Thursday, July 23, 2015

Bhagwat Gita and third law of thermodynamics about creation decoded Nasadiya Sukta of Rigveda

In the field of particle physics, it has been established by many scientific experiments that the universe had a beginning in the remote past and it will have an eventual collapse in some remote future. In this context, the Second Law of Thermodynamics asserts that the processes occur in a certain direction but not in the reverse direction. A cup of hot coffee left on a table in an office, for example, eventually cools, but a cup of cold coffee on the same table never gets hot by itself, that is, the heat can only flow from hot to cold bodies. The science of thermodynamics deals with “equilibrium states” and it declares that a system, which is in equilibrium, experiences no changes when it is isolated from its surroundings. For example, a system is in thermal equilibrium if the temperature is same throughout the entire system. And in this state there are no unbalanced driving forces within the system. A reservoir that supplies energy in the form of heat is called a source and one that absorbs energy in the form of heat is called a sink. When source and the sink are both at the same temperature, there is no flow of energy and, therefore, there is no movement. In the same way we find that life is an effort to climb the slope that ‘matter’ descends. Matter moves increasingly toward a state of disorganization or of increasing randomness, and Consciousness or Life moves towards increasingly complex forms of purposeful organization or decreasing randomness. These are known as what the Bhagavad-Gita calls as the two cosmic tides of pravritti and nivritti, symbolically known as the ‘path of night’ and the ‘path of light’ or the ‘path of action’ and the ‘path of reflection’ respectively.

And, according to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the universe is slowly moving towards a state known as "heat death", that is, a state of existence when all the stars and galaxies will have dissipated their energy in the form of heat and radiation and the whole universe will attain one uniform temperature. This concept of Heat Death is very similar to the Hindu concept of pralaya or dissolution of the universe, and Lincoln Barnett describes it with rare clarity. In this state, the existence of the universe can be described as follows: “All space will be at the same temperature. No energy can be used because all of it will be uniformly distributed through the cosmos. There will be no light, no life, no warmth- nothing but perpetual and irrevocable stagnation. Time itself will come to an end. For entropy is a measure of randomness. When all system and order in the universe have vanished, when randomness is at its maximum, and entropy cannot be increased, where there no longer is any sequence of cause and effect- in short, when the universe has run down, there will be no direction to time, there will be no time. And there is no way of avoiding this destiny.”

Hymn of Creation

This very phenomenon is explained in the Rig Veda (verse X.129) in a famous hymn known as “Naasdeeya Sooktam” or the Hymn of Creation. This verse in Sanskrit describes the vision of the universe, as it existed before its creation. Many scholars and sages have translated the Naasdeeya Sooktam into English; however, I have selected the translation of Prof. Juan Mascaro.

Naas_daaseenno sadaa_seett-daanee
naaseedra_jo no vyomaa paro yat
kimaa_vareevah ? Kuh ? kasya sharmann ?
ambhah kimaaseed_gahnam gabheeram ?

na mrityu_raasee_damritam na taarhi
na raatya ahna aaseet_praketah
aaneedavaatam svadhayaa tad_ekam
tasmaa_ddhanyan_na parah kim chanaas .....

...iyam visrishTiryat aab_bhoova
yadim vaa dadhe yadi vaa na
yo asyaadhyakshah parame vyoman   
so aNga ved yadi vaa na ved.

(In the beginning…)
There was neither existence nor non-existence.
There was not then what is not, what is not.
There was neither sky nor any heaven beyond the sky.
 What power was there? Where 
Who was that power?
Was there an abyss of fathomless water?

There was neither death nor immortality then
No signs were there of night or day.
The One was breathing with its own power,
in deep space.
Only the One was:
And there was nothing beyond.

The darkness was hidden in darkness.
And all was fluid and formless.
Therein, in the void,
By the fire of fervor arose One.
And in the One arose love.
Love the first seed of the soul.

The truth of this the sages found in their hearts:
Seeking in their hearts with wisdom,
The sages found that bond of union
Between being and non-being
Between the manifest and the unmanifest

Who knows this truth?
Who can tell, when and how arose this universe?
The gods came after its creation.
Whether this universe was created or uncreated
Only the God who sees in the highest heaven:
He only knows, when came this universe
 And, whether it was created or uncreated
He only knows or perhaps He knows not?

In this poem an attempt is made by the poet to describe the nature of the Ultimate Reality, and it is beautifully explained by Yogi Krishna prem. It says that in the beginning, the One without a second polarized itself or expanded itself to become Many. While it is absolutely absurd to attempt to explain how the polarization of parbrahman, the One without a second, occurs, it may be useful to make a few suggestions as to how we may conceive it as occurring. The manifestation of a Cosmos depends on the polarization of the One, the parbrahman, into the transcendental Subject, the shaant atman, and the transcendental Object, the mool prakriti. So, far beyond all thought or imagination is that One, Parbrahman, the causeless Cause or the First Cause of the Western thought. Since it cannot be known as an object of knowledge, therefore, “It” is only to be conceived as Darkness. Since it is unknown, therefore, it is called darkness and in that darkness was buried the potentiality of all existence and by the power of tapas, literally, heat or self-limitation arose the Atman or the Unitary Consciousness.

The modern day astronomers call this “darkness” as the dark matter and dark energy of the universe, and of which they have very little knowledge. As recently as February 2003, scientists using NASA’s Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), during a sweeping 12-month observation of the entire sky, have captured the new cosmic portrait, capturing the afterglow of the big bang, called cosmic microwave background. The WMAP team found that the universe is 13.7 billion years old and the contents of the universe include 4 percent atoms or the ordinary visible matter, 23 percent of an unknown dark matter and 73 percent of the mysterious dark energy. The measurements even shed light on the nature of the dark energy, which acts as a sort of an anti-gravity. This is what the Rig Veda means when it says: “The darkness is hidden in Darkness.”

