Sunday, March 29, 2015

New Zealand & Paracas Trident in Peru – Ramayana Connection

Ramayana describes about 4 teams ofVanaras(humans with tails who wander in forest) going in 4 different directions to find King Rama’s kidnapped wife Seetha.

Vanara king Sugreeva describes to team that traveled towards east, that first they will have to cross sea and would landup in Yava(Java) island.
Then would would cross another island and reach a sea with red/yellow water (coral sea of australia).
Then they would see the pyramid (today’s Gympie Pyramid near west coast of Australia).
Through Sugreeva, writer Valmiki further describes that after crossing this huge island (Shalmali Dwipa/Austalia), they would see Mount Rishabha (ऋषभ) which looks like a ‘White cloud with a pearly necklace of waves rippling on the shores below‘.

Near to that, they would spot the Sudharshana Lake with ‘silvery lotuses which have fibrils of gold‘ and where ‘kingly swans scamper around‘.
Valmiki could be referring to Mount Cook & Lake Pukaki of New Zealand, which match these descriptions.
Sanskrit meaning of ‘Sudarshan‘ (सुदर्शन) is ‘beautiful to look at‘.
Valmiki says that after crossing the island with these lakes, swans and beautiful mountains, one will have to cross a soft-water ocean which will be frightening to all beings.
There exists a fantastically refulgent Fire in the form of Horse’s Face that originated from the anger of Sage Aurasa. The victuals to that Fire is said to be that highly speedy waves of the ocean, together with all of the mobile and sessile beings of the world at the close of each Era. [Ramayana 4-40-48]
Ring of Fire is where a large number of volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean. In the next verse Valmiki describes the magnitude of this ‘fantastic fire‘, that at the end of each epoch (Yuga) or era, that fire emerges forth with even more energy till all things, mobile or immobile, and the entire Creation becomes the fuel of this fire.

Valmiki must be referring to the ‘Pacific Ring of Fire‘ as its in between these Australia-New Zealand and South America.
Also the ‘Soft‘ ocean is the ‘Pacific‘ and Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 must have named it as Mar Pacifico in Portuguese, meaning ‘peaceful sea‘, as he saw the waters still with favorable winds to sail.
Sugreevas further describes that after crossing this ocean, one would see Udaya Adri (उदय अद्रि) (‘Udaya’ = ‘Sunrise’ & ‘Aadri’ = ‘Mountain’) .
According to him, day breaks on earth in the Udayaadri.
Today, we consider Japan as the ‘Land of Rising Sun‘. But infact, at every geographical point on earth, darkness will fade away and day will break at a certain point of time on every day.
Why was ‘Udayaadri (Mount Sunrise)‘ chosen as eastern point and why not some other place ?
Ramayana’s Kishkinda Kanda, verses 4-40-57 & 4-40-58 give reasons why this point is chosen.
tatra yojana vistaaram ucChritam dasha yojanam |
shR^i.ngam saumanasam naama jaataruupamayam dhruvam || 4-40-57
Translation : On the apex of that Mt. Sunrise there is another pinnacle with one yojana width and ten yojana-s height named Saumanasa, which is completely golden and very firm.
tatra puurvam padam kR^itvaa puraa viSNuH trivikrame |
dvitiiyam shikharam meroH cakaara puruSottamaH || 4-40-58
Translation : Earlier while treading the three worlds in the incarnation of Trivikrama, the Supreme God Vishnu made His first foothold on that pinnacle Saumanasa, and the second on the pinnacle of Mt. Meru to tread the heavens.
uttareNa parikramya ja.mbuu dviipam divaakaraH |
dR^ishyo bhavati bhuuyiSTham shikharam tan mahocChrayam || 4-40-59
Translation : The Sun is by far discernable in Jambu Dwiipa when he rises on this zenithal pinnacle Saumanasa, after he had circled the Jambu Dwiipa in a northerly route.
The sunrises in the East on the peak of this Saumanasa which is on the zenith of Udaya Mountain. Then he traverses above Jambu Dwipa, Indian Subcontinent, including South-East Asia, and sets in the West on the mountains called Astagiri, ‘ the Sunset Mountain.’
Then he courses northerly on the other side of the globe via Mt. Meru in heavens at the other side of Jambu Dwipa, only to rise again on this Mt. Sunrise.
As Jambu Dwipa, the subcontinent lies southerly to that heavenly Mt. Meru, and down East-South of Saumanasa, this subcontinent can happily see the First Sun, daily.
This gives raise to the Indian name of India, that is Bhaarata, bhaa rataH (Sun, delights)…’ The place where the Sun delights firstly, that is Bhaarat‘.

