windpipe anterior.

The exact number of cervical bones according to modern observation is Seven.

Hoernle[xi] comments : the two transverse process to each vertebral are counted as separate bones so the number they counted as 14.

3) Hanu (jaw)
The atharva veda[xii] mentions the jaw as a complete organ.
The expression found in the av is Hanu-cityaa.
4) Akshi (eyes)
The bhramhana[xiv] texts refer to the white the black and the red ball of the eye
Two passages of give elaborate description of eye as follows:
a) First Lohini-raji (red arteries and red veins of the white part of eye)
b) Then Aapa (vitreous humours)
c) Then Kaninika (pupil)
d) Then mandal (eye ball)
e) Then Krishna (iris)
f) Then Sukra or sukla (white part of eye ball)
g) Lastly the eye lashes in the upper and lower part of the eye.
(Shatpath bramhan[xv] and bruhat aranyaka upanishad[xvi] )
There are two arteries (nadis ) of the eye, which extend to the heart
5) Vaksha (thorax):
The shatpath bramhan[xviii] through the analogy of chandas (metres) describes the chest of the human body.
There are four sides of the chest:
a) kikasa (thoracic vertebrae)
b) parshvas (two sides)
c) uras (Sternum)
d) sixteen jatrus (costal cartilages)
6) Hrdaya
In the Upanishad period the hrdaya is described and is stated there as made up of flesh with a network structure.
[xxi]. Puritat the coating of the heart has been mention in the text of the vajasaneyi samhita[xxii].
Moreover in the same text[xxiii] there occurs the mention of two lump of flesh(kosi)of the hrday.
In the Upanishad[xxiv] the heart is conceived of as the wheel of a chariot in which the arteries emanating from the heart are described as the spokes of the wheel.
The numbers of vessels in the heart stated in different Upanishads differ.
According to some the number is 101 whereas in Brhat Aranyaka upanishad[xxv] and other Upanishad the number of vessels with its branches and sub branches are 72000.
The weight of heart is stated in the garbha upanishad[xxvi] as eight pala.
7) Parshva (sides)
The shatapath bramhan[xxvii] gives the following account of the structure of the two sides.
The two sides of the body are formed by 26 parsus or parisavas (ribs).
Theses ribs are joined at either end to the thoracic vertebrae (kikasa) in the back and jatru (costal cartilage) in the front.
These ribs are attached to the andaparisus ( which should mean globular end of the rib)
8) Pristi (vertebral or vertical column)
The shatapath bramhan[xxviii] refers to the three division of the vertical column:
a) Griva (cervical)
b) Amuka (thoracic)
c) Udara (lumbar)
In the thoracic portion of the vertebral column there are 32 pristi kundalas or karukaras (vertebra). The lumbaric portion (udara) is statedas consisted of 20 kuntapas
9) Vasti (Bladder)
The atharva veda[xxix] describes it as the size of a bow.
The urine is conveyed to the bladder by the two Gavini. To the bladder is attached the vasti –bila (bladder-orifice) and mehana or vartam (urinary duct).
10) Upper limbs
From the account give in the vedic text we can form an idea of the component parts of the upper limbs.
These are shoulder (amsa) and the hands, the arms (bahu), forearm (doshan) and palm (pani).
Amsa (shoulder) – the atharva veda[xxx] mentions of two parts of shoulder consisting of aksha (collar bone) and kaphoda (shoulder blades).
According to the shatpath bramhan[xxxi] the shoulder blade (phalaka) are very small bones.
Bahu (hands) = the hands are joined to the trunk by means of the collar bones[xxxiii].
They are made up of three parts[xxxiv].The name of the three parts are known as bahu (arm), doshan (forearm) and pani (palm).
The palm consist of two parts – ucchalankhas (long bones) and in midst of the hand and the angulis each with three joints.[xxxv]
11) The lower limb
Fom the description given in atharva veda[xxxvi] and shatapath bramhan[xxxvii] the following idea about the structre of lower limb can be made.
The lower limb are connected to the trunk by means of shroni (hip). Vankshana (groin) is a joint connecting the thigh with the belly. There are three parts of the leg
a) Uru (thigh)
b) Jagana(lower part of the leg)
c) Pada (foot)
The knee resemble a ‘fourfold frame’ for joining thigh with the lower part of leg. The foot consists of five parts
a) Parsni (the heel)
b) Gulpha (ankle )
c) Ucchalamkha (meta tarsal)
d) Prastista (base – carpus)
e) Anguli (digits)
An interesting and Informative site on AyurVeda, visit the Link below.

Tuesday, May 6, 2014


Human Devolution: A Vedic Alternative to Darwin's TheoryPer  Darwinian account that humans like us came into existence about 100,000 years ago,from apelike ancestors. But the Vedic literature gives us another account of human origins worth discussing.In fact Humans or for any creatures do not evolve from one another or from lower to higher species but come down from spirit.
Per Puranas, bhagvatpurana etc,all creatures including humans have existed on earth for vast periods of cyclical time. The basic unit of this cyclical time is the day of Brahma, which lasts for 4.32 billion years. The day of Brahma is followed by a night of Brahma, lasts for 4.32 billion years. The days follow the nights endlessly and vice versa. According to the Puranic cosmological calendar, the current day of Brahma began about 2 billion years ago. One of the forefathers of humankind, Svayambhuva Manu ruled during that time, and the Bhagavata Purana (Shrimad Bhagavatam 6.4.1) explains that-: “The human beings  were created during the reign of Svayambhuva Manu.” Therefore, a Vedic archeologist might expect to find evidence for a human presence going that far back in time. In a book by Michael A. Cremo- Forbidden Archeology, coauthored by Richard L. Thompson (Sadaputa Dasa) documented extensive evidence, in the form of human skeletons, human footprints, and human artifacts, showing that humans like ourselves have inhabited the earth for hundreds of millions of years, just as the Puranas tell us. This evidence is not very well known because of a process of knowledge filtration that operates in the scientific world. Evidence that contradicts the Darwinian theory of human evolution is set aside, ignored, and eventually forgotten.
In a book by Michael Cremeo-Human Devolution,evolution/devolution is explaned based on information found in the Puranas.
Before we ask the question, “Where did human beings come from?” we should first of all ask the question, “What is a human being?” Today most scientists believe that a human being is simply a combination of matter, the ordinary chemical elements. This assumption limits the kinds of explanations that can be offered for human origins.Human being is composed of three separately existing substances: matter, mind, and consciousness (or spirit). This assumption widens the circle of possible explanations.
What is MIND? a subtle material substance associated with the human organism and capable of acting on ordinary matter in ways we cannot explain by our current laws of physics. Evidence for this mind element comes from scientific research into the phenomena called by some “paranormal” or “psychical.” Here we are led into the hidden history of physics (the knowledge filtering process also operates in this field of knowledge).
We all know about  work of Pierre and Marie Curie, the husband and wife team who both received Nobel Prizes for their work in discovering radium. What we do not read in the textbooks is that the Curies were heavily involved in psychical research, were part of a  group of prominent European scientists, including other Nobel Prize winners, who were jointly conducting research into the paranormal in Paris early in the twentieth century. For two years, the group studied the Italian medium Eusapia Palladino. Historian Anna Hurwic notes in her biography of Pierre Curie (1995, p. 247), “He saw the séances as scientific experiments, tried to monitor the different parameters, took detailed notes of every observation. He was really intrigued by Eusapia Palladino.” About some séances with Eusapia, Pierre Curie wrote to physicist Georges Gouy in a letter dated July 24, 1905: “We had at the Psychology Society a few séances with the medium Eusapia Palladino. It was very interesting, and truly those phenomena that we have witnessed seemed to us to not be some magical tricks—a table lifted four feet above the floor . . . All this in a room arranged by us, with a small number of spectators all well known and without the presence of a possible accomplice.” Pierre Curie reported that on such occasions, the medium was carefully physically controlled by the scientists present. On April 14, 1906, Pierre wrote to Gouy about some further investigations he and Marie had carried out: “We had a few new ‘séances’ with Eusapia Paladina (We already had séances with her last summer). The result is that those phenomena exist for real, and I can’t doubt it any more.
Such results, and many more like them from the hidden history of physics, suggest there is associated with the human organism a mind element that can act on ordinary matter in ways we cannot easily explain by our current physical laws.
Now another evidence of energy of Mind and existnace of subtle mind- Chi Master Puts Animals To Sleep By Channeling His Energy. A True Super-Human-WATCH--