The actual first impulse to creation, according to the Hindu scriptures, is forever hidden in that Darkness, and that is why even Buddha, the Enlightened One, when queried on this subject, remained silent and refused to go beyond desire. According to the Rig Veda, the gods who were in the levels of manifested consciousness came into being later. In other words, consciousness cannot penetrate to its own root. The first impulse to creation, therefore, can only be called the Lila the ‘divine spectacle’ or ‘divine sport’ of the Supreme. The ultimate root is, however, even beyond atman. Nor even for atman can Brahman be an object of knowledge, for to know It is to merge in It and in that merging the separate “knower” comes to an end. In this essay, only a few paragraphs of this hymn are tackled, as a full explanation of this cryptic hymn is beyond its scope.

Cosmos and the Yoga Sutra of Patanjali

On further analysis, one might ask how could the Vedic sages know the nature of the universe at the time of its origin, when they, themselves did not exist? The late Carl Sagan, the famous astronomer of Cornell University posed the same question during one of the episodes of the TV series “Cosmos” which was broadcast in the US during late Seventy’s. He once took his show to South India and showed how the Vedic seers accurately calculated the age of the universe without any radio-astronomy available to them. They discovered the cosmological truth not by scientific observations but through intuitive insight gained through the process of yoga, as explained in Yoga Sutra of Patanjali, that is, 1) through the process of pratyaahaar, 2) through dhyaan-yoga and finally 3) through samaadhi. Now, let us ask ourselves a question: what is Samaadhi? In the yoga-sutra, we are told that Samaadhi is the process of withdrawing the senses into mind, the mind into intellect, and the intellect into Sat or atman the pure consciousness, the substratum of the universe. In other words, Samaadhi is a state of reversal of creation, a return to the primordial or the “un-created” state. In this state the difference between ‘this’ and ‘that’ disappears and what remains is only the Absolute, the One without a second. The best description of Samaadhi is given us in the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad, verse VI.v.15, and it says that in the state of Samaadhi, there is no duality, and this concept is beautifully explained in the following poem translated by Prof. H. B. Phillips:

When everything has become the very Self, then
What should one see and through what? Then
What should one smell and through what? Then
What should one taste and through what? Then
What should one speak and through what? Then
What should one hear and through what? Then
What should one think and through what? Then
What should one touch and through what? Then
What should one know and through what? Then
Through what one should know “That”
By means of which all this is known?

It is difficult for anyone to write about cosmos without invoking the name of a famous immigrant, the lateDr.S.Chandrashekhar of the University of Chicago who received Nobel Prize in 1983 for his contribution to the knowledge of the collapse and the death of stars. He has shown that the stars collapse as a result of their gravitational force and the collapse in-turn, triggers thermonuclear explosion inside them. In that process hydrogen is converted into helium, and in case of heavy stars, even helium is converted into carbon and oxygen and eventually to iron, an element, which releases no energy and the nuclear reaction, stops there. Thus, this process of creation, from the Avaykta, the undifferentiated, or the unmanifest, the nirgun brahman and of destruction, or of srishti and pralaya, continues forever ...and without end. To honor Dr.Chandrashekhar, NASA has named its new observatory as Chandra X-ray observatory, which is simply known as Chandra which was put in the elliptical earth orbit, varying in distance from 9,200 miles to 82,000 miles, in July 1999 to observe X-rays from high-energy regions of the universe. It can also be said about samaadhi that in that state the consciousness goes beyond the dominion of space and time. To express it in the manner of the physicists, it is like saying that in this state a person can go beyond the event horizon of an astronomical black hole and return from it at will. We are also told that in his quest for perfection, Swami Ramakrishna Paramahansa, the 19th century yogi and the monk of Dakshineshwar, used to go in and out of samaadhi at his own free will.

In an effort to realize the Absolute through the process of Yoga, it is observed that these yoga disciplines, as described in the Yoga-Sutra of Patanjali, are also given us in the Bhagavad-Gita. Out of the eight yoga disciplines, only three are listed here and are described as: 1) pratyaahaar in verse 2.58, 2) dhyaan in verse 8:8 and 3) samaadhi in verse 6:20-6:23 of the Bhagavad-Gita, and these are7:

1) Pratyahaar: Bhagavad-Gita, verse’ 2:58, says: “yadaa sanharte chaayam koormo-angaaneeve sarvashah…He who is unattached and when like a tortoise, which draws in its limbs from all directions, he withdraws his senses from the sense objects, he is a man of stable wisdom.”

2) Dhyaan: Bhagavad-Gita, verse’ 8:8, says: “abhyaasyo-yukten chetasaa naanya-gaaminaa…He who with his mind disciplined through yoga in the form of practice of meditation and thinking nothing else, is constantly engaged in contemplation of the Supreme attains the supremely effulgent Divine Being.”

3) Samaadhi: Bhagavad-Gita, verses’ 6:20-6:23 declare: “yatroparmate chittam nirudham yog sevayaa… When the mind, absolutely restrained by the practice of concentration, attains quietness, and when seeing the Self by the self, that Yogi beholding Atman by Atman, is satisfied in the Atman itself; when he feels that infinite bliss-which is perceived by the purified intellect and which transcends the senses and thus established therein he never departs from the Real state.”

The purified state, in these cryptic verses is described as that state of cognition when the purified intellect can grasp independent of the senses. When in meditation, the mind is deeply concentrated, the senses do not function and are resolved into their cause- that is, the mind; and when the later is steady, so that there, only the intellect is functioning, or in other words, cognition only exists; and the indescribable Self or the Atman  realizes itself. And this is known as Samadhi.