Paracas Trident in Peru

Andes could be a distorted version of ‘Adri’ over many years.
Sugreeva further says to Vanaras that, while reaching Udaya-Adri, they will see Jaat-Shila-Rupa (Golden Rock Peak), etched on which is a ‘golden pylon resembling a palm tree with three branches with a golden podium ‘.
Sugreev continues, “That pylon of palm tree is constructed as the easterly compass by celestial gods, beyond which lies the Udaya Adri.
svaadu udasya uttare deshe yojanaani trayodasha |
jaataruupa shilo naama sumahaan kanaka prabhaH || 4-40-50
Translation : On the northern province of that soft-water ocean there is a hugely enormous mountain named Jaataruupa-shila (Golden Rock Mountain), which glitters like gold and which spreads across thirteen yojanas.
tatra candra pratiikaasham pannagam dharaNii dharam |
padma patra vishaalaaksham tato drakshyadha vaanaraaH || 4-40-51
aasiinam parvatasya agre sarva bhuuta namaskR^itam |
sahasra shirasam devam ana.ntam niila vaasasam || 4-40-52
Translation : There you shall see then, oh, vanaras, the lotus-petal broad-eyed thousand-hooded serpent god in black clothing, namely Ananta, sitting on the top of that mountain and sustaining the earth on his head, who will be like moon in his brilliance and whom all beings hold in reverence.
In ancient Indian texts the southern tip of South America (Chile) is ‘the head of the serpent called Ananta’, on which the earth rests (see the Ring of Fire starting at tip of South America in above figure).
trishiraaH kaa.ncanaH ketuH taalaH tasya mahaatmanaH |
sthaapitaH parvatasya agre viraajati sa vedikaH || 4-40-53
Translation : A golden pylon resembling a palm tree with three branches as its heads is established on the peak of that mountain as the insignia of that great-souled Ananta, and it will be lustrous with a golden podium.
puurvasyaam dishi nirmaaNam kR^itam tat tridasheshvaraiH |
tataH param hemamayaH shriimaan udaya parvataH || 4-40-54
tasya koTiH divam spR^iSTvaa shata yojanam aayataa |
jaataruupamayii divyaa viraajati sa vedikaa || 4-40-55
Translation : That pylon of palm tree is constructed as the easterly compass by celestials gods, and beyond that a completely golden mountain is there, namely the august Udaya Mountain, the Mt. Sunrise, beyond which it is all west. The pinnacles of Mt. Sunrise will be touching heavens for their height is hundred yojana-s and that divine mountain greatly glitters for it is completely golden, and it is pedestalled with suchlike glittering mountains.
So, according to Ramayana, Peru is the land of the Rising Sun.

Viracocha, the Creator God

The Paracas Trident of Peru, is a geo-glyph in the Andes Mountains and is regarded in the native folklore as the ‘Lightening Rod‘ of God Viracocha, a pre-Incan Civilization God of Peru/Bolivia.
Interestingly, Viracocha was worshipped as god of the Sun and Storms and he carried thunderbolts in his hands.
Paracas could be a distorted version of sanskrit word ‘Prakash‘ (प्रकाश्) which means light, lustre or brightness.
Another word could be ‘parakash‘ (पराकाश) which means ‘distant view‘, as this trident could have served as a guiding beacon for ancient UFOs or ‘Vimanas’.
The Trident in Hinduism represents Creation, Maintenance and Destruction. It also represents Time – Past, Present and Future.
Virochana (Sanskrit: विरोचन), in Hindu mythology, was an asura, son of Prahlada (Sanskrit: प्रहलाद) and father of Bali.
Prahlada is son of Hiranyakasipu (who was killed by Vishnu as incarnation of Narasimha – Lion faced Human).
(This explains partially, why Nazca lines are treated as King Bali’s ancient Airport.
In the Atharva Veda Viochana was mentioned as the son of Prahlada.
According to the Chandogya Upanishad , Virochana and Indra (who is said to be carrying Vajrayudha, a thunderbolt weapon) went to Prajapati (Brahma, the creator) to learn about the atman (self) and lived there, practising brahmacharya (self control) for thirty-two years.
But at the end, he misunderstood Brahma’s teachings and preached the asuras (demons) to worship the sharira (body) as the atman.
Thus, asuras started adorning the body of a deceased with perfumes, garlands and ornaments.
Now, does this Virochana sound similar to Viracocha ? or is it Vishnu, or Indra who is Viracocha ?

Hanuman travelled to Patala Loka (South America) through a Tunnel worshipped in south America

panchmukhi hanuman patala loka brazilDuring battle between Rama and Ravana, Mahiravana, the step-brother of Ravana kidnaps Rama and Lakshmana and takes them to Patala Loka through a tunnel.
Patala Loka is described to be exactly below earth (then India) and one has to go 70000 yojanas deeper in earth to reach to reach there.
Mexico and Brazil are exactly below India and one has to dig a hole(tunnel) of that distance to travel vertically.
There are few such tunnels which are said to be leading to Patala Loka. The Patalkot valley in the Chhindwara district of Madhya Pradesh, India is one among them.
Ravana’s son Indrajit is killed by Lakshmana, Ravana calls his brother Ahiravana for help. Ahiravana, the king of Patala, promises to help.
Vibhishana somehow manages to hear about the plot and warns Rama about it. Hanuman is put on guard and told not to let anyone into the room where Rama and Lakshmana are. Ahiravana makes many attempts at entering the room but all of them are thwarted by Hanuman. Finally, Ahiravana takes the form of Vibhishana and Hanuman lets him enter. Ahiravana quickly enters and takes the sleeping Rama and Lakshmana through one such tunnel to his kingdom, which is on opposite side of earth to India-SriLanka.
Realizing the kidnap, Hanuman is warned by Vibhishana that if Rama and Lakshmana are rescued immediately, Mahiravana and his brother Ahiravana will sacrifice their heads to goddess Chandi.
Hanuman goes to Patala through same tunnel as Mahiravana and at finds the entrance of Patala Kingdom guarded by a creature, who is half Vanara and half reptile (crocodile).
Hanuman asks who he is and the creature says, “I am Makardhwaja, Hanuman’s son!” Hanuman is confused since he did not have any child and practiced celibacy throughout life.
He decides to kill Makaradhwaja for lying, but Suvarchala, a mermaid (reptile) comes up and stops him.
She explains that while Hanuman took a dip in the waters of sea, after burning whole of Lanka with the fire burning on his tail, a drop of his perspiration fell into mouth of a mighty reptile (crocodile) who was Suvarchala.
Out of her, the Makardhwaja was born. (Makara = Crocodile).
Ahiravana’s men brought him to their kingdom and made him their security guard.
Makardhwaja asked him for his blessings, however, he said to Hanuman, that he will have to fight him to enter Patala, as he cannot betray Ahiravana, his mentor. Hanuman defeats Makaradhwaja in a duel and binds him to proceed further to ultimately kill Ahiravana and rescue Rama & Lakshamana.
Hanuman takes the form of Panchamukhi (five faced) to kill Mahiravana as he had to extinguish five lamps (life of Mahiravana is in 3 places, lamps are one of them) burning in five different directions at the same time.
So he has taken the Panchamukha form with Hanuman, Hayagriva, Narasimha, Garuda and Varaha faces and extinguished the lamps and killed Mahiravana.
Later on, upon Rama’s advice he installed Makardhwaja, as King of Patala before returning to Lanka, to continue war with Ravana.