Evidence for a conscious self that can existence apart from mind (subtle matter) and ordinary matter comes from medical reports of out of body experiences (OBEs). During traumatic events such as heart attacks, blood stops flowing to the brain, and the subjects become unconscious. But some subjects report separating from their bodies at such times. They report consciously observing their own bodies. The reality of such experiences has been confirmed by medical researchers. For example, in February 2001, a team from the University of Southampton, in the United Kingdom, published a favorable study on OBEs in cardiac arrest patients in the journal Resuscitation (v. 48, pp. 149–156). The team was headed by Dr. Sam Parnia, a senior research fellow at the university. On February 16, 2001, a report published on the university’s web site said that the work of Dr. Parnia “suggests consciousness and the mind may continue to exist after the brain has ceased to function and the body is clinically dead.” This is exactly the Vedic conception. At death the conscious self leaves the body, accompanied by the subtle material covering of the mind, and then enters another body of gross matter. Memories from past lives are recorded in the mind, and may be accessed by the conscious self in its new body made of gross matter, as shown by psychiatrist Ian Stevenson’s extensive studies verifying past life memories of children.

If the human organism is composed of gross matter, mind, and consciousness (or spirit), it is natural to suppose that these elements come from reservoirs of such elements. This suggests that the cosmos is divided into regions, or levels, of gross matter, mind, and consciousness, each inhabited by beings adapted to life there. First, there is a region of pure consciousness. Consciousness, as we experience it, is individual and personal. This suggests that the original source of conscious selves is also individual and personal. So in addition to the individual units of consciousness existing in the realm of pure consciousness, there is also an original conscious being who is their source. When the fractional conscious selves give up their connection with their source, they are placed in lower regions of the cosmos predominated by either subtle material substance (mind) or gross material substance. There is thus a cosmic hierarchy of conscious beings. Accounts of this cosmic hierarchy of beings can be found not only in the Puranas but in the cosmologies of many other cultures. The cosmologies share many features. They generally include an original God inhabiting a realm of pure consciousness, a subordinate creator god inhabiting a subtle material region of the cosmos along with many kinds of demigods and demigoddesses, an earthly realm, dominated by gross matter, inhabited by humans like us.

This suggests that the universe of our experience should show signs that it was designed by a higher intelligence for accommodating human life and other forms of life. Modern cosmology does provide evidence for this. Scientists have discovered that numbers representing fundamental physical constants and ratios of natural forces appear to be finely tuned for life to exist in our universe. Astronomer Sir Martin Rees considers six of these numbers to be especially significant. In his book Just Six Numbers (2000, pp. 3–4), he says, “These six numbers constitute a ‘recipe’ for a universe. Moreover, the outcome is sensitive to their values: if any one of them were to be ‘untuned’, there would be no stars and no life
The Vedic cosmology also speaks of many universes, but all of them are designed for life, and beyond all of these material universes, with their levels of gross and subtle matter, is the level of pure consciousness, or spirit. Originally, we exist there as units of pure consciousness in harmonious connection with the supreme conscious being, known by the Sanskrit name Krishna (and by other names in other religious traditions). When we give up our willing connection with that supreme conscious being, we descend to regions of the cosmos dominated by the subtle and gross material elements, mind and matter. Forgetful of our original position, we attempt to dominate and enjoy the subtle and gross material elements. For this purpose, we are provided with bodies made of the subtle and gross material elements. The subtle material body is made up not only of mind, but of the even finer material elements, intelligence and false ego (for the sake of simplicity, I have in this discussion collapsed them into mind). The gross material body is made of earth, water, fire, air, and ether. Bodies made of these gross and subtle material elements are vehicles for conscious selves. They are designed for existence within the realms of the subtle and gross material elements. According to their degree of forgetfulness of their original nature, conscious selves receive appropriate bodily coverings. Those who are more forgetful receive bodies that cover their original consciousness to a greater degree. The original conscious being in the Vedic universe (aside from God) is Brahma, the first demigod. His body, manifested directly from Vishnu (the expansion of Krishna who controls the material universe), is made primarily of the subtle material elements. He is tasked with manifesting bodies for the other conscious selves existing at various levels of the cosmic hierarchy. From the body of Brahma come great sages, sometimes known as his mental sons, and also the first sexually reproducing pair, Svayambhuva Manu and his consort Shatarupa. The daughters of Manu become the wives of some of the sages, and they produce generations of demigods and demigoddesses, with bodies composed primarily of the subtle material energy. These demigods and demigoddesses, by their reproductive processes, produce the forms of living things, including humans, who reside on our earth planet.

In the devolution process, our original pure spiritual consciousness is covered by layers of subtle and gross material elements. But the process can be reversed. There is a kind of re-evolution by which we can free consciousness from its coverings, and restore it to its original pure state. Every great spiritual tradition has some means for accomplishing this—some form of prayer, or meditation, or yoga. In the course of chanting mantras, praying, or meditating, the covering elements are spiritualized and removed, so that one gradually comes back in touch with the original source of all conscious beings.

Please visit the Human Devolution website for more details:


A new study combining the latest archaeological evidence with state-of-the-art geoscience technologies provides evidence that climate change was a key ingredient in the collapse of the great Indus or Harappan Civilization almost >4000 years ago. The study also resolves a long-standing debate over the source and fate of the Sarasvati, the sacred river of Hindu.
Harappan RiversIndus valley civilization spread >1 million square kilometers across Indus River from the to the Ganges, over what is now , northwest India and eastern Afghanistan, the Indus civilization was the largest—but least known—of the first great urban cultures that also included Egypt and Mesopotamia. Harappans, named for one of their largest cities,lived close to river for fertile soil.
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) and lead author of the study published May 2012, in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, establishes SARASWATI RIVER  EXISTED ABOUT 4900 YRS AGO BEFORE IT WAS DRIED UP per satellite images.

"Until now, speculations abounded about the links between this mysterious ancient culture and its life-giving mighty rivers."
This complex culture in South Asia with a population that at its peak may have reached 10 percent of the world's inhabitants, was completely forgotten until 1920's.
The new study suggests that the decline in monsoon rains led to weakened river dynamics, and played a critical role both in the development and the collapse of the Harappan culture, which relied on river floods to fuel their agricultural surpluses.
Sarasvati Harappan SettlementsIndus Sarasvati River Civilization
The archaeological sites along the dried up Sarasvati River basin are represented by black dots.

From the new research, a vast picture of 10,000 years of changing landscapes emerges. Before the plain was massively settled, the wild and forceful Indus and its tributaries flowing from the Himalaya cut valleys into their own deposits and left high "interfluvial" stretches of land between them.