Coming back to the theme of this essay, the question arises: “How do we know this knower?” This question is asked, over and over, in almost all the scriptures. “Who knows this truth? He only knows or perhaps He knows not?” This is how the Rig-Veda ends its poem, which was one of the favorite poems of another famous traveler from India during the last century, namely, Swami Vivekanand. This shows that the seer of the Rig-Veda even questions the highest knower or his knowledge. Thus the Vedic system of thought is not based on some blind faith or some sectarian dogma taught by a teacher but on scientific basis developed and known by what we call the dhyaan yoga or the knowledge developed through meditation or by the intuitive understanding of the seer. When that knowledge dawns, then the Great Being shines forth through every pore of our being as the blissful or the immortal. Thus, in the Rig Veda, began the scientific inquiry not only for the outer worlds of prakriti but also for the inner worlds of atman, the unchanging substratum of the universe, or the universal constant as we may call It. This Universal Constant proved too illusive even for Einstein when he declared: ‘God does not throw dice’ but after a lifetime of groping, he finally gave up trying to find the universal constant for his “too- too static” a view of the universe of names and forms, which the Hindu mystics had already figured out thousands of years before him, that this cosmos was nothing but a passing phantom show which veils from sight the true and the unchanging Eternal Reality that is forever unmanifest. However, the Bhagavad-Gita gives us the nature of this Universal Constant in verse 2:24 when it says:

The self can never be cleft,
Nor can one dry or make him wet,
He is never combustible,
Present everywhere but stable

Is eternal and changes never,
Remains always the same forever

Maya and the Uncertainty Principle

Then came along Werner Heisenberg, a young German Physicist with his idea of the ‘uncertainty principle’ and with this ‘new understanding’ he stumbled onto the ancient vedantic truth that ‘the subjective decides the nature of the object’, that is, in a mystical sense, “the purity of the soul or consciousness of the scientist or that of the seer determines his outlook.” The same theme is expressed in the words of Vishnu Puraan, where it is stated: “As is God, so is His creation and as you are, so is your creation.” Thus, Werner Heisenberg found out about the maya of the electrons and in the same spirit, Stephen Hawking, the famous astro-physicist from Cambridge University, while intuitively realizing the deeper uncertainty of the nature of the Black Holes realized the Maya relating to the Cosmos and declared that: “God not only plays dice but also sometimes throws them where they cannot be seen”. Thus Hawking also intuitively stumbled onto the ancient Hindu concept of Maya, in the same way as Heisenberg had figured it out earlier. In this context Bhagavad-Gita verse’ 2:16 says: “naasto vidyate bhaavo, na bhaavo vidyate satah…the unreal has no existence and the real never ceases to be.” Now that the word maya has some how crept up in this essay, let us find out what Saint Kabir, the 15th century mystic poet of Northern India says in one of his poems about maya which was translated by Gurudeva Shri Rabindra Nath Tagore (1861-1941) and it goes as follows:

Maya Taji Na Jaay

“Tell me, Friend, how can I renounce Maya?
When I gave up the tying of ribbons,
Still I tied my garments about me:
When I gave up tying my garment,
I still covered my body in its folds

So, when I gave up passion
I see that anger remains;
And when I renounce anger,
Greed is with me still;

And when greed is vanquished,
Pride and vainglory remain;
When the mind is detached and
Casts Maya away, still it
Clings to the letter

Kabir says, “Listen to me dear friend!
Yogis and Sanyaasis are disputing each other,
But the true path is rarely found.”

 The philosophy taught by Krishna in the Bhagavad-Gita about the creation of the universe is the same as the concepts given us in the Hymn of Creation in the Rig-Veda. In the Bhagavad-Gita, the verse’ 2:20 says: “ajo nitya shaashvato ayam puraano, na hanyate hanya maane shareere” in which Sri Krishna declares that Parbrahman, Parmatman or Atman is the substratum of the universe and it is neither born and nor does it ever die. The poetic rendition of this verse goes as follows:


No soul is ever born nor does he ever,
Once coming to being he ceases never;
Permanent, eternal, ancient and unborn,
This dies not even when the body is gone.



Essence Of Parbrahman

 According to the Bhagavad-Gita, verses’ 9:7 and 9:8, Parmaatman or the atman remained in a state of quiet throughout the duration of time known as the Night of Brahma, also known as the kalpa-antaya, with no objects, because as yet there is no modification. But resolving to create, or rather to emanate the universe, It formed a picture of what should be, and this at once was a modification willingly brought about in the previously wholly unmodified spirit; thereupon the Divine Idea was gradually expanded, coming forth into objectivity while the essence of parbrahman, the presiding deity or the essence of atman remained unmodified and became the perceiver of its own expanded idea. The essential nature or the svabhaav of the One as transcendent Subject, here called adhyaatma and declared in Bhagavad-Gita verse’ 8:3, separates out as it were, leaving the other aspect of Brahman, to stand as the eternal Object, the mool-prakriti. This mool-prakriti, the unmanifest basis of all the objectivity, is, from its very nature, the source of all the manifested Many. Reflecting as it does the Light of the One Atman; It is the root of all objectivity and all plurality. If the Brahman is to appear as an object at all, it is only as the mool-prakriti that it can so appear. This is how the One without a second, at the commencement of a kalpa known as kalpa-praarambh, chose to become Many.

Shiva Lingam and Snake-Scientific explanation

Lord Shiva is known as Mahadev due to the instinct characteristics which he represents. The form in which Lord shiva is represented is called a Ling. Infact, Lord Shiva is the fundamental god. He is known as prajapati Shiva. There is no origin or form which can be associated with Shiva. Man needs a symbol to worship so the ling was created “Ling means symbol”. For example Vishnu’s Ling is a chakra or if someone was wearing a stethoscope you would say he was a doctor. A ling is only a symbol to identify something. This symbol that we call a Shivling has behind it a scientific explanation. 

The beginning of life is called Hiranyagarbha. This is the thread or formula of life which is complete in itself and reproduces itself without any organ. It multiplies itself from 1 to 2, then from 2 to 4 and so on. It is the basic culture of any form of life. It can be compared to DNA which contains the genetic code. It is indestructible, reproduces itself and contains the specifications of any generation. So, how did our ancestors explain DNA? The structure of DNA as we know was first described by scientists in 1953. Nobody had imagined this type of structure. It is also difficult to explain the structure of DNA to a common man. Now we can see the 3D structures with movements on TV. Before that, it was imagined as a et of two spiral interwined staircases. Our rishis saw this structure through their meditation and explained it the same way modern science explains DNA. They concluded that it was helical, produced itself, and according to our scriptures, it first originated from Lord Shiva.