Makaradhwaja is being worshipped as God since then in South and Central America

La Ciudad Blanca [la sjuˈðad ˈblɑnkɑ], Spanish for ‘The White City‘) in Honduras, Central America is supposed to be the ‘Lost City of the Monkey God‘ where, legend says that local people worshipped huge ‘Monkey Sculptures‘.
Theodore Morde – an American adventurer, claimed that sacrifices were made by local Indians to a gigantic idol of an ape.
The movie Apocalypto shows tribes of america offering sacrifices of humans.
After King MahaBali settled in America, his men continued the demonic sacrifices and few other practices.
The discovery of 5000 years old Havan Kund in Peru is one such example.
monkey god copan honduras
References :

Ancient Maritime (Shipping & Navigation) History of Human Civilizations

ancient maritime shippingAncient history of shipping, trading on oceans date back to many years and evidence of trade between civilizations dates back at least two millennia are found.
Indians and Chinese have the oldest known history of shipping and during 3rd millennium BCE inhabitants of the Indus Valley initiated maritime trading contact with Mesopotamia.
After the Roman annexation of Egypt, roman trade with India increased.
Even in Puranas and Vedas, ships are mentioned. During Krishna’s regime in Dwaraka (more than 5000 years ago), maritime trading between india and mesopotamia existed. Silk and other commodities were traded.
Greeks were known to have travelled to India through searoute. Indians were present in Alexandria while Christian and Jew settlers from Rome continued to live in India long after the fall of the Roman empire, which resulted in Rome’s loss of the Red Sea ports, previously used to secure trade with India by the Greco-Roman world since the Ptolemaic dynasty.
The Indian commercial connection with South East Asia proved vital to the merchants of Arabia and Persia during the 7th–8th century
Later, Portugese, under the command of navigator Vasco da Gama started with trade of spices with indians through shipping.
Even Sumerians are known to have done shipping 4 millenia ago.

Ancient Vedic Shipcraft

The art of Navigation was born in the river Sindh more than 6000 years ago. The very word Navigation is derived from the Sanskrit word NAV Gatih.
The word navy is also derived from Sanskrit `Nou‘.
In Rigveda 1.25.7; 7.88.3 and other instances, Samudra (Ocean/Sea) is mentioned together with ships.
In RV 7.89.4 the rishi Vasishta is thirsting in the midst of water. Other verses mention oceanic waves (RV 4.58.1,11; 7.88.3). Some words that are used for ships are Nau, Peru, Dhi and Druma.
A ship with a hundred oars is mentioned in RV 1.116.
There were also ships with three masts or with ten oars.
RV 9.33.6 says: ‘From every side, O Soma, for our profit, pour thou forth four seas filled with a thousand-fold riches.
Rig Veda mentions the two oceans to the east and the west, (Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea) just as they mention ships and maritime trade.

Ships in Mythology

In Ramayana, Guha carries Ram, Sita, Lakshman in his boat while they were in exile. When Ram’s brother Bharat comes later to the same place along with the whole royal household, citizens of Ayodhya and a large army, with the intention of bringing Rama back to Ayodhya from exile, Guha, suspecting Bharata’s intentions, takes precautionary measures by ordering five hundred ships, each manned by one hundred youthful mariners to keep in readiness, should resistance be necessary. Those ships are described to have ‘Swastika’ sign on them.
In Mahabharata, the ship contrived by Vidura for the escape of Pandavas is described as : “the ship strong enough to withstand hurricanes, fitted with machinery and displaying flags“.
Greek Mythology describes war at Troy started with journey on many ships and it ended with Trojan Horse.