Indus Mega RidgeAmong the most striking features the researchers identified is a mounded plain, 20 meters high, > 100 kilometers wide, and running almost 1000 kilometers along the Indus, called"Indus mega-ridge," built by the river as it purged itself of sediment along its course.
The mega-ridge is a surprising indicator of the stability of Indus plain landscape over the last four millennia.
Journal reference:Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences


Indus Valley SealReferences to Rama -Indus  Seals speak of kanta-rama or ŒBeloved Rama¹, and kanta-atma-rama or ŒBeloved Soul Rama¹. One seal in particular speaks of samatvi sa ha rama meaning ŒRama treated all with equality¹. All this finds echo in the Valmiki Ramayana as Œarya sarva samashcaiva sadaiva priyadarshanah¹, or ŒArya to whom all were equal and was dear to everyone.¹

There is also a reference to Rama performing a successful fire ritual (or launching a fire missile) which again is mentioned in the Ramayana. There is another reference to Rama¹s successful crossing of the sea which again touches on the Ramayana. Of particular interest is the presence of ŒRama¹ in at least one West Asiatic seal from pre-Sargon layer in southern Mesopotamia. We know from Zoroastrian scripture that Rama was well known in ancient West Asia. The readings suggest that this goes back to a period long before 3500 BC. The Aryan invasion stands shattered, the Proto Dravidians are found to be a myth, and the cradle of civilization ‹ assuming there was such a thing ‹ is not Mesopotamia but Vedic India. Also, a version of the story of Rama existed more than a millian years ago, and known both in India and West Asia. And the Sanskrit language ‹ at least the Vedic version of it ‹ is of untold antiquity; it was certainly not brought to India by invading nomads in the second millennium.
Floods and maritime activity
To return to the seals and their contents, such Œhistorical¹ seals are exceptional. A great majority of the seals are different in character and content. Often their texts can be quite mundane. We find a reference to a craftsman by name Ravi whose products last twice as long as those made by other craftsmen (dvi-ayuh). One inscription speaks of a short-tempered mother-in-law; there is even mention of relieving fever with the help of water from a saligrama (fossil stone) ‹ a remedy still followed in many Indian households. We find numerous references to rivers (apah) and Œflows¹ (retah), suggesting the existence of an extensive system of waterways. We have texts like a madra retah (flow to the Madra country), and a vatsa retah (flow to the Vatsa country) indicating their presence. The Vedic Civilization was of course largely a maritime one, as indeed was the Harappan ‹ a fact noted by David Frawley. The seals confirm it. There is recent archaeological evidence suggesting the presence of Indian cotton in Mexico and Peru dating to 2500 BC and earlier (Rajaram and Frawley 1997), which again suggests maritime activity. As noted earlier, archaeological evidence also supports the fact that the Vedic people (and the Harappans) engaged in maritime activity. References to floods are common, and can sometimes be quite vivid. There is a particularly dramatic inscription, which speaks of workers laboring all night by fire, trying to stem the floods. The readings suggest that the floods were due to the encroachment of seawater and not necessarily the rivers. These messages should be of interest to archaeologists who have noted the damage to sites due to floods and salination. The great Harappan city of Dholavira in Gujarat is a striking example.
Vedic symbolism
Many seals contain messages reflecting Vedic symbolism. This can be illustrated with the help of the famous Pashupati seal, alongside its deciphered text.
The seal contains a meditating horned deity surrounded by five animals. The animals are ‹ elephant, musk deer, buffalo, tiger and rhinoceros. These five animals are often identified with the five senses, and the five associated elements ‹ fire, water, space, wind and earth (or soil). These elements that go to make up the material universe are known in the Vedic literature as panca maha-bhutas or the Five Great Elements. The reading on the seal is ishadyatah marah. Mara is the force opposed to creation ‹ one that causes the destruction of the universe. The seal message means: Mara is controlled by Ishvara. The seated deity is of course a representation of Ishvara.(BUDDHA ALSO DEALT WITH MARA JUST BEFORE ENLIGHTENMENT)
Hindu cosmology holds that both creation and destruction of the universe result from the action of the Five Great Elements. So Mara, the destructive force, is also composed of the Five Great Elements. With this background, the deciphered message ishadyatah marah allows us to interpret the symbolism of the famous Pashupati seal. It expresses the profound idea, that, in every cosmic cycle, both the creation and the destruction of the universe are caused by the action of the panca maha-bhutas (Five Great Elements) under the control of Ishvara. This remarkable interpretation was decoded and brought to my notice by Jha.
Collapse of Indus Valley.

Rare Ibex Seal of Indus Valley Era Unearthed in Pakistan

Indus Steatite Seal
LAHORE: Pakistani archaeologists have discovered a rare Indus Valley civilization-era seal in steatite dating back to 2,500-2,000 BC from the Cholistan area of Punjab province.
The seal features the carved figure of an ibex with two pictographs. It has a perforated boss on the back and varies from the style of Harappan seals. The seal which is almost square in shape is slightly broken on the right side. The figure of the ibex is however almost intact. The muscles, genitalia, hooves and tail of the ibex were engraved artistically with a high degree of skill and craftsmanship.
It was found at Wattoowala, located near Derawar Fort and along the ancient bed of the Hakra river, by a six-member team of archaeologists led by Punjab University archaeology department chairman Farzand Masih.
The rare seal was found at Wattoowala, located near Derawar Fort and along the ancient bed of the Hakra river. It was discovered by a six-member team of archaeologists led by Punjab University archaeology department chairman Farzand Masih.
 [from Times of India, Feb. 8, 2012]


A recent African origin of modern humans, although still disputed, is supported now by a majority of genetic studies. To address the question when and where very early diversification(s) of modern humans outside of Africa occurred.
Download as pdf-HERE CLICKE HERE
Published by:
McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research
University of Cambridge

Vedic Religion in Ancient Iran and

The Vedic Religion in Ancient Iran and
Subhash Kak
August 5, 2003
Scholars generally agree that before the advent of Zarathushtra, the religion of the Zoroastrian.There was in fact pre-Zoroastranian
The similarities between the pre-Zoroastrian Persian religion and the Vedic religion are too many to give it any other name.
The term Zoroastrian is after the Greek version of the name of the prophetZarathushtra (zarat, like Sanskrit harit, golden; us. t.ra, Sanskrit or Old Persian for camel)estimated to have lived either around the time 1200 BC or perhaps half a millennium laterwho has been variously . A Greek  assigns him to an age 258 years prior to Alexander, that is the 6th century BC.
Zoroastrians call their own religion is Mazdayasna, the
religion of Ahura Mazda (Sanskrit Asura Medh¹a, \Lord of Wisdom"). The Rigveda 8.6.10 has the expression
medh¹am rtasya, \wisdom of truth".
Zarathushtra presented his religion as rival to the religion of the
daevas,that is Daevayasna. Zarathushtra came from Bactria in northeast Iran, near Afghanistan.
The Avesta speaks of several lands that include the Sapta-
Sindhu (Sindhu-Sarasvati region of North and Northwest India). The scripture of the Zoroastrians is the Avesta. It includes the Yasna (Sanskrit Ya-jna) with the G¹ath¹as of Zarathushtra, Videvdat or Vendidad (Vi-daeva-dat,\anti-Daeva"), and Ya·st (hymn), which are hymns for worship. During the Sasanian period the Avesta was translated into Pahlavi and this version is called Zend Avesta.
The Zoroastrians speak of mathra (Skt.mantra) as utterances that accompany meditation. Like the Vedic tripartite division of society, the Zoroas-trians have the classes priests (zaotar), warriors (nar), and pasturers (v¹astar).It has been assumed for some time that the
daevas of the Mazda faith are the same as the Vedic devas and therefore Zarathushtra inverted the deva-asura,dichotomy of the Vedic period. In reality, the situation is more complex and the Vedic and the Zarathushtrian systems are much less different

From Kashmir, which belongs square within the Vedic world, comes crucial evidence regarding a three-way division consisting of devas, asuras, and daevas, that is basic to Vedic thought. These three divisions in the outer realm are the earth, atmosphere,and the sun; in the inner world they are the body, breath (pr¹an. a), and con
sciousness or ¹atman.This tripartite classi¯cation is mirrored in the gunas ofIndian thought:sattva, rajas, and tamas.