The rishis imagined that Prajapati must have created a mound first. You have to make a mound before creating anything, for example, a clay mound for a statue and a store mound for a sculpture. Our rishis had imagined this round mound, the Shivling, was wrapped with a snake, which might model DNA. To describe more complex DNA, a pair of snakes wrapped around each other can be visualized to represent a double helix, as rishis explained. The rishis also said that it was the base structure and entire nature began with it. This was determined by our rishis to be the fundamental and elemental point with which any life form could being.

Modern science corroborates the findings of our scriptures that DNA is like a thread and is so small that it can not be seen with naked eyes it reproduces itself by multiplying itself and cannot be destroyed. An object can be destroyed, but its DNA will exist in one form or another. The properties suggested for DNA by modern science had also been suggested in our scripture. So the Shivling is not just a mere symbol. Our rishis wanted to give a message to the masses that you can see the smallest form of nature in the form of the Shivling. The Shivling represents the atomic structure. When they created the Shivling it was imagined that there was one Hari and one Har in the ling. Har is shiva, and Hari is Vishnu. shiva and Vishnu are present in this Ling. Jalhari has three lines because three signifies “multiple” in Sanskrit. In our atomic structure, there are protons and neutrons which are surrounded by fast spinning electrons.

Our rishis imagined that this ling has Har (neutron) and Hari (proton) inside, and Brahma (electron) spins around them in the form of Jalhari. Brahma is tied with Haari by a thread through his navel and cannot go too far. He is attached with Hari after creating nature and looks after nature. Har (Shiva) is unattached and in meditation in the Himalayas. He becomes destroyer when necessary. Everything is created by protons and electrons and electrons play the major role. A change in the number of electrons changes the dimensions and properties. Brahma is similar in nature. Har is neutral and is sitting in the nucleus with all the energy. Energy is released by breaking the nucleus also known by our modern science as atomic fission. According to our rishis, Shiva has the energy within as long as Shiva is in meditation.

Once we make Shiva angry which can be compared to breaking the nucleus, the energy is released in the form of Durga. This energy is indeed the atomic energy as explained by the modern science. The force of Shiva , which we call Rudrani, is always with him. It is described in the Mahabarat by Maharishi Vashishtha that he saw this Rudrani . He saw a huge black shadow dancing in the sky around Lord Shiva, who blinded his eyes. It was so powerful and huge that he could not see the beginning or end and even after running with his mind till the end of time. There is a colossal energy constantly dancing around Lord Shiva. This dance can be compared with electrons spinning and revolving around the nucleus. If a neutron is separated from its nucleus, a destructive force is released, just like if this surrounding energy is separated from Lord Shiva . If Lord Shiva desires, he can release this energy.

You must have seen that the nuclear reactors resemble a Svivling in the shape like a mound, and all the radioactive particles are constantly kept under water. The hard water and soft water are formed there. This water becomes radioactive. Water is constantly sprinkled on the Shivling to control Shiva’s temper, reflecting a nuclear reactor. In terms of modern science, it is supposed to represent the nuclear reactor. This water from the Shivling is not used as prasad or even as holy water. This could be compared to the water used for cooling the nuclear reactors which is also not used for nay other purposes. This water from Shivling flows freely from the jalhari in a stream from a corner of the Ling. One cannot go around the Shivling as it is beyond a human being to really go around or comprehend this tremendous power. This also shows humans their limitations within which we need to live.

We can see the smallest form of this in a Shivling and also the colossal form in our galaxy. If you look at the pictures of nebulae or galaxies, you will see the mound, which is called the Shivling and the jalahari around it. This is in the reality pictures taken fron space show a clear picture of Shivling as described in our scriptures. shiva is referred to as “bhole” meaning simple and can be pleased by little worship. Once he is happy, he gives boons without thinking of the worshipper’s worthiness. Still one must follow the right path for if you are on a wrong path even by mistake and Shiva is not pleased with you, no one can save you. Shiva is pleased very easily and at the same time, is enormously powerful. One should worship him only after understanding his great power. One who has power can pass it on to others and anyone can receive it. It is critical that you understand the colossal power of Shiva.

Ancient India and its role in science-Reminder

Ancient India contributed to what science is today. After havoc created by occupying forces of Islamist, Greek, British, Europeans from beginning of this century, where islamist and Christians burned many scientific books, India did loose its edge in science. NOW time is changing for India to come and lead world again- 1. India invented the Number system. Pingalacharya invented ‘zero.’ in 200 BC.

2. Indians discovered the size, shape, rotation and gravity of earth about 1000 years before Kelvin,Galileo,Newton and 

Copper Nicus. Aryabhatta I was the first to explain spherical shape,size ,diameter,rotaion and correct speed of Earth in 499 


3. Newton’s law of Gravitational force is an ancient Indian discovery. In Siddhanta Siromani ( Bhuvanakosam 6 ) 

Bhaskaracharya II described about gravity of earth about 400 years before Sir Isaac Newton.

4. Bhaskaracharya II discovered Differential calculus.

5. Theory of Continued Fraction was discovered by Bhaskaracharya II.

6. The place value system, the decimal system was developed in India in 100 BC.

7. Indians discovered Arithmetic and Geometric progression. Arithmetic progression is explained in Yajurveda.

8. Govindaswamin discovered Newton Gauss Interpolation formula about 1800 years before Newton.

9. Vateswaracharya discovered Newton Gauss Backward Interpolation formula about 1000 years before Newton.

10. Madhavacharya discovered Taylor series of Sine and Cosine function about 250 years before Taylor.

11. Madhavacharya discovered Newton Power series.

12. Madhavacharya discovered Gregory Leibnitz series for the Inverse Tangent about 280 years before Gregory.

13. Madhavacharya discovered Leibnitz power series for pi about 300 years before Leibnitz.

14. Parameswaracharya discovered Lhuiler’s formula about 400 years before Lhuiler.

15. Nilakanta discovered Newton’s Infinite Geometric Progression convergent series.

16. Theorems relating the diameter,volume and circumference of circles discovered by Madhavacharya, Puthumana 

Somayaji, Aryabhatta, Bhaskaracharya…….