Ship building technology of Ancient India

Chandragupta Maurya’s minister, Chanakya alias Kautilya, around 320 BCE devotes a full chapter to waterways under a Navadhyaksha ‘Superintendent of ships’.
His duties included the examination of accounts relating to navigation, not only on oceans and rivers, but also on lakes (natural or artificial).
Fisheries, pearl fisheries, customs on ports, passengers and mercantile shipping, control and safety of ships and similar other affairs all came under his charge.
Jaina scriptures, Buddhist Jatakas and Avadanas, as well as classical Sanskrit literature, abound in references to sea-voyages. They have many interesting details about the sizes and shapes of ships, their furniture, decorations, articles of import and export, names of seaports and islands etc everything connected with navigation.
Yukti Kalpataru and Samarangana Sutradhara are two books written by paramara king bhoja of dhar (early 11th century AD), which described about construction of sailing large vessels which can travel in oceans or big rivers.
Evidence was found of a compass made by iron fish floating in a vessel of oil and pointing north, which was used by mariners of Indus Valley Civilization.
Yukti Kalpataru gives an account of four different kinds of wood.
The first class comprises wood, that is light and soft, and can be joined to any other wood. The second class is light and hard, but cannot be joined to any other class of wood. The third class of wood is soft and heavy.
Lastly the fourth kind is hard and heavy.
According to Bhoja, a ship made out of the second class of wood, brings wealth and happiness. Ships of this type can be safely used for crossing the oceans.
Ships made out of timbers containing different properties are not good, as they rot in water, and split and sink at the slightest shock.
Bhoja says that care should be taken that no iron be used, in joining planks, but they be subjected to the influence of magnetism, but they are to be fitted together with substances other than iron. Bhoja also gives names of the different classes of ships:
  • River-going ships – Samanya
  • Ocean-going ships – Visesa
Italian traveller of 15th century, Nicolo Conti described : “The natives of India build some ships larger than ours, capable of containing 2,000 butts, and with five sails and as many masts. The lower part is constructed with triple planks, in order to withstand the force of the tempests, to which they are much exposed.
But some ships are so built in compartments, that should one part be shattered, the other portion remaining whole may accomplish the journey.
In temple of Jagannath at Puri, a sculpture shows oarsmen paddling with all their strength and water is thrown into waves. The boat is of the Madhyamandira type, as defined by King Bhoja in the “Yukti Kalpataru”.
One of the Ajanta paintings is is of “a sea-going vessel with high stem and stern with three oblong sails attached to as many upright masts. Each masts is surrounded by a truck and there is carried a big sail. The jib is well filled with wind. A sort of bowspirit, projecting from a kind of gallows on deck is indicated with the outflying jib, square in form,” like that of Columbus ships. The ship is of the Agramandira type, as described in the “Yukti kalpataru”.
Another painting is of a royal pleasure boat which is “like the heraldic lymphad, with painted eyes at stem and stern, a pillard canopy amid ships, and an umbrella forward the steersman being accommodated on a sort of ladder, which remotely suggest the steerman’s chair, in the modern Burmese row boats, while a rower is in the bows.” The barge is of the Madhyamandira type.
Temple of Borobudur in Java contains sculptures recalling the colonization of Java by Indians. One of the ships tells more plainly than words, the perils, which the Prince of Gujarat and his companions encountered on the long and difficult voyages from the west coast of India.
The world’s first tidal dock was built in Lothal around 2500 BC during the Harappan civilisation at Lothal near the present day Mangrol harbour on the Gujarat coast.
Ancient Indians were the first to use maritime instruments like Sextants (used to measure angles of elevation above the horizon) and the Mariners compass (known as the Matysa (Maccha) Yantra in Sanskrit).
Historian Strabo says that in the time of Alexander, the River Oxus was so easily navigable that Indian wares were conducted down it, to the Caspian and the Euxine sea, hence to the Mediteranean Sea, and finally to Rome. Greeks and Indians began to meet at the newly established sea ports, and finally all these activities culminated in Indian embassies, being sent to Rome, from several Indian States, for Augustus himself says that Indian embassies came frequently.
Abundant Roman coins from Augustus right down to Nero, have been found in India.
Indian Kingdoms of Kalinga, Vijayanagara, Chola, Pandya, Chera, Pallava etc established maritime trading relations with Islands in Indian and Pacific oceans.
Apart from these, the Greek-Persian wars, Punic wars between Greek and Carthage (Tunisian), and Egyptian navigation have history of maritime since many years.

Jeevak Kaumarbhritya (525-450 B.C), contemporary of Gautama Buddha, ‘Father of Medicine’.