Deva or devata (heavens, sattva): power related to understanding
Asura (atmosphere, rajas): power related to activity
Daeva (earth, body, tamas): power related to acquisitiveness

kashmiri folklore has many tales where
daevas are counterpoints to devasand asuras. Sometimes the term r¹aks.asa is used as a synonym for daeva. This term r¹aks.asa occurs very frequently in Sanskrit literature. The word raksas appears in Rigveda,the Aitareya Br¹ahman. a and other texts; it is also considered equivalent to Nirr.ti. The r¹aks.asa form of marriage is the violent,seizure or rape of a girl after the defeat or destruction of her relatives.
follow many practices that are prescribed for Zoroastrians.
To read more- Download below-
Vedic Religion in Ancient Iran

Indic Ideas in the Graeco-Roman World

Indic Ideas in the Graeco-Roman World
Subhash Kak
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, LA 70803-5901, US
Indian Historical Review, 1999
All Indians must know that Greece culture only started civilized after Megasthenes visited court of Indian King at that time- Gupta period-goldedn period of Indian History- Before that when Alexander came ,he was wearing clothing made up of leather from animals,as India gave cotton, a way to knit clothes to whole world.And as always Indian ideas,culture stolen,tempered and sold in form of either Buddhism,Christianism,Greeck culture. Read more from Dr. Subhash Kak from Lousina University-
Download as pdf

Vedic Discoveries: Krsna and Balarama in Greece — Dionysus — Herakles

In the early centuries preceding and succeeding the Christian era, the entry of foreign tribes into India produced a favourable impact on the cults of Vaisnvaite and Saivite divinities, which, on the whole, enjoyed the support of the foreigners. The Greeks identified Krsna with Herakles and Sankarsana with Dionysos, and it is no wonder that they were favourably inclined to their worship. The Besnagar inscription describes the Greek ambassador Heliodorus as a Bhagavata who dedicated a Garuda banner to Lord Vasudeva.
The earliest epigraphic evidence for the existence of the Bhagavata cult is found in Madhya Pradesh. The discovery of the Garuda pillar inscription of Besnagar is a landmark in the history of Bhagavatism. The inscription records the erection of a Garuda standard in honour of Vasudeva, the god of gods, by a Greek ambassador Heliodorus who describes himself as a Bhagavata (see Heliodorus Column), and a resident of Taksasila. The ambassador came from the Greek king Antialcidis to Kautsiputra Bhagabhadra identified with the fifth Sunga king, and the record is dated in the fourteenth year of his reign, approximating to c. 113 B.C."
Suvira Jaisval, The Origin and Deveopment of Vaisnavism (Munshiram Manoharlal, 1967)
The Times of India reports a major archeological find of structures dating back to the Mahabharata period:
READ MORE AT HERE-Vedic discoveries

Monday, May 5, 2014



Evidence for Intelligent Design from Biochemistry

Michael J. Behe

(From a speech delivered at Discovery Institute's God & Culture Conference, August 10,1996)

How do we see? In the 19th century the anatomy of the eye was known in great detail, and its sophisticated features astounded everyone who was familiar with them. Scientists of the time correctly observed that if a person were so unfortunate as to be missing one of the eye's many integrated features, such as the lens, or iris, or ocular muscles, the inevitable result would be a severe loss of vision or outright blindness. So it was concluded that the eye could only function if it were nearly intact.

Charles Darwin knew about the eye too. In the Origin of Species, Darwin dealt with many objections to his theory of evolution by natural selection. He discussed the problem of the eye in a section of the book appropriately entitled "Organs of extreme perfection and complication." Somehow, for evolution to be believable, Darwin had to convince the public that complex organs could be formed gradually, in a step-by-step process.

He succeeded brilliantly. Cleverly, Darwin didn't try to discover a real pathway that evolution might have used to make the eye. Instead, he pointed to modern animals with different kinds of eyes, ranging from the simple to the complex, and suggested that the evolution of the human eye might have involved similar organs as intermediates.

evolution eyeHere is a paraphrase of Darwin's argument. Although humans have complex camera-type eyes, many animals get by with less. Some tiny creatures have just a simple group of pigmented cells, or not much more than a light sensitive spot. That simple arrangement can hardly be said to confer vision, but it can sense light and dark, and so it meets the creature's needs. The light-sensing organ of some starfishes is somewhat more sophisticated. Their eye is located in a depressed region. This allows the animal to sense which direction the light is coming from, since the curvature of the depression blocks off light from some directions. If the curvature becomes more pronounced, the directional sense of the eye improves. But more curvature lessens the amount of light that enters the eye, decreasing its sensitivity. The sensitivity can be increased by placement of gelatinous material in the cavity to act as a lens. Some modern animals have eyes with such crude lenses. Gradual improvements in the lens could then provide an image of increasing sharpness, as the requirements of the animal's environment dictated.

Using reasoning like this, Darwin convinced many of his readers that an evolutionary pathway leads from the simplest light sensitive spot to the sophisticated camera-eye of man. But the question remains, how did vision begin? Darwin persuaded much of the world that a modern eye evolved gradually from a simpler structure, but he did not even try to explain where his starting point for the simple light sensitive spot came from. On the contrary, Darwin dismissed the question of the eye's ultimate origin:

How a nerve comes to be sensitive to light hardly concerns us more than how life itself originated. He had an excellent reason for declining the question: it was completely beyond nineteenth century science. How the eye works; that is, what happens when a photon of light first hits the retina simply could not be answered at that time. As a matter of fact, no question about the underlying mechanisms of life could be answered. How did animal muscles cause movement? How did photosynthesis work? How was energy extracted from food? How did the body fight infection? No one knew.

Darwins Black BoxTo Darwin vision was a black box, but today, after the hard, cumulative work of many biochemists, we are approaching answers to the question of sight. Here is a brief overview of the biochemistry of vision. When light first strikes the retina, a photon interacts with a molecule called 11-cis-retinal, which rearranges within picoseconds to trans-retinal. The change in the shape of retinal forces a change in the shape of the protein, rhodopsin, to which the retinal is tightly bound. The protein's metamorphosis alters its behavior, making it stick to another protein called transducin. Before bumping into activated rhodopsin, transducin had tightly bound a small molecule called GDP. But when transducin interacts with activated rhodopsin, the GDP falls off and a molecule called GTP binds to transducin. (GTP is closely related to, but critically different from, GDP.)

GTP-transducin-activated rhodopsin now binds to a protein called phosphodiesterase, located in the inner membrane of the cell. When attached to activated rhodopsin and its entourage, the phosphodiesterase acquires the ability to chemically cut a molecule called cGMP (a chemical relative of both GDP and GTP). Initially there are a lot of cGMP molecules in the cell, but the phosphodiesterase lowers its concentration, like a pulled plug lowers the water level in a bathtub.