17. The value of pi was first calculated by Aryabhatta I in 499 AD,ie more than 1350 years before Lindemann

18. Boudhayana discovered Pythagorus Theorem in 800BC. ie 300 years before Pythagorus.

19. Algebra, trigonometry and calculus came from India. Quadratic equations were by Sridharacharya in the 11th Century.

20. While the Greeks were using only upto a maximum value 1000, Indians could go upto 18th power of 10 level during 

Vedic period.

21. Infinity was well known for ancient Indians. BhaskaracharyaII in Beejaganitha (stanza-20) has given clear explanation 

with examples for infinity

22. Positive and Negative numbers and their calculations were explained first by Brahmagupta in his book Brahmasputa 


23. Sterling formula was discovered by Brahmagupta about 1000 years before Sterling.

24. Demovier’s theorem of positive integral was discovered by Brahmagupta in 628 A.D, i.e around 1000 years before 


25. Puthumana Somayaji discovered Demovier’s infinite series in 1140 AD,i.e more than 200 years before Demovier.

26. Maharshi Sushruta is the father of surgery. 2600 years ago he and health scientists of his time conducted surgeries like 

cesareans, cataract, fractures and urinary stones. Usage of anesthesia was well known in ancient India. He was the first 

person to perform plastic surgery.

27. When many cultures in the world were only nomadic forest dwellers over 5000 years ago, Indians established Harappan 

culture in Sindhu Valley (Indus Valley Civilization).

28. The world’s first University was established in Takshila in 700BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world 

studied more than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century BC was one of the greatest achievements 

of ancient India in the field of education.

29. According to the Forbes magazine, Sanskrit is the most suitable language for computer software.

30. Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to humans.

31. Although western media portray modern images of India as poverty stricken and underdeveloped through political 

corruption, India was once the richest empire on earth.

32. According to the Gemmological Institute of America, until 1896, India was the only source of diamonds to the world.

33. USA based IEEE has proved what has been a century-old suspicion amongst academics that the pioneer of wireless 

communication was Professor Jagdeesh Bose and not Marconi.

34. The earliest reservoir and dam for irrigation was built in Saurashtra.

35. Chess was invented in India.

36. The first philosopher who formulated ideas about the atom in a systematic manner was Kanada who lived in the 6th 

century B.C.

37. All the atomic reactors in the world are in Shiva Linga Shape which is an Indian contribution.

38. Padanjali maharshi discovered Sound waves.

39. Yoga is an ancient Indian gift to the world.

40. Shayanacharya discovered velocity of light.

41. Maharshi Bharadwaja discovered different types of light rays.

42. Maharshi Bharadwaja was the first person to give definition about aeroplane. He explained about different types 

aeroplanes in his book “Vimana Thantra” about 2000 years before Right Brothers.

43. Maharshi Bharadwaja discovered spectrometer. In his “Yantra Sarvaswa” he explained about more than 100 instruments.

44. The different colours of light, VIBGYOR are mentioned in Rigveda which was written more than 6000 years ago.

45. Maharshi Charaka discovered Psychology and Quantum healing system.

46. Varahamihira discovered the concept of “Budding of plants”.

47. Varahamihira discovered Comets in 505 AD, i.e more than 1100 years before Haley.



48. Gouthama Maharshi discovered the wave nature of sound about 1400 years before Hyghen.

49. Seven continents are mentioned in Padmapurana.

1. Bhaaskaraachaaryan - I (early 6th century AD) 

Formost among Ganithajnans (astrologer / mathematician) in the entire Bhaaratham (India), Bhaskaran-I, hailed from 

Kerala, according to experts. In 522 AD he wrote "Mahaa Bhaaskareeyam", also known as "Karma Nibandhham". A 

Vyaakhyaanam (explanations and discussions) on Aaryabhateeyam as well as a condensed version - "Laghu 

Bhaaskareeyam" - of Aaryabhateeyam, have also come down to us. 

(Bhaaskaraachaaryan-II who wrote "Leelaavathy" lived in the 11th century). 

2. Haridathan (650 - 750 AD) 

Though the Aarybhata system had been followed in calculating the planetary positions, Namboothiri scholars recognised 

variations between the computed and observed values of longitudes of the planets. A new system called "Parahitham" was 

proposed by Haridathan through his famous works "Graha-Chakra-Nibandhhana" and "Mahaa-Maarga-Nibandhhana". In 

683 AD, this system was accepted throughout Kerala on the occasion of the 12-yearly Mahaamaagha festival at 

Thirunavaya, and is recorded in many later works. Haridathan introduced many improvements over Aarybhata system, like 

using the more elegant Katapayaadi (Click here) system of notation in preference to the more complicated Aarybhataa's 


Haridathan introduced the unique system of enunciating graded tables of the sines of arcs of anomaly (Manda-jya) and of 

conjugation (Seeghra-jya) at intervals of 3° 45' to facilitate the computation of the true positions of the planets. One of the 

corrections introduced by Haridathan to make the Aarybhata's results more accurate, is the "Sakaabda Samskaaram". 

3. Aadi Sankaran (788 - 820 AD) 

Sree Sankaran was born in Kalady in Central Kerala (nearly 50 km north east of Kochi) on the banks of river Periyar as the 

son of Kaippilly Sivaguru Namboothiri and Arya Antharjanam (Melpazhur Mana). Scientific concepts naturally evolved from 

this highly logical and rational intellect. It is believed that Sree Sankaran was the first mathematician to moot the concept of 

Number Line. [Ref: "Sankara Bhaashyam" (4-4-25) of the "Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad"]. It was Sree Sankaran who first 

expounded the idea of assigning a set of natural numbers to a straight line. As the number of elements in a set of natural 

numbers is infinite, it requires a symbol of infinity to represent them. A straight line can be considered to be infinitely long. 

Sankaran adopted a straight line as a symbol of infinity. A straight line can be divided to infinite number of parts and each of 

these parts can be assigned the value of a particular number. This is called number line. Though his concept lacks the 

perfection of modern number line theory, Sree Sankaran exhibited his intellectual ingenuity in conceiving such a novel idea. 