Although Aswini Kumar(s), who are the twin sons of Sun god and Dhanvantari, who emerged from churning of milk ocean (milky way) are initial vedic doctors, Jeevak Kaumarbhritya (525-450 B.C), contemporary of Gautama Buddha, can be considered as historical ‘Father of Medicine’.
He was famous during his period and treated many monks and kings like Buddha, King Bimbisara, King Chand Pradyot.
Entire Tripitak literature in Pali language describes about ‘medical miracles‘ of Jeevak.
Early Life of Jeevak Kaumarbhritya
He was found as an adbandoned orphan at a roadside in Rajgrih(Rajgir) to prince of Magadh.
The prince(Kaumar/Kumar) found him Jeevit (alive) even after being abandoned and has served(Bhritya) him.
Thus, his name became Jeevak Kaumarbhritya.
He went to Takshila (which is now in Pakistan) for his higher studies a place which could be called as the “first university of the world” and was famous for its specialized study.
He studied the whole 8-limbed Ayurveda (Medical science of 8 subjects) there for many years.
Ultimately he became a great maser and research scholar of this subject. His intelligence and skill are known through different case studies in his life.
Case 1 – “Every plant is a medicine” :- When his studies were done, the mentor of Jeevak examined him by giving a project. The task was to find a useless plant in the 5 miles circumference of Takshila. Jeevak wandered everywhere and reported in conclusion that “Every plant has medicinal and other uses, no plant is useless.” The teacher was extremely delighted to listen his answer.
Case 2 – “Treating a chronic headache through medicinal ghee” :- When Jeevak was returning to Magadh from Takshila, on the way he stayed at Saket(Ayodhya). The wife of a famous businessman (Shresthi) was suffering from chronic headache which was not cured by other doctors (Vaidyas). When he inserted medical ghee through her nose. She got relief within 3 days. The shresthi awarded him with 26,000 coins, chariots and servants. This was the first treatment in Jeevak’s career.
Case 3 – “Treating fistula of Magadh emperor Bimbasar” :- Bimbasar was suffering from fistula. Due to disease, his clothes get stained with blood. Which was witted by his queen. He became extremely sorrowful due to the pain of disease and the other reason was the humour of the queens. This mentally and physically sick king was treated by only one paste of Jeevak. The happy king awarded him with enormous property and appointed him on the post of Royal Doctor (Raj vaidya)
Case 4 – “ Head Surgery of a Shresthi” :- A shresthi of Rajgrih has a chronic disease uncured by the Vaidyas. They speculated that shresthi would live five to seven days. Bimbasar appointed Jeevak on this case. Jeevak tied the patient to the left side for 7 days, on right side for 7 days and central mode for 7 days, then he pierced his skulll and brought out two insects. Then he closed the brain, stitched it and did the bandage. The shresthi according to his promise offered him his whole property but Jeevak took only one lakh coins.
Jeevak successfully operated the most critical kind of Head Surgery
Case 5 – “Intestinal Surgery of a boy” :- The son of a shresthi of Varanasi had tumor in his intestine. He did not recovered even after many treatments. When Jeevak came to see him, he moved his surgical tool on his stomach & brought out intestine. Then he cut off the tumor and stitched the intestine at it’s position. The boy recovered from disease.
Case 6 – “Treating the disease of Avanti king Chand Pradyot” :- King Chand Pradyot invited Jeevak from Rajgrih to Ujjain for his treatment. The king was furious in nature and Jeevak knew that fact. That’s why before giving the king medicine, he fled with Bhadravati elephantess with the excuse of bringing medicine for the king from the forest. As soon as the king took the medicine, seviere vomiting started. This made him very angry and thus he ordered to bring the Jeevak before him. But Jeevak using his tactical brain, reaches Rajgrih safely. After some time, Chand Pradyot recovered completely and rewarded Jeevak by sending a very costly pair of Sivayak garments to Rajgrih.
Jeevak had a big residence, which was also his Hospital in Rajgrih, whose ruins still exist in Rajgir as “Jeevak ambvan”, which literally means the mango orchard. The building was surrounded by the mango orchard where lord Buddha stayed with his disciples. Jeevak had introduced Ajatshatru to Gautama Buddha. Jeevak had even treated the lord Buddha once with his simple medicines.
Many iconic personalities like Charak, Kashyap, Dhanvantri, Vagbhatt etc followed Jeevak and went onto write books on Ayurveda.
Unlike, Hippocrites, Jeevak’s legacy did not find ‘school of medicine’ and popularize his methods.
That is why Jeevak Kaumarbhritya, who lived more than a century before Hippocrites (460-370 BC), was neglected by the world.
But infact, he is the ‘Real Father of Medicine‘.

Sushruta Samhita (सुश्रुतसंहिता)