Another membrane protein that binds cGMP is called an ion channel. It acts as a gateway that regulates the number of sodium ions in the cell. Normally the ion channel allows sodium ions to flow into the cell, while a separate protein actively pumps them out again. The dual action of the ion channel and pump keeps the level of sodium ions in the cell within a narrow range. When the amount of cGMP is reduced because of cleavage by the phosphodiesterase, the ion channel closes, causing the cellular concentration of positively charged sodium ions to be reduced. This causes an imbalance of charge across the cell membrane which, finally, causes a current to be transmitted down the optic nerve to the brain. The result, when interpreted by the brain, is vision.


Irreducible Complexity

How can we decide if Darwin's theory can account for the complexity of molecular life? It turns out that Darwin himself set the standard. He acknowledged that:

If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed which could not possibly have been formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down. But what type of biological system could not be formed by "numerous, successive, slight modifications"?

The Cilium

CiliaNow, are any biochemical systems irreducibly complex? Yes, it turns out that many are. A good example is the cilium. Cilia are hairlike structures on the surfaces of many animal and lower plant cells that can move fluid over the cell's surface or "row" single cells through a fluid. Inhumans, for example, cells lining the respiratory tract each have about 200 cilia that beat in synchrony to sweep mucus towards the throat for elimination. What is the structure of a cilium? A cilium consists of bundle of fibers called an axoneme. An axoneme contains a ring of 9 double "microtubules" surrounding two central single microtubules. Each outer doublet consists of a ring of 13 filaments (subfiber A) fused to an assembly of 10 filaments (subfiber B). The filaments of the microtubules are composedof two proteins called alpha and beta tubulin. The 11 microtubules forming an axoneme are held together by three types of connectors: subfibers A are joined to the central microtubules by radial spokes; adjacent outer doublets are joined by linkers of a highly elastic protein called nexin; and the central microtubules are joined by a connecting bridge. Finally, every subfiber A bears two arms, an inner arm and an outer arm, both containing a protein called dynein.

But how does a cilium work? Experiments have shown that ciliary motion results from the chemically-powered "walking" of the dynein arms on one microtubule up a second microtubule so that the two microtubules slide past each other. The protein cross-links between microtubules in a cilium prevent neighboring microtubules from sliding past each other by more than a short distance. These cross-links, therefore, convert the dynein-induced sliding motion to a bending motion of the entire axoneme.

Now, let us consider what this implies. What components are needed for a cilium to work? Ciliary motion certainly requires microtubules; otherwise, there would be no strands to slide. Additionally we require a motor, or else the microtubules of the cilium would lie stiff and motionless. Furthermore, we require linkers to tug on neighboring strands, converting the sliding motion into a bending motion, and preventing the structure from falling apart. All of these parts are required to perform one function: ciliary motion. Just as a mousetrap does not work unless all of its constituent parts are present, ciliary motion simply does not exist in the absence of microtubules, connectors, and motors. Therefore, we can conclude that the cilium is irreducibly complex; an enormous monkey wrench thrown into its presumed gradual, Darwinian evolution.

Blood Clotting

Now let's talk about a different biochemical system of blood clotting.

Blood clottingHere's a picture of a cell trapped in a clot. The meshwork is formed from a protein called fibrin. But what controls blood clotting? Why does blood clot when you cut yourself, but not at other times when a clot would cause a stroke or heart attack? Here's a diagram of what's called the blood clotting cascade. Let's go through just some of the reactions of clotting.

When an animal is cut a protein called Hageman factor sticks to the surface of cells near the wound. Bound Hageman factor is then cleaved by a protein called HMK to yield activated Hageman factor. Immediately the activated Hageman factor converts another protein, called prekallikrein, to its active form, kallikrein. Kallikrein helps HMK speed up the conversion of more Hageman factor to its active form. Activated Hageman factor and HMK then together transform another protein, called PTA, to its active form. Activated PTA in turn, together with the activated form of another protein (discussed below) called convertin, switch a protein called Christmas factor to its active form. Activated Christmas factor, together with antihemophilic factor (which is itself activated by thrombin in a manner similar to that of proaccelerin) changes Stuart factor to its active form. Stuart factor,working with accelerin, converts prothrombin to thrombin. Finally thrombin cuts fibrinogen to give fibrin, which aggregates with other fibrin molecules to form the meshwork clot you saw in the last picture.

Blood clotting requires extreme precision. When a pressurized blood circulation system is punctured, a clot must form quickly or the animal will bleed to death. On the other hand, if blood congeals at the wrong time or place, then the clot may block circulation as it does in heart attacks and strokes. Furthermore, a clot has to stop bleeding all along the length of the cut, sealing it completely. Yet blood clotting must be confined to the cut or the entire blood system of the animal might solidify, killing it. Consequently, clotting requires this enormously complex system so that the clot forms only when and only where it is required.

The Professional Literature

Other examples of irreducible complexity abound in the cell, including aspects of protein transport, the bacterial flagellum, electron transport, telomeres, photosynthesis, transcription regulation, and much more. Examples of irreducible complexity can be found on virtually every page of a biochemistry textbook. But if these things cannot be explained by Darwinian evolution, how has the scientific community regarded these phenomena of the past forty years? A good place to look for an answer to that question is in the Journal of Molecular Evolution. JME is a journal that was begun specifically to deal with the topic of how evolution occurs on the molecular level. It has high scientific standards, and is edited by prominent figures in the field. In a recent issue of JME there were published eleven articles; of these, all eleven were concerned simply with the comparison of protein or DNA sequences. A sequence comparison is an amino acid-by-amino acid comparison of two different proteins, or a nucleotide-by-nucleotide comparison of two different pieces of DNA, noting the positions at which they are identical or similar, and the places where they are not. Although useful for determining possible lines of descent, which is an interesting question in its own right, comparing sequences cannot show how a complex biochemical system achieved its function; the question that most concerns us here. By way of analogy, the instruction manuals for two different models of computer putout by the same company might have many identical words, sentences, and even paragraphs, suggesting a common ancestry (perhaps the same author wrote both manuals), but comparing the sequences of letters in the instruction manuals will never tell us if a computer can be produced step by step starting from a typewriter.

PNAS JournalNone of the papers discussed detailed models for intermediates in the development of complex biomolecular structures. In the past ten years JME has published over a thousand papers. Of these, about one hundred discussed the chemical synthesis of molecules thought to be necessary for the origin of life, about 50 proposed mathematical models to improve sequence analysis, and about 800 were analyses of sequences. There were ZERO papers discussing detailed models for intermediates in the development of complex biomolecular structures. This is not a peculiarity of JME. No papers are to be found that discuss detailed models for intermediates in the development of complex biomolecular structures in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, Nature, Science, the Journal of Molecular Biology or, to my knowledge, any science journal whatsoever.

"Publish or perish" is a proverb that academicians take seriously. If you do not publish your work for the rest of the community to evaluate, then you have no business in academia and, if you don't already have tenure, you will be banished. But the saying can be applied to theories as well. If a theory claims to be able to explain some phenomenon but does not generate even an attempt at an explanation, then it should be banished. Despite comparing sequences, molecular evolution has never addressed the question of how complex structures came to be. In effect, the theory of Darwinian molecular evolution has not published, and so it should perish.

Detection of Design

There is an elephant in the roomful of scientists who are trying to explain the development of life. The elephant is labeled "intelligent design." To a person who does not feel obliged to restrict his search to unintelligent causes, the straightforward conclusion is that many biochemical systems were designed. They were designed not by the laws of nature, not by chance and necessity. Rather, they were planned. The designer knew what the systems would look like when they were completed; the designer took steps to bring the systems about. Life on earth at its most fundamental level, in its most critical components, is the product of intelligent activity.

The conclusion of intelligent design flows naturally from the data itself, not from sacred books or sectarian beliefs. Inferring that biochemical systems were designed by an intelligent agent is a humdrum process that requires no new principles of logic or science. It comes simply from the hard work that biochemistry has done over the past forty years, combined with consideration of the way in which we reach conclusions of design every day.