Yet another example for Sree Sankaran's unbiased and pure scientific pursuit of knowledge could be seen in the second 

"Slokam" of "Soundarya Lahari" [a collection of 100 Slokams in praise of Goddess Durga written by Sree Sankaran]. In the 

Slokam "Thaneeyaamsam paamsum thava charana pankeruhabhavam", we can see a hint to the theory of inter-

convertibility of mass and energy. Famous scientist Albert Einstein put forward this theory much later. Einstein said mass 

can be converted to energy and vice-versa according to the equation E = MC², where E = Energy released, M = Mass of the 

substance, and C = Velocity of light = 3 x 10¹º cm/sec. 

In another context, Sree Sankaran postulated that the diameter of Sun is 1 lakh "Yojanas". Later the modern scientific 

community calculated the diameter which agreed very closely with (just 3% error) the value provided by Sankaran. 

4. Sankaranarayanan (9th century) 

This scholar from "Kollapuri" (Kollam) in Kerala has written a commentary (Vyaakhhyaanam) of the "Laghu Bhaaskareeyam" 

of Bhaaskaraachaaryan-I, titled "Sankaranaaraayaneeyam". The Granthham is dated 869 AD (ME 44). 

5. Sreepathy (around 1039 AD) 

Sreepathy (Kaasyapa Gothram) has described methods for calculating the "Shadbalam" of the planets and stars. 

Prescribing of consequences should be based on these "Balams". His works include "Aarybhateeya Vyaakhhyaanams" 

such as "Ganitha Thilakam", "Jaathaka Karma Padhhathi" and "Jyothisha Rathna Maala". 

6. Thalakkulathu Bhattathiri (1237 - 1295 AD) 

This Govindan Bhattathiri is believed to have been born in ME 412 in Thalakkulam of Aalathur Graamam, about three 

kilometer south of Tirur. The Illam does not exist anymore. His mother was apparently from Paazhoor. He is said to have left 

Keralam (to Paradesam, possibly Tamil Nadu) and studied the "Ulgranthhams" in Jyothisham under a scholar by name 

Kaanchanoor Aazhvaar, returned and prayed for a dozen years to Vadakkunnathan at Thrissur. 

Bhattathiri's major work is the renowned Jyothisha Granthham "Dasaadhhyaayi". It is a majestic "Vyaakhyaanam" of the first 

ten chapters of the famous 26-chapter "Brihajjaathakam" in the field of Jyothissaasthram, written by Varaahamihiran of 

Avanthi, a sixth century scholar. Bhattathiri felt that the "Aachaaryan" had not covered anything significantly more in the rest 

of the chapters and therefore, left them altogether. There are also other works like "Muhoortha Rathnam" to his credit. 

7. Sooryadevan 

This Namboothiri (Somayaaji) scholar is better known as Sooryadeva Yajwaavu. "Jaathakaalankaaram" is Sooryadevan's 

Vyaakhyaanam for Sreepathy's (No. 5, above) "Jaathaka Karma Padhhathi". His other works include a "Laghu 

Vyaakhhyaanam" (simple explanation) of Aaryabhateeyam, called "Bhataprakaasam", as well as Vyaakhhyaanams for 

Varaahamihiran's "Brihadyaathra" and for Mujjaalakan's "Laghu Maanava Karanam". 

8. Irinjaatappilly Madhavan Namboodiri (1340 - 1425) 

Madhavan of Sangamagraamam, as he is known, holds a position of eminence among the astute astronomers of medieval 

Kerala. He hailed from Sangama Graamam, the modern Irinjalakuda, near the railway station. Madhavan was the treacher 

of Parameswaran, the promulgator of Drigganitha school of Astronomy, and is frequently quoted in the medieval 

astronomical literature of Kerala as Golavith (adept in spherics). 

He is the author of several important treatises on Mathematics and Astronomy. The "Venvaaroham" explaining the method 

for computation of the moon and the moon-sentences, "Aganitham", an extensive treatise on the computation of planets, 

"Golavaadam", "Sphhuta-Chandraapthi", "Madhyama Nayana Prakaaram" are some of his important works. 

Besides these works, a number of stray verses of Madhavan are quoted by later astronomers like Neelakandha Somayaaji, 

Narayanan the commentator of Leelaavathy, Sankaran the commentator of Thanthrasangraham, etc. One of his significant 

contributions is his enunciatiation of formulae for accurate determination of the circumference of a circle and the value of p 

by the method of indeterminate series, a method which was rediscovered in Europe nearly three centuries later by James 

Gregory (1638 - 75 AD), Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646 - 1716 AD) and Newton (1642, "Principia Mathematicia"). His five 

Paraspara-Nyaaya contains the enunciation for the first time in the world, of the formula for the sine of sum of two angles. 
sine (A + B) = sine A cos B + cos A sine B 
This is known as "Jeeve Paraspara Nyaaya". 

The ideas of Calculus and Trigonometry were developed by him in the middle of the 14th century itself, as can be verified 

by his extensive mathematical and astronomical treatises and quotations by later authors. 

Madhavan deserves, in all respects, to be called the Father of Calculus and Spherical Trigonometry. For a detailed 

appreciation of his contribution, refer to the excellent paper of R G Gupta,"Second Order of Interpolation of Indian 

Mathematics", Ind, J.of Hist. of Sc. 4 (1969) 92-94. 

Again Madhavan provides the power series expansions for sin x and cos x for an arc x correct to 1/3600 of a degree.

9. Vatasseri Parameswaran Namboodiri (1360 - 1455) 

Vatasseri was a great scientist who contributed much to Astronomy and Mathematics. He was from Vatasseri Mana on the 

north bank of river Nila (Bhaarathappuzha) near its mouth in a village called Aalathiyur (Aswathha Graamam). This is near 

the present Tirur of Malappuram district. He was a Rigvedi (Aaswalaayanan) of Bhrigu Gothram. 

"Drigganitham" was his greatest contribution. The seventh century "Parahitha Ganitham" for calculations and projections in 

Astronomy continued its popularity for a few centuries, with some later modifications made by Mujjaalakan, Sreepathy and 

others, for correcting the differences found with actual occurences. But it was Parameswaran who, as a result of over fifty 

years of systematic observations and research on movements of celestial bodies, estimated the error factor and established 

a new method called Drig Sidhham as explained in his popular Drigganitham (ME 606, 1430-31 AD). He suggested the use 

of "Parahitham" for "Paralokahitham" such as Thithhi, Nakshthram, Muhoortham, etc., and his own "Drigganitham" for 

"Ihalokahitham" like "Jaathakam", "Graha Moudhhyam", "Grahanam", etc. Unfortunately, Drigganitham Granthham has not 

been traced so far. 