susruta samhitaSushruta Samhita (सुश्रुतसंहिता) is a Sanskrit text on surgery, attributed to Sushruta, a physician who possibly resided in Varanasi around 6th century BCE.
Susrutha-Salya-Tantra were composed about 6th century B.C. It has been revised by Nagarjuna in the later part of 4th century BCE.
This text, along with the Charaka Samhita, is considered as foundational texts of Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine).
The text was translated to Arabic as Kitab-i-Susrud in the 8th century CE.
The plastic in plastic surgery actually has its root in the Greek word plastikos meaning to give something shape or form. Evidence exists that cosmetic surgery was done by ancient physicians in India eight centuries before Christ.
The word Rhino came from Rhonoceros with large horn above its nose.
There were a surprisingly large number of noses in India that needed to be reconstructed. Noses were considered symbols of pride, therefore they proved to be quite tempting targets during warfare. Besides the multiple damages to Indian noses as a result of warfare, other noses required surgical repair following the damage brought on by punishment for legal transgressions. Amputation of the nose was considered proper and just punishment for a multitude of offenses, including adultery.The roots of ancient Indian surgery go back to more than 4000 years ago.
Sushrutha, one of the earliest surgeons of recorded history (600 BCE) is believed to be the first individual to describe Rhinoplasty. The detailed description of the Rhinoplasty operation by Sushrutha is amazingly meticulous, comprehensive and relevant today.
Sushrutha Samhitha’ is considered to be the most advanced compilation of surgical practices prevalent in India around two thousand millennia ago. In his book, Sushruta emphasized all the basic principles of plastic surgery and vividly described numerous operations in various fields of surgery with significant contributions to Plastic Surgery.
Sushruta describes the (modern) free-graft Indian rhinoplasty as the Nasikasandhana.
In its current form, The Sushruta Samhitais a redaction text comprising 184 chapters, describing 1120 illnesses, 700 medicinal plants, 64 preparations from mineral sources and 57 preparations based on animal sources.
The text discusses surgical techniques of making incisions, probing, extraction of foreign bodies, alkali and thermal cauterization, tooth extraction, excisions, and trocars for draining abscess draining hydrocele and ascitic fluid, the removal of the prostate gland, urethral stricture dilatation, vesiculolithotomy, hernia surgery, caesarian section, management of haemorrhoids, fistulae, laparotomy and management of intestinal obstruction, perforated intestines, and accidental perforation of the abdomen with protrusion of omentum and the principles of fracture management, viz., traction, manipulation, appositions and stabilization including some measures of rehabilitation and fitting of prosthetics. It enumerates six types of dislocations, twelve varieties of fractures, and classification of the bones and their reaction to the injuries, and gives a classification of eye diseases including cataract surgery.
The Sushruta Samhita is divided into two parts. The first is the five section Purva-tantra, and the second is the Uttara-tantra. Together, the Purva-tantra and Uttara-tantra (apart from Salyya and Salakya) describe the sciences and practices of medicine, pediatrics, geriatrics, diseases of the ear, nose, throat and eye, toxicology, aphrodisiacs and psychiatry.
  • The Purva-tantra is dedicated to the four branches of Ayurveda. It is divided into five books and 120 chapters (It is noteworthy that the Agnivesa-tantra, better known as the Charaka Samhita and the Ashtanga Hridayam of Vagbhata, is also divided into 120 chapters). These five books are the Sutra-sthana, Nidana-sthana, Sarira-sthana, Kalpa-sthana and Chikitsa-sthana. The Nidana-sthana is dedicated to aetiology, the signs and symptoms of important surgical diseases and those ailments which have a bearing on surgery. The rudiments of embryology and the anatomy of the human body, along with instructions for venesection, the positioning of the patient for each vein, and protection of vital structures (marma) are dealt with in the Sarira-sthana. This also includes the essentials of obstetrics. The Chikitsa-sthana describes the principles of management of surgical conditions, including obstetrical emergencies, including chapters on geriatrics and aphrodisiacs. The Kalpa-sthana is mainly Visa-tantra, dealing with the nature of poisons and their management.
  • The Uttara-tantra contains the remaining four specialities, namely Salakya, Kaumarabhfefefrtya, Kayacikitsa and Bhutavidya. The entire Uttara-tantra has been called Aupadravika, since many of the complications of surgical procedures as well as fever, dysentery, cough, hiccough, krmi-roga, pandu, kamala, etc., are briefly described here. The Salakya-tantra portion of the Uttara-tantra describes various diseases of the eye, the ear, the nose and the head.
How British learned Plastic Surgery from Indians
Between 1769 AD to 1799 AD, four Mysore Wars were fought between Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan and the British.
During these wars the British learnt two very important Indian techniques: Rocketry and plastic surgery.
A Maratha cart-driver, Kawasajee, who had served the British, and four tilanges (Indian soldiers of British army) had fallen into the hands of the Sultan of Srirangapattam. Their noses and right arms were cut off as a punishment for serving the enemy. Then they were sent back to the English command.
After some days, when dealing with an Indian merchant, the English commanding officer noticed that he had a peculiar nose and scar on his forehead. On inquiry, he learnt that the merchant’s nose had been cut off as a punishment for adultery and that he had a substitute nose made by a Maratha Vaidya of the kumhar (potter) caste. The commanding officer sent for the Vaidya and asked him to reconstruct the nose of Kawasajee and others.
The operation was performed near Pune in the presence of two English doctors, Thomas Cruso and James Findlay. An illustrated account of this operation, carried out by an unnamed Vaidya, appeared in the Madras Gazette. Subsequently, the article was reproduced in the Gentleman’s Magazine of London in October 1794. The operation is described as follows :
A thin plate of wax is fitted to the stump of the nose so as to make a nose of good appearance; it is then flattened and laid on the forehead. A line is drawn around the wax, which is then of no further use, and the operator then dissects off as much skin as it had covered, living undivided a small slip between the eyes. This slip preserves the blood circulation till a union has taken place between the new and the old parts.
The cicatrix of the stump of the nose is next paired off, and immediately behind the new part, an incision is made through the skin which passes around both alae, and goes along the upper lip. The skin, now brought down from the forehead and being twisted half around, is inserted into this incision, so that a nose is formed with a double hold above and with its alae and septum below fixed in the incision. A little Terra Japonica (pale-catechu) is softened with water and being spread on slips of cloth, five or six of these are placed over each other to secure the joining. No other dressing but this cement is used for four days. It is then removed, and cloths dipped in ghee are applied. The connecting slip of skin is divided about the twentieth day, when a little more dissection is necessary to improve the appearance of the new nose. For five or six days after the operation, the patient is made to lie on his back, and on the tenth day, bits of soft cloth are put into the nostrils to keep them sufficiently open. This operation is always successful. The artificial nose is secured and looks nearly as well as the natural nose, nor is the scar on the forehead very observable after a length of time.
This description fired the imagination of the young English surgeon J.C. Carpue, who after gathering more information on the “Indian nose” performed two similar operations in 1814 with successful results. After Carpue published his account, Graefe, a German surgeon, performed similar plastic operations of the nose using skin from the arm. After this plastic surgery became popular throughout Europe. All replacement operations which use a flap of skin in the immediate vicinity of the loss are known as Indian plastic surgery.
source- citation