Organic Compounds

A Complicated World

A word of caution; intelligent design theory has to be seen in context: it does not try to explain everything. We live in a complex world where lots of different things can happen. When deciding how various rocks came to be shaped the way they are a geologist might consider a whole range of factors: rain, wind, the movement of glaciers, the activity of moss and lichens, volcanic action, nuclear explosions, asteroid impact, or the hand of a sculptor. MeteoriteThe shape of one rock might have been determined primarily by one mechanism, the shape of another rock by another mechanism. The possibility of a meteor's impact does not mean that volcanos can be ignored; the existence of sculptors does not mean that many rocks are not shaped by weather. Similarly, evolutionary biologists have recognized that a number of factors might have affected the development of life: common descent, natural selection, migration, population size, founder effects (effects that may be due to the limited number of organisms that begin a new species), genetic drift (spread of neutral, nonselective mutations), gene flow (the incorporation of genes into a population from a separate population), linkage (occurrence of two genes on the same chromosome), meiotic drive (the preferential selection during sex cell production of one of the two copies of a gene inherited from an organism's parents), transposition (the transfer of a gene between widely separated species by non-sexual means), and much more. The fact that some biochemical systems were designed by an intelligent agent does not mean that any of the other factors are not operative, common, or important.

Although ,western scientist give credit to  Copernicus and Galileo; about earth moves around sun ,but it was already discovered in Indian Scriptures and documented. Click here(SCIENTIFIC VED

fossilThings got steadily worse over the years. With the discovery of fossils it became apparent that the familiar animals of field and forest had not always been on earth; the world had once been inhabited by huge, alien creatures who were now gone. Sometime later Darwin shook the world by arguing that the familiar biota was derived from the bizarre, vanished life over lengths of time incomprehensible to human minds. Einstein told us that space is curved and time is relative. Modern physics says that solid objects are mostly space, that sub atomic particles have no definite position, that the universe had a beginning.

Complex CellNow it's the turn of the fundamental science of life, modern biochemistry, to disturb. The simplicity that was once expected to be the foundation of life has proven to be a phantom. Instead, systems of horrendous, irreducible complexity inhabit the cell. The resulting realization that life was designed by an intelligence is a shock to us in the twentieth century who have gotten used to thinking of life as the result of simple natural laws. But other centuries have had their shocks and there is no reason to suppose that we should escape them. Humanity has endured as the center of the heavens moved from the earth to beyond the sun, as the history of life expanded to encompass long-dead reptiles, as the eternal universe proved mortal. We will endure the opening of Darwin's black box.

(Michael J. Behe is Associate Professor of Chemistry at Lehigh University in Pennsylvania and a Fellow of the Discovery Institute’s Center for Renewal of Science & Culture).

Tarakka: Ancient Monuments of Bhubaneswar as Reflections of Stars

Tarakka: Ancient Monuments of Bhubaneswar as Reflections of Stars
By Deepak Bhattacharya 1 & P. C. Naik 2
Edited by Sharif Sakr

The location and design of the ancient temples of Bhubaneswar have been guided by rich astronomical insight. Not only temples, even the painted hill caves, ancient forts and river docks have been placed and constructed in accordance with the location of individual stars and with outlines of constellations that have related shapes or star-lore. Individual monuments have corresponding stars, and as a group they form a similar pattern on the ground as they do in the sky above. The star-temple correlation is centred on the constellation of Orion, which is reproduced in its entirety.

Figure 2

Location and Historical Context

Bhubaneswar is located 20.05° North / 85.82°East, on the Eastern coast of India. As the present administrative capital of Orissa province, it is globally well-connected. The modern city covers around approximately 30 square kilometres, whereas the ancient monuments are clustered in an area of 10 sq. km, termed the core area in the INTACH[1]-EKAMRA heritage conservation plan of 1989. Ekamra is the name given to Bhubaneswar in the ancient literature. The historical period of the Bhubaneswar monuments covers two millennia, between 300BC and 1600AD. This architectural heritage includes Jaina, Buddhist and Hindu sites (the latter being most recent and numerous). The names and cultural classification of the 28 main archaeological sites is given in Fig. 1, along with code numbers from 1-28 to allow easy reference later on.

Fig. 2 - Survey of India with Terrestrial Tarakka
Figure 3
Fig. 3 - Star positions in the night sky, based on bi-polar zenithal view standard star map (Ref. 13).




World History Timeline - By Tarini Carr

World History Timeline - By Tarini Carr

9000-5000 BCE
7500BC- Ancient bricks dated at the Gulf of Cambay. Remains of what may have been a pre-Harappan city.
7000BC- Earliest Pre-Harappan settlement of Mehrgarh.
6150BC Çatalhoyük is a major Neolithic center in Turkey.
5000-3400BC- first signs of maize, bean and cotton domestication in Mesoamerica.
5000 BC The practice of ritual burial and artificial mummification is begun by the Chincorro people of north coastal Chile, attesting to the Andean concern for the veneration and preservation of the dead.
5000BC - Yang Shao Culture. Farming villages in the Yellow River valleys.
4000BC- Excavations from this period at Sumerian sites of Kish and Susa reveal existence of Indian trade products.
3372BC- First date in Mayan Calendar.
3700-3100BC- The Uruk Period of Sumeria, people moved from villages to cities, writing developed, and the creation of monumental temples. Uruk become one of the most important centers in Mesopotamia.
3100BC – First Egyptian Dynasty founded by Menes.
3100BCFirst Mycenaean Culture begins.

3000BC Stonehenge in England built
3000BC Egyptian Hieroglyphs developed

2952BC- Fu-Xi, first of the Three Noble Emperors rules. He develops the Chinese alphabet and culture.
2870BC – Troy founded.
2800BC- Foundation of the ‘Old Kingdom’ in Egypt, covering 3rd Dynasty to the 7th.
2780BC- Zoser becomes ruler of Egypt. His physician Imhotep designs the first pyramid at Saqqara.
2700BC – Great Pyramid age begins in Egypt with Khufu building the Great Pyramid of Giza.
2697BC- Huang-ti, the “Yellow Emperor” comes to power in China.
2613BC – Death of king Khufu, succeeded by his son Redjedef who introduces the worship of Ra into the royal tutelary and religion.
2603BC –Khafre rules and builds his tomb at Giza.
2600-1800BC Indus Civilization at its height.The Harappan cities have sophisticated water and sewer systems, the like which would not be seen until Roman times.
2586BC – The temple of Sri Rangam in south India completed.
2578BC –Menkaure rules Egypt, builds the smallest of the 3 pyramids at Giza.
2500BC- Sphinx built at Giza
2500BC -Long Shan Culture .East China and Central River valleys. Wheel-made pottery, divination and ancestral worship
2500BC – Papyrus used for writing in Egypt.
2500BC -Residential communities on the north Pacific coast of Peru grow large. The extensive Aspero, covered over thirty acres , with ceremonial mounds, plazas, and terraces.

