Tuesday, May 12, 2015

Ancient Indian Vedic Machines/YANTRA

from AtributeToHinduism Website

The word “yantra” is derived from the root yam, to control, and has been freely used in ancient India for any contrivance. Mechanical skills had produced in ancient India many accessories for scientific activities

Maharshi Bharadwaja is an august name in the pantheon of Hindu Sages who recorded Indian civilization, in the spiritual, intellectual, and scientific fields in the hoary past.
The rishis transmitted knowledge from mouth to mouth and from ear to ear, for long eras. Written transmission through birch-backs or palm leaves or home made paper, are from this side of a thousand years.
The word “yantra” is derived from the root yam, to control, and has been freely used in ancient India for any contrivance. Mechanical skills had produced in ancient India many accessories for scientific activities, such as surgical instruments in medicine, the pakayantras or laboratory equipment in medicine, Rasayana, and the astronomical yantras described in Jyotisa works.
These belong to a different category. In the Mahabharata we hear of the Matsya-yantra or the revolving wheel with a fish which Arjuna had to shoot in order to win Draupadi in the svayamvara.

More interesting references are made by Valmiki to yantras on the field of battle, the continuity of which tradition we see later in the Arthasastra of Kautilya. The fortifications include equipment in the form of yantras. In Ayodhya 100.53, in the Kaccita-sarga, while enquiring about measures of defense, Rama asks Bharata whether the fort is equipped with yantras. Lanka, as a city built by Maya, is naturally more full of the yantras. The city, personified as a lady, is called yantra-agara-stani, informing us of a special chamber filled with yantras. (Sundara 3. 18).
The Arthasastra of Kautilya is one of the books of culture which throws a flood of light on the particular epochs in which they arose.
This work of 300 B.C.E. being a treatise on statecraft, speaks of yantras in connection mainly with battles, but also with architecture to some extent. An early work, a theoretical treatise and a text of great reputation, the Arthasastra forms our most valuable document on the subject of yantras.

And, as early as the Bhagavad Gita, the machine became an apt simile for man being a tool in the hands of the Almighty that sits in man's heart and by His mystic power makes man not only move but also delude himself into the notion of his being a free or competent agent.


“To deny to Babylon, to Egypt and to India, their part in the development of science and scientific thinking is to defy the testimony of the ancients, supported by the discovery of the modern authorities.
- L. C. Karpinski

“Thus we see that India’s marvels were not always false.”
- Lynn Thorndike
The following machines are to be made of a metal called Veera.
An alloy formed by melting and fusing the three metals Kshwinka, Arjunika and Kanta (magnet), in three, five and nine parts respectively, is called Veeraloha or a metal namely Veera. When it undergoes shastraic processes, it cannot be destroyed by fire, air, water, electricity, cannon, gun-powder or the like. It will then be very strong, light, and of golden color.
The metal is specially meant for Machines.
Panchamukha Yantra A machine of this name contains doors in east, south, west, north and top. Weighs 170 Ratals. Carries one thousand Ratals. By the help of electricity it can travel five Kroshas per hour. It is used as conveyance for men and in wars. Since the machine is conducted by the power of a spirit called Gaja it is named as Gajaakarshana Panchamukha Ratha.

Mrugaakasrshana Yantra These are the machines drawn by such animals as oxen, asses, horses, camels, elephants and so on.

Chaturmukha Ratha Yantra This machine has faces or openings on four sides. Weighs 120 Ratals. It can be conducted with any oil, preferably that of coconut shells, or with the help of electricity. Travels six Kroshas per hour. Used for traveling, wars, and transporting things.

Trimukha Ratha Yantra This Machine weighs 116 Ratals. It has three doors, downwards, upwards and on one side. It can carry a weight of 600 Ratals. It is conducted with the help of oil extracted from knotted root of Simha-Krantha, and from that extracted out of the stalks of a kind of grass. If such oils are not available, electricity may be made use of. It is used for the purposes that the above machine, viz. Cahkra-mukha-Ratha Yantra is used.

Dwimukha Yantra It weights 80 Ratals. Doors to east and west. Conducted by a wheel fitted with screws. Travels three Koshas per hour. Can carry a weight of three hundred Ratals. Used for the above purposes.

Ekamukha Ratha Yantra This machine has only one door. Weighs 48 Ratals. Carries two hundred Ratals of weight. Travels with the help of oil extracted from the seeds of Kancha-Thoola or Sovlaalika or by electricity: speed 1 Keosha per hour. Used for the above purposes.

Simhaasya Ratha Yantra This machine presents a front of a lion’s appearance. Possesses two doors. 75 Ratals in weight. Carries a weight of 50 Ratals. It can travel both on land and air. It has the quality of expanding and contracting. Used for the above purposes.

Vyaaghraasya Ratha Yantra This is modeled after a tiger. Possesses wings. Weighs 64 Ratals. Carries 200 Ratals of weight. It travels in air expanding its wings with electric power, but contracting its wings with steam power. It is used for the above purposes.
Dolamukha Yantra This is modeled after a litter. Contains two doors. Weights 50 Ratals. Carries 148 Ratals. Travels three Kroshas per hour. Conducted with the help of the electricity and an oil, viz Shilyusha extracted from wine.