Uranus, Neptune, Pluto mentioned in Mahabharata >30000 yrs ago

uranus neptune pluto in mahabharatUranus and Neptune were discovered through telescope in 781 AD by Herschel, but their calculated position never matched with original one.
It was corrected by German Astronomers in 1846 AD.
But Sage Veda Vyas mentioned Uranus, Neptune and Pluto in his epic poem Mahabharata (written more than 5000 years back in india).
Vyas has named them as Sweta, Syama and Teekshana.
Uranus or Sweta (Greenish White planet)
Vishesheena hi Vaarshneya Chitraam Pidayate Grahah….[10-Udyog.143]
Swetograhastatha Chitraam Samitikryamya Tishthati….[12-Bheeshma.3]
Here Vyas states that some greenish white (Sweta) planet has crossed Chitra Nakshatra.
Neelakantha of 17th century also had the knowledge of Uranus or Sweta.
Sweta means greenish white, which was later discovered to be the color of Uranus.
Neelakantha writes in his commentary on Mahabharat (Udyog 143) that Shveta, or Mahapata(one which has greater orbit) was a famous planet in the Astronomical science of India.
Neelakantha calls this “Mahapata” which means having greater orbit and it indicates a planet beyond Saturn.
Neptune or Syama (Bluish White planet)
Shukrahah Prosthapade Poorve Samaruhya Virochate Uttare tu Parikramya Sahitah Samudikshyate….[15-Bheeshma.3] Syamograhah Prajwalitah Sadhooma iva Pavakah Aaindram Tejaswi Naksha- tram Jyesthaam Aakramya Tishthati…[16-Bheeshma.3]
Vyas mentions that a bluish white (Syama) planet was in Jyeshtha and it was smoky (Sadhoom).
Neelkantha calls it “Parigha” (circumference) in his commentary on Mahabharat.
He could mean that its orbit was almost of the circumference of our solar system.
How did Sage Vyas see color of these planets ?
Mirrors and Microscopic Vision are mentioned in Mahabharata (Shanti A. 15,308).
So, lenses and telescopes must also be present at that time.
In ancient literature, Durbini (device used to see objects at far off distance, similar to binoculars) were mentioned.
Pluto or Teekshana/Teevra
Pluto was discovered to the modern world in 1930.
Krittikaam Peedayan Teekshnaihi Nakshatram…[30-Bheeshma.3]
Here Vyas states that some immobile liminary troubling Krittika (Pleides) with its sharp rays.
This was mentioned as Nakshatra because it was stationary at one place for long period, so it must be a planet in outer orbit.
It gets mentioned again as
Krittikasu Grahasteevro Nakshatre Prathame Jvalan…… [26- Bhishma.3]
Mathematical calculations make it clear that Krittika and Pluto were conjunct during mahabharata period.
Vyas has mentioned ‘seven Great planets‘, three times in Mahabharat.
Deepyamanascha Sampetuhu Divi Sapta Mahagrahah…[2-Bhishma.17]
It means that the seven great planets were brilliant and shining. In traditional indian astrology, Rahu and Ketu are nodes/shadows and do not shine like stars or planets.
Nissaranto Vyadrushanta Suryaat Sapta Mahagrahah…[4-Karna 37]
This line states that these seven great planets were ‘seen‘ moving away from the Sun.
Since Rahu & Ketu cannot be ‘seen’, they can be ruled out.
This statement is made on sixteenth day of Kurukshetra War, so the Moon has moved away from Sun.
Hence we can assume Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are the seven great planets mentioned by Vyas.
Pluto was neglected due to its lesser impact on earth.
Moon was excluded because,
Praja Samharane Rajan Somam Sapta grahah Iva….[22-Drona 37]
Here again seven planets are mentioned by Vyas, excluding the Moon.
Though they were described 5100 years back, we forgot about Uranus, Neptune and Pluto because in traditional indian astrology because they were not used to predict future.

Pythagorean (Pythagoras) Theorem in Baudhayana Sulba Sutra (800 BC)

pythagoras theorem in baudhayana sulba sutra
In mathematics, the Pythagorean (Pythagoras) theorem (written around 400 BC) is a relation among the three sides of a right triangle (right-angled triangle). In terms of areas, it states:
“In any right-angled triangle, the area of the square whose side is the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle) is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares whose sides are the two legs (the two sides that meet at a right angle).”
But in reality, this was written much earlier in ancient india by sage Baudhayana (around 800 BC).
He is noted as the author of the earliest Sulba Sūtra—appendices to the Vedas giving rules for the construction of altars—called the Baudhāyana Śulbasûtra, which contained several important mathematical results.
He is accredited with calculating the value of pi (π) before Pythagoras.
Solka in Baudhāyana Śulbasûtra that describes Pythagoras theorem is given below :
dīrghasyākṣaṇayā rajjuH pārśvamānī, tiryaDaM mānī, cha yatpṛthagbhUte kurutastadubhayāṅ karoti.
Baudhāyana used a rope as an example in the above sloka.
Its translation means : A rope stretched along the length of the diagonal produces an area which the vertical and horizontal sides make together.
Proof of Pythagoras theorem has been provided by both Baudhāyana and Āpastamba in their Sulba Sutras.
Though, Baudhāyana was not the only Indian mathematician to have provided Pythagorean triplets and proof. Āpastamba also provided the proof for Pythagoras theorem, which is numerical in nature and unfortunately, Pythagoras was wrongly credited by Cicero and early Greek mathematicians for this theorem.
Also, another ancient Indian mathematician called Bhaskara later provided a unique geometrical proof as well as numerical which is known for the fact that it’s truly generalized and works for all sorts of triangles and is not incongruent.