2371BC- Sargon of Agade founds the Akkadian Empire and unites Sumer and Akkad.
2350BC Sargon of Akkad destroys Babylon (which rises again)
2350BC- Yao Dynasty in China.
2205-1766BC – Xia Dynasty begins in China. Ritual bronze vessels and "oracle bones" calligraphy. Evidence of a relatively sophisticated medical system using acupuncture needles and medical observations
2150BC- Civil War in Egypt
2100BC- The Kingdom of Ur 2100-2000. Abraham leads his people from Ur to Canaan (Palestine).
2000BC- The so-called Temple of the Crossed Hands, a large square building with mud reliefs of crossed human arms in an interior chamber, is built at Kotosh in the north central Andean highlands
1925BC- Hittites conquer Babylon.
1800-900BC Early Formative Period of Mesoamerica. Neolithic farming villages;looms, ground stone figurines; rule by groups of elders, shamans, or chiefs; rain & fertility cults
1878BC – Sesostris II dies and is succeeded by his son Sesostris III who builds a canal at the first cataract of the Nile, forms a standing army and erects forts at the Southern border.
1700BC- The Minoan civilization on Crete is at its height
1700 BC Construction begins on the pyramid at the site of Cerro Sechin in the north-central valley of Casma, Peru.
1728BC- Accession of Hammurabi the Great of Babylon, author of the great Code of Laws.
1650-rise of Mycenaean civilization.
1600BC – Hebrews enter Egypt.
1600BC-Linear A (writing) in common use over Crete.
1595BC – First Babylonian Empire destroyed by the Hittites.
1570BC- Beginning of the New Kingdom in Egypt: Hyksos driven out by Ahmose I and the Temple of Amun at Karnak begun. Reunification of Egypt begins.
1551BC – Ahmose I dies and is succeeded by Amenhotep I. He begins the custom of hiding his burial place.
1504BC- Thutmose II dies and is succeeded by his young son Thutmose III. His mother Hatshepsut governs as regent and within a year is crowned pharaoh. Mother and son then rule jointly.
1500BC – Cinnamon is exported from Kerala to Middle East.
1500BC- First tomb in the Valley of the Kings Egypt.
1500BC-Polynesians migrate throughout Pacific islands.
1500BC-Mittani Kingdom begins in Asia Minor.

1500BC The Huaca de los Reyes, a grand building complex of plazas, sunken courts, colonnades, towers, and adobe sculptures, is built of stone and clay mortar at the site of Caballo Muerto in Peru's Moche Valley.
1500BC Gold is hammered into thin foil and placed in the hands and mouth of a youth upon burial at the central highland site of Waywaka in Peru. The gold foil is the first evidence for the working of metals in South America
1483BC –Thutmose III of Egypt reconquers Syria and Palestine and expands his empire.
1400BC- Cretan Culture ends: Knossos burnt..
1379BC – Amenhotep introduces monotheistic Sun-worship and abolishes all old gods.
1375BC- Suppiluliumas becomes king of the Hittites in Asia Minor and begins building Hittite Empire.
1361BC- The boy-pharaoh Tutankhamen succeeds Akhenaton: his advisors restore the worship of the old gods of Egypt.
1350BC-The Lion Gate of Mycenae built.
1304BC- Rameses II the Great, becomes pharaoh of Egypt

1300BC-Phoenician settlements founded in Helias and Cadiz.
1276BC – Lifetime of Tiglath Pileser I of Assyria. He conquers the Armenians, Hittites, Babylonians and forces Egypt to pay tribute to him
1250BC - Moses leads 600,000 Jews out of Egypt.
1200BC-Agamemnon, king of Mycenae
1193BC- Probable time of the legendary Greek Trojan War celebrated in Homer's epic poems, Iliad and Odyssey (ca -750).
1175BC- Invasion of Egypt by confederation of Greeks, Philistines, Sardinians, and Sicilians: all defeated by Ramses III.
1124BC - Elamite Dynasty of Nebuchadnezzar I moves capital to Babylon, world's largest city, covering 10,000 hectares, slightly larger than present-day San Francisco.
1122BC- Emperor Wu Wang founds the Western Chou Dynasty in China
1000-400BC Height of the Olmec civilization. Famous for the sculptures of giant stone heads with Negroid features.Incipient forms of writing appear as early as 500BC.
1000-700 BCE

975BC - King Hiram of Phoenicia, for the sake of King Solomon of Israel, trades with the port of Ophir (Sanskrit- Supara) near modern Bombay, showing the trade between Israel and India. Same trade goes back to Harappan era.
953BC- Solomon builds the Great Temple.
950BC - Jewish people arrive in India in King Solomon's merchant fleet. Later Jewish colonies find India a tolerant home.
850BC - The Chinese use the 28-nakshatra zodiac called Shiu, adapted from the Vedic jyotisa system.
814BC- Carthage founded by Phoenicians.
800BC – Traditional date of the composition of Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey.
776BC - First Olympic Games are held in Greece.
770BC – Eastern Chou Dynasty in China (till 256BC).
753BC – Traditional date of the founding of Rome by Romulus and Remus.
722BC- Capture of Samaria by Sargon II.
710BC – Assyrians destroy the kingdom of Chaldea.
705BC – Sennacherib becomes king of Assyria till 682BC.
701BC – Sennacherib establishes his capital at Nineveh.

700-600 BCE
689BC – Assyrians destroy Babylon and flood the area.
650-600BC Zarathustra, founder of Persian Zoroastrianism
647BC – Assurbanipal sacks the Persian city of Susa, enslaves the Elamites and sows salt on the ground so that nothing will grow there.
621BC – Dracon introduces Athens first written laws, which are noted for their severity.
612BC – Nineveh destroyed by Medes, Babylonians and Scythians led by the Babylonian king Nabopollassar.
608BC – Necho of Egypt defeats and kills Josiah, king of Judah, at the Battle of Megiddo.
604BC – Era of Hebrew prophet Daniel.
600BC - Life of Susruta, of Varanasi, the father of surgery. His ayurvedic treatises cover pulse diagnosis, hernia, cataract, cosmetic surgery, medical ethics, 121 surgical implements, antiseptics, use of drugs to control bleeding, toxicology, psychiatry, classification of burns, midwifery, surgical anesthesia and therapeutics of garlic.
600BC Lifetime of Lao-tzu, founder of Taoism in China, author of Tao-te Ching. Its esoteric teachings of simplicity and selflessness shape Chinese life for 2,000 years and permeate the religions of Vietnam, Japan and Korea.

594BC – Solon becomes sole Archon of Athens. He introduces milder laws to replace Dracon’s. Creates courts of citizens and reforms elections of magistrates.
586BC- Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon captures Jerusalem: People of Judah deported to Babylon.
580BC - Nebuchadnezzar II begins building ‘The Hanging Gardens of Babylon’.
559BC – Cyrus the Great founds the Persian Empire.
551-497BC - Lifetime of Confucius, founder of Confucianism faith.
546BC –Battle of Sardis: Croesus, last king of Lydia defeated by Cyrus; Persians overrun Asia Minor.
539BC- Babylon captured by Persians: Judah and Phoenicia become Persian provinces.
539BC Greeks defeat the Carthaginians in battle.
538BC – Cyrus allows some Jewish exiles to return to Judah.
520BC – Work is resumed on the Temple of Jerusalem (completed 515BC).
517-509BC – Darius I conquers the Indus region and makes it part of the Persian Empire.
509BC – Foundation of Roman Republic.
508BC- Democratic constitution proclaimed in Athens.
500-200 BC-precocious ceremonial centers emerged in the Maya lowlands at sites like El Mirador, Nakbé, Cerros, and Uaxactún.
500BC- China- Agriculture begins to make more advances including the use of an iron plow.

500BC – Iron Age begins in Britain.
499BC – Revolt of Ionian Greek cities against Persian King Darius.
486BC – Xerxes, son of Darius, becomes king of Persia.
480BC – Battle of Thermopylae: Spartans wiped out by Persians. Persian invasion of Greece halted.
461BC – Pericles comes to power in Athens.
460BC – Birth of Demetrius (460-370BC), Greek philosopher who constructs a working mechanical model of the universe.
450BC - Athenian philosopher Socrates flourishes (ca -470-400).