Yet another of his contribution was a correction to the angle of precision of equinox mentioned by his disciple, Kelalloor 

Somayaaji (vide 15, below) in his "Jyothirmeemaamsa" (ch. 17). The 13 ½° suggested by Mujjaalakan was rectified by him 

to 15°. 

There are numerous works to his credit, apart from Drigganitham. The 3-volume, 302 verse "Gola Deepika" (1443 AD) 

explaining about the stars and earth in very simple terms, "Jaathaka Padhhathy" in 41 verses, "Soorya Sidhhantha 

Vivaranam", "Grahana Mandanam", "Grahanaashtakam", "Vyatheepaathaashtaka Vrththi" in 500 verses or Slokams. (The 

last three are believed by experts to be his works), "Aachaarya Samgraham", "Grahana Nyaaya Deepika", "Chandra-

Chhaayaa-Ganitham", "Vaakya Karmam" and "Vaakya Deepika" are his well-known works. 

He has written superb commentaries such as "Sidhhantha Deepika" on Govindaswamy's Mahaa Bhaaskareeyam; "Karma 

Deepika" or "Bhata Deepika" on Aarya Bhateeyam; "Muhoortha Rathna Vyaakhyaa" on Govindaswamy's Muhoortha 

Rathnam; Leelavathee Vyaakhyaa on the famous mathematical treatise, Leelavathy of Bhaaskaraachaarya-II; "Laghu 

Bhaaskareeya Vyaakhyaa" on Laghu Bhaaskareeyam of Bhaaskaraachaarya-I; "Jaathaka Karma Padhhathee Vyaakhyaa" 

on Sreepathy's 8-chapter work on Jyothisham; the one on "Laghu Maanasam" of Mujjaalakan; "Jaathakaadesa Vyaakhyaa"; 

and "Prasna-Nashta Panchaasikaavrthy" also called "Paarameswari" based on the work of Prathhuyasass, son of 


Undoubtedly, there had not been many scholars of his calibre in the annals of history in the realm of Astronomy. 

10. Damodaran Namboodiri 

Damodaran Namboodiri is known for his work "Muhoorthaabharanam". It is believed that he had an ancestor by name 

Yajnan whose brother's son, Kesavan, was a great scholar, and that Damodaran was Kesavan's younger brother. His family 

is said to have belonged to a village near Thriprangod, but it is clear that it was in Taliparamba Graamam. Mazhamangalam 

(Mahishamangalam, vide 17, below) has recognised "Muhoorthaabharanam" as a reference work similar to "Muhoortha 

Rathnam" and other earlier works. 

11. Narayanan Namboodiri 

He has authored "Muhoortha Deepikam". He could be the same Narayanan, one of Vatasseri Parameswaran Namboodiri's 

teachers (Guru), as mentioned by Kelallur Chomaathiri (Neelakandha Somayaaji, 15, below). "Muhoortha Deepikam" is also 

recognised as an authoritative work, by Mazhamangalam (17, below). 

12. Puthumana Somayaaji (Chomaathiri) 

He belonged to Puthumana Illam (Sanskritised as Noothana Graamam) of Chovvaram (Sukapuram) Graamam. He is 

believed to have been a contemporary of Vatasseri Namboodiri, during the 15th century AD. 

His famous works are "Karana Padhhathi" which is a comprehensive treatise on Astronomy in ten chapters completed in the 

year ME 606 (1430-31 AD), the same year as Vatasseri Namboodiri's "Drigganitham"; "Nyaaya Rathnam", an 8-chapter 

Ganitha Granthham; "Jaathakaadesa Maargam"; "Smaartha-Praayaschitham"; "Venvaarohaashtakam"; "Panchabodham"; 

"Grahanaashtakam"; and "Grahana Ganitham". 

To his credit is also an important mathematical equation to calculate the tangent (tan) value of an angle

13. Chennas Narayanan Namboodiripad (mid 15th century) 

He was considered to be an authority in the fields of Vaasthusaastram (Indian Architecture), Mathematics and Tanthram. 

Born in 1428, Chennas Narayanan Namboodiripad authored a book titled "Thanthra Samuchayam" which is still considered 

as the authentic reference manual in the field of temple architecture and rituals. In this Granthham , while elaborating on 

various points of Indian architectural practices, he has dealt with many mathematical principles also. The following are 


a) A method of arriving at a circle starting with a square, and successively making it a regular octagon, a regular 16-sided, a 

32-sided, 64-sided polygons, etc. In this method some geometrical steps have been suggested. 
b) Co-ordinate system of fixing points in a plane. 
c) Converting a square to a regular hexagon having approximately equal area. 
d) Finding the width of a regular octagon, given the perimeter. 

14. Ravi Namboodiri 

He is one of the teachers of Kelallur Chomaathiri, and was a scholar in both Astronomy and Vedaantham. His treatise 

"Aachaara Deepika" is on Jyothisham. 

15. Kelallur Neelakandha Somayaaji (1465 - 1545) 

He is one of the foremost astronomers of Kerala and considered an equal to Vatasseri Parameswaran Namboodiri, and 

known popularly as Kelallur Chomaathiri. He was born to Jathavedan and Arya in Kelallur (or Kerala Nallur, Kerala-Sad-

Graamam in Sanskrit) Mana of Thrikkandiyur (Sree Kundapuram in Sanskrit), near Tirur, and belonged to Gaargya 

Gothram, Aaswalaayana Soothram of Rigvedam. Kelallur Mana later became extinct and their properties merged with 

Edamana Mana. They were staunch devotees at Thriprangot Siva temple. 

He is said to be a disciple of one Ravi who taught him Vedaantham and the basics of Astronomy and of Vatasseri 

Damodaran Namboodiri (son of the famous Parameswaran Namboodiri) who trained him in Astronomy and Mathematics. 