Pingala, Inventor of Binary Numbers in 2nd Century BCE

Pingala MathematicianPingala (Devanagari: पिङ्गल) is the author of Chandaḥśāstra (Chandaḥsūtra), the earliest known Sanskrit treatise on prosody.
Very less historical knowledge is available about Pingala, though his works are retained till date.
He is identified either as the younger brother of Pāṇini (4th century BCE), or of Patañjali, the author of the Mahabhashya (2nd century BCE).
His work, Chandaḥśāstra means science of meters, is a treatise on music and can be dated back to 2nd century BCE.
Main commentaries on ‘Chandaḥśāstra‘ are ‘Vrittaratnakara‘ by Kedara in 8th century AD, ‘Tatparyatika‘ by Trivikrama in 12th century AD and ‘Mritasanjivani‘ by Halayudha in 13th century AD. The complete significance of Pingala’s work can be understood by the explanations found in these three commentaries.
Pingala (in Chandaḥśāstra 8.23) has assigned the following combinations of zero and one to represent various numbers, much in the same way as the present day computer programming procedures.
0 0 0 0 numerical value = 1
1 0 0 0 numerical value = 2
0 1 0 0 numerical value = 3
1 1 0 0 numerical value = 4
0 0 1 0 numerical value = 5
1 0 1 0 numerical value = 6
0 1 1 0 numerical value = 7
1 1 1 0 numerical value = 8
0 0 0 1 numerical value = 9
1 0 0 1 numerical value = 10
0 1 0 1 numerical value = 11
1 1 0 1 numerical value = 12
0 0 1 1 numerical value = 13
1 0 1 1 numerical value = 14
0 1 1 1 numerical value = 15
1 1 1 1 numerical value = 16
Other numbers have also been assigned zero and one combinations likewise.
Pingala’s system of binary numbers starts with number one (and not zero). The numerical value is obtained by adding one to the sum of place values. In this system, the place value increases to the right, as against the modern notation in which it increases towards the left.
The procedure of Pingala system is as follows:
  • Divide the number by 2. If divisible write 1, otherwise write 0.
  • If first division yields 1 as remainder, add 1 and divide again by 2. If fully divisible, write 1, otherwise write 0 to the right of first 1.
  • If first division yields 0 as remainder that is, it is fully divisible, add 1 to the remaining number and divide by 2. If divisible, write 1, otherwise write 0 to the right of first 0.
  • This procedure is continued until 0 as final remainder is obtained.
Example to understand Pingala System of Binary Numbers :
Find Binary equivalent of 122 in Pingala System :
        Divide 122 by 2. Divisible, so write 1 and remainder is 61.
          Divide 61 by 2. Not Divisible and remainder is 30. So write 0 right to 1.
            Add 1 to 61 and divide by 2 = 31.
            Divide 31 by 2. Not Divisible and remainder is 16. So write 0 to the right.
              Divide 16 by 2. Divisible and remainder is 8. So write 1 to right.
                Divide 8 by 2. Divisible and remainder is 4. So write 1 to right.
                  Divide 4 by 2. Divisible and remainder is 2. So write 1 to right.
                    Divide 2 by 2. Divisible. So place 1 to right.
              Now we have 122 equivalent to 1001111.
              Verify this by place value system : 1×1 + 0x2 + 0x4 + 1×8 + 1×16 + 1×32 + 1×64 = 64+32+16+8+1 = 121
              By adding 1(which we added while dividing 61) to 121 = 122, which is our desired number.
              In Pingala system, 122 can be written as 1001111.
              Though this system is not exact equivalent of today’s binary system used, it is very much similar with its place value system having 20, 20, 21, 22, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26 etc used to multiple binary numbers sequence and obtain equivalent decimal number.
              Reference : Chandaḥśāstra (8.24-25) describes above method of obtaining binary equivalent of any decimal number in detail.
              These were used 1600 years before westeners invented binary system.
              We now use zero and one (0 and 1) in representing binary numbers, but it is not known if the concept of zero was known to Pingala— as a number without value and as a positional location.
              Pingala’s work also contains the Fibonacci number, called mātrāmeru, and now known as the Gopala–Hemachandra number. Pingala also knew the special case of the binomial theorem for the index 2, i.e. for (a + b) 2, as did his Greek contemporary Euclid.
              Halayudha (10th century AD) who wrote a commentary on Pingala’s work understood and used zero in the modern sense but by then it was commonplace in India and had also begun to make its way to West Asia as well to countries like Indonesia, Cambodia and others in East and Southeast Asia. It took several centuries more before being accepted in Europe. It was Leonardo of Pisa, better known as Fibonacci who seems to have introduced it in Europe in the 13th century. (He learnt it from the Arabs but noted that it came from India. His successors were not so careful, and for centuries they were known as Arabic numerals.)
              Halayudha was himself a mathematician no mean order. His discussion of combinatorics of poetic meters led him to a general version of the binomial theorem centuries before Newton. (This was the integer version only and not the full general version with arbitrary index given by Newton.) This too traveled east and west with the Persian mathematician and poet using the results in the 13th century.
              Halāyudha’s commentary includes a presentation of the Pascal’s triangle for binomial coefficients (called meruprastāra).
              Chandaḥśāstra presents the first known description of a binary numeral system in connection with the systematic enumeration of meters with fixed patterns of short and long syllables (Short = 0, Long = 1).
              Use of zero is sometimes mistakenly ascribed to Pingala due to his discussion of binary numbers, usually represented using 0 and 1 in modern discussion, while Pingala used short and long syllables.
              As Pingala’s system ranks binary patterns starting at one (four short syllables—binary “0000”—is the first pattern), the nth pattern corresponds to the binary representation of n-1, written backwards. Positional use of zero dates from later centuries and would have been known to Halāyudha but not to Pingala.