432BC The Parthenon is completed
428-348BC - Lifetime of Plato, Athenian disciple of Socrates. This great philosopher founds Athens Academy in 387BC.
403BC-Warring States Period of Chinese History (403-221BC)
400BC- Lifetime of Hippocrates, Greek physician and "father of medicine," formulates Hippocratic oath, code of medical ethics still pledged by present-day Western doctors.
332BC – Alexander invades Egypt and ends Persian rule, appointing his generals Cleomenes and Ptolemy to govern.
330 BC – Alexander conquers Persia and sets fire to Persepolis.
326BC -Alexander invades, but fails to conquer, Northern India. His soldiers mutiny. He leaves India the same year. Greek sculpture impacts Hindu styles. Bactria kingdoms later enhance Greek influence.
300BC Nak'be becomes a major center in central America. Enormous stucco-surfaced limestone masks embellish a major temple, the first occurrence of a longlived Maya religious pattern.
282BC- The Colossus of Rhodes is constructed.
221BC-Great Wall of China is built, ultimately 2,600 miles long, the only man-made object visible from the moon.
220BC-standardization of weights, measures, calligraphy in China. Emperor Qin Shi Huang creates burial pit city including thousands of Terracotta warriors.
150BC - Ajanta Buddhist Caves are begun near present-day Hyderabad. Construction of the 29 monasteries and galleries continues until approximately 650AD. The famous murals are painted between 600AD and 650AD
150 BC The site of Tiwanaku on Bolivia's Lake Titicaca is laid out in a grid pattern with civic-ceremonial structures and elite residences forming the center. Stone sculptures with low-relief carvings of human, animal, and undulating snake figures are erected.
100BC the Nazca peoples living in the Ica Valley and in the Río Grande de Nazca drainage are impressive weavers, producing complex works.
113BC- Heliodorus column is erected
100BC – Scythians invade North India and take over.
50BC - Kushana Empire begins (50BC-220AD). This Mongolian Buddhist dynasty rules most of the Indian subcontinent, Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia.
44BC – Julius Caesar assassinated in Senate house.
30BC – As her forces are routed by Octavian (Augustus Caesar), Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt commits suicide.
5BC – Birth of Jesus Christ.
8AD – China ruled by Wang Mang, a commoner who had served the Han Dynasty who was appointed emperor after a power struggle.
10AD – Indian embassy to Emperor Trajan in Rome.
30AD – Christ crucified.
60AD - Buddhism is introduced in China by Emperor Ming-di after he converts to the faith.
79AD – Mount Vesuvius erupts and destroys Pompeii.
100AD - Zhang Qian of China establishes trade routes to India and as far west as Rome, later known as the "Silk Roads."
100AD- The Pyramids of the Sun and Moon are constructed in Mexico at Teotihuacan
117AD - The Roman Empire reaches its greatest extent.
180AD -Mexican city of Teotihuacan has a population of more than 125,000 and covered at least 8 square miles. It is one of the largest cities in the world betwen200-700 AD.
205-270AD - Lifetime of Plotinus, Egyptian-born monistic Greek philosopher and religious genius who transforms a revival of Platonism in the Roman Empire into what present-day scholars call Neo-Platonism.
225AD – Later Han Dynasty of China collapses. China is plunged into 350 years of chaos among 3 feuding kingdoms.
250AD- Nazca lines in Peru
250-600AD- The Mayan have long-count calendar, writing, sculpture, mathematics, ceramics, and large-scale urban planning widespread in many areas.

300AD- Mayan Empire at its height (300-800AD)
313AD- Christianity becomes the official religion of the Roman Empire.
358AD -Huns, excellent archers and horsemen, invade Europe from the East.
391AD- Roman Emperor Theodosius destroys Greek Hellenistic temples in favor of Christianity.
400AD – Polynesians sailing in open outrigger canoes reach as far as Hawaii and Easter Island.
405AD – Chinese pilgrim Fa Hein begins his travels through the Gupta Kingdom.
419AD - Moche people of Peru build a Sun temple 150 feet high using 50 million bricks.
430AD – Attila the Hun ravages Europe.
440AD – Pope Leo I proclaims papal supremacy over the teachings of Christianity.
450AD– Hunas invade India
452AD- Pope Leo I persuades Attila the Hun not to sack Rome.
476AD – Birth of the astrologer Aryabhatta. who by using Vedic numerals accurately calculates pi () to 3.1416, and the solar year to 365.3586805 days. A thousand years before Copernicus.
570AD – Birth of Mohammed.
618-907AD -Tang Dynasty. the silk road trade to Europe thrives
641AD-Arab Muslims conquer Mesopotamia, Egypt and Persia in 4 years.
686AD- Reign of Pallava King Rajasinha who begins the extensive sculptural art in the thriving sea-port of Mahabalipuram.
691AD – The Dome of the Rock is built in Jerusalem.
750AD-Kailasa temple is carved out of a hill of rock at Ellora, India.
875AD - Muslim conquests extend from Spain to Indus Valley.
1000AD- A few Hindu communities from Rajasthan, Sindh and other areas, gradually move to Persia and on to Europe becoming the ancestors of present-day Romani, or gypsies.
1000AD-Vikings reach North America, landing in Nova Scotia.
1000AD-Polynesians arrive in New Zealand, last stage in the greatest migration and navigational feat in history, making them the most widely-spread race on Earth.

1000-1500AD Inca Empire at its height.

1000-1250AD- Chichen Itza flourishes as the economic and political center of the Mayas
1100-1200AD-Rise of Toltec Empire centered at Tula. They dominate Mexico
1001AD- Turkish Muslims sweep through the Northwest under Mahmud of Ghazni, in the first major Muslim conquest of India.
1040AD –Chinese invent the compass and moveable type and perfect the use of gunpowder, first invented and used in India as an explosive mixture of saltpeter, sulfur and charcoal to power guns, cannons and artillery.
1150AD – Building of the present Jagannatha Temple in Puri.
1096-1099AD- First Crusade
1167AD – Birth of Genghis Khan.
1175AD- Toltec Empire of Mexico crumbles.
1199AD – Genghis Khan becomes supreme leader of the Mongol tribes.
1200-1400AD-Rise of the Aztec Empire; disintegration of Maya civilization
1227AD- Mongolian Emperor Genghis Khan, conqueror of a vast area from Beijing, China, to Iran and north of Tibet, the largest empire the world has yet seen, dies.
1238AD – T’ai Kingdom established at Sukhot’ai, capital of the Angkor Empire, after two T’ai chiefs defeat the Khmer. This area later becomes Siam / Thailand.

1276AD - Kublai Khan completes conquest of China.
1297AD – Marco Polo visits South India.

1325AD- Southern Aztecs under Tènoc found Tenochtìtlan while northern Aztecs found Tlatelòlco just north of it
1336AD– Kingdom of Vijayanagara, last Hindu empire in India, extends as far as Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines (till 1565).
1300-1600AD- Renaissance in Europe.
1400-1500AD – Aztec Empire at it’s height
1433AD - China cloisters itself from outside world by banning further voyages to the West. (First bamboo curtain.)
1492AD- Looking for India, Christopher Columbus lands on San Salvador island in the Caribbean, thus "discovering" the Americas and proving that the earth is round, not flat.

1519AD-Tenochtìtlan/ Tlatelòlco
probably has 200,000 to 300,000 people
1520AD-Montezuma II, last Aztec emperor of Mexico is murdered by the Spaniards.
1533AD -Pizarro captures the Inca capital of Cuzco and conquers Peru.