According to Ulloor, he lived during 1465 and 1545 (roughly), though according to another version, he was born on June 17, 

1444 on a Wednesday. 

His most important work is "Thanthra Samgraham" (a treatise on Mathematics and Astronomy) in eight chapters with 432 

verses, and apparently written in an unbelievable six days from Meenam 26 of 676 ME to Metam 1 the same year! The lucid 

manner in which difficult concepts are presented, the wealth of quotations, and the results of his personal investigations 

and comparative studies make this work a real masterpiece. Two commentaries on this work, "Yukthi Bhaasha" (in 

Malayalam) by Paarangot Jyeshthhadevan Namboodiri (No. 16 below) and "Yukthi Deepika" by Sankara Varier, themselves 

indicate the importance of the original work. 

Another of his important works is a "Bhaashyam" (commentary) on "Aaryabhateeyam". In his book "Jyorthir Meemaamsa", 

he demonstrates his intellectual and scientific thinking. Some of his other works are "Chandra Chhaayaa Ganitham" 

(calculations relating to moon's shadow), "Sidhhantha Darpanam" (mirror on the laws of Astronomy) and its Vyaakhyaa, 

"Golasaaram" (quintessence of spherical Astronomy), "Grahana Nirnayam", "Grahanaashtakam", "Graha Pareekshaa 

Kramam", and "Sundara Raaja Prasnotharam". He postulated that the ratio of circumference to diameter of a circle could 

never be a rational number. His commentary on Aaryabhateeyam shows that his scholastic abilities extend beyond 

Jyothisham and Vedaantham, to the realms of Meemaamsa, Vyaakaranam and Nyaayam. 

16. Paarangottu Jyeshthhadevan Namboodiri (1500 - 1610) 

He was born in Paaragottu Mana situated near Thrikkandiyur and Aalathur on the banks of river Nila. Vatasseri Damodaran 

Namboodiri was his teacher. He wrote a Malayalam commentary, "Yukthi Bhaasha" for "Thanthra Sangraham" of Kelallur 

Neelakandha Somayaaji. It forms an elaborate and systematic exposition of calculation methods in Mathematics in its first 

part and Astronomy in the second part. The treatment is in a rational and logical manner, and may turn out to be an asset to 

our scientific community, if properly translated and studied. He is also the author of "Drik Karanam", a comprehensive 

treatise in Malayalam on Astronomy, composed in 1603 AD. 

17. Mahishamangalam Narayanan Namboodiri (1540 - 1610) 

He was a member of Mahishamangalam (Mazhamangalam) Mana of Peruvanam in Thrissur district. His father Sankaran 

Namboothiri has written several Granthhams on Astronomy in Malayalam. Renouned scholar Sankara Varier has written a 

commentary "Kriyaakramakari" in Malayalam for the popular Mathematical manual "Leelavathy" (of Bhaskaraachaarya) but 

before commencing the 200th Slokam, he expired. It was Mahishamangalam Narayanan Namboodiri who, at the age of 18, 

took up the challenge of completing it. He was popularly known as "Ganitha Vith" [Maths wizard]. After successfully 

completing "Kriyaakramakari", Narayanan Namboodiri wrote his own commentary "Karmadeepika" for "Leelavathy". "Upa 

Raaga Kriyaa Kramam" was his original work in the related topic. He has authored many Granthhams on subjects other 

than Astronomy, including Smaartha Praayaschitha Vimarsanam, Vyavahaara Mala [ethical code of conduct], 

Mahishamangalam Bhaanam, Uthara Raamaayana Champu, Raasa Kreedaa Kaavyam, Raaja Ratnaavaleeyam [in praise of 

Kerala Varma, Prince of Kochi), Daarikavadham, and Paarvatheesthuthi. 

18. Mathur Nambudiripad 

The Granthham, "Muhoortha Padavi" (the second) is credited to Mathur Nambudiripad, whose name is not known. He has 

condensed the old "Muhoortha Padavi" into an amazingly short version with just 35 Slokams (verses). Since 

Mazhamangalam of mid-sixteenth century AD, in his "Baala Sankaram" has referred to Muhoortha Padavi, it is possible that 

Mathur Nambudiripad lived during the second half of the 15th century AD. Apart from Mazhamangalam's commentary on 

this Granthham, there are: a short one in Sanskrit, "Muhoortha Saranee Deepam" (author unknown); a detailed one in 

Sanskrit, "Varadeepika" by Purayannur Parameswaran Nambudiripad; and yet another one in Malayalam, "Muhoortha 

Bhaasha" by Aazhvaancheri Thampraakkal. 

19. Narayanan Namboodiri 

One Narayanan has written a commentary on Bhaaskaraachaaryan's Leelaavathy, which has been variously referred to as 

"Karmadeepika", "Karmadeepakam" and "Kriyaakramakari". The work is well-focussed and neither too elaborate nor too 


Another of his works is " Karmasaaram" which discusses "Grahasphhutaanayanam" and other aspects of the Drik tradition. 

It is in four chapters and may have been written during the second half of the 16th century AD. 

20. Chithrabhanu Namboodiri (16th century) 

Born in Chovvara (Sukapuram) Graamam, Chithrabhanu Namboodiri was a mathematician and has written a Granthham 

titled "Eka Vimsathi Prasnothari". It is said that Sankara Varier, another scholar (mentioned earlier) who wrote the 

commentary "Kriyaakramakari" was Chithrabhanu Namboodiri's disciple. Varier has, at several occasions, quoted his master. 

Chithrabhanu Nambudiri's "Eka Vimsathi Prasnothari" gives a method of solving the binomials (A + B), (A - B), (A² + B²), (A³ + B³), (A³ - B³), AB, etc. Given any two of these, the book gives twentyone different ways to solve for A and B. As he is believed to be the master of Sankara Varier, his period could be 16th century.

The achievements of such and other Kerala mathematicians were, at first, brought to the notice of scholars, both Indian and western, by Charles M Whilsh who presented a paper on the subject before the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 3 (1835) (509 - 523).