Kurmamukha Ratha Yantra This is modeled after a tortoise. Contains small doors. Weighs 32 Ratals. Used for only spying.

Ayah – Prasaarana Yantra Out of those that are conducted by electricity this is one which travels on iron line spread on earth. It may be constructed to contain from 40 to 80 wheels. It resembles the railway train somewhat, weighs 4000 Ratals. Carries twenty-five thousand Ratals. Travels three Kroshas per hour with the power of electricity. It is used in transporting men and goods from place to place.

Panchamukee Yantra This machine has five faces. Weighs 115 Ratals. Carries twelve thousand Ratals. Carries twelve thousand Ratals. Has another machine which enables the five doors to open or shut. Conducted with electricity. Speed four Kroshas per hour. Used for the above purposes.

Eka Chakra Yantra This contains only one wheel. It is modeled after a trap. Weights 105 Ratals. Carries 800 Ratals. It is given motion and kept in motion by its wheels being worked by bellows. Travels three Kroshas per hour.

Trimukhi Yantram This machine has three faces. Contains three compartments which can be separated. Weights one thousand Ratals. Travels on water. The three compartments are so arrayed that it can travel with the second compartment if the first is damaged, and if the second also gets damaged, the third compartment can safeguard the contents, by separating them as may be necessary. Should the topmost apartment be in a dangerous predicament, it can rise into heavens and travel in the air. Uses as above.

Jrumbhala Yantra This machine has the door below. It is modeled after a shut umbrella. The covering is made of thick water-proof cloth which is manufactured out of the juice of the five trees or Pachavarga Kasheeree Vruksha. Weighs 42 Ratals. Carries 300 Ratals. It can expand into the shape of a tent by working a screw inside. So also it can contract into the former shape by working another screw. Appears like a flag. Used for secret wanderers like spying. With electric power or with the help of its wheels turned by bellows it can travel six Kroshas per hour.

Goodha Gamana Yantra This machine can accommodate only three persons. Weighs half a maund. Appears like an ordinary tower. Contains five keys. Can travel on land as well as air. Its motion is almost invisible. Can travel eight Kroshas per hour with the power of an oil called Sinjurika. Used for secret travels.

Wyrajika Yantra This machine is made of glasses of abhraka or mica. There are sixteen doors. Weights three Ratals. Carries five Ratals. Appears like a sparking light and as such none can know that it is a machine. Should anyone go near it, the sparkling light produced by turning an inner key will kill him. Can travel on water as well as on land. With the electric power of solar rays it can travel twelve Kroshas per hour. Used for journeys, in wars and in dispatching money.

Indranee Yantra This machine is constructed with paper, manufactured out of grass belonging to Maunjavarga; the 3rd, 9th, 11th, 22nd, 30th and 42nd classes of grass are known as Pishangamunja, Pingala Munja, Rajjumnunja and son on. This machine cannot be destroyed by fire or water. It is exceedingly light and strong. It can travel 15 Kroshas per hour with the help of wind-worked wheels. Carries 100 Ratals.

Vishwaavasu Yantra This machine has two doors. Weighs 148 Ratals. Carries three thousand Ratals. With the help of steam it travels two and a half Kroshas per hour. It can go both forward and backward. It can be expanded or contracted. Contains seven keys. Used for the above purposes.

Sourambhaka Yantra This machine has three storey. There are secret seats for 400 people to sit in each of the three storeys. The seats are not ordinarily visible. The storeys can alone be perceived. Weights 230 Ratals. Carries thirty-six thousand Ratals. It travels with the help of electricity or steam, or with the help of spirits of seventh kind of wine. Can go 32 Kroshas per hour. Useful in carrying men and things in warfare.

Sphotanee Yantram This machine has only one door, weighs 50 Ratals. Carries 200 Ratals. Sails on water. Just like a bubble of water, sometimes it can rise above water and at times it can dive underneath water. Moves with the power of steam or of spirits of Kanajala Kshaara. Travels four Kroshas per hour. Used by marine spies.
Kamatha Yantram This is modeled after a tortoise. Weights 500 Ratals. Carries eight thousand Ratals. Contains two doors. Travels under the surface of water. Used for the above purposes.

Parvathee Yantram This is modeled after a lotus. Contains four doors. Weighs 69 Ratals. Carries 800 Ratals. A pole is fixed in the middle to contain keys inside to expand and contract the machine just like a lotus opens and shuts. With the help of the power of steam or electricity it cant travel 24 Kroshas per hour. Used in voyages to distant islands.

Thaaraamuckha Yantram This contains a face of seven keys, sparkling like stars. Twelve doors. Weights two thousand Ratals. Carries twenty-five thousand Ratals. Out of the seven keys, if the first is pressed, a melodious music accompanied with every kind of musical instrument will be heard by those that are inside: if the second is pressed, dramatic scenery and action will be visible: by pressing the third, a stream of fresh water flows amidst the occupants, so that they may make use of water as they please: by pressing the fourth, plates with flowers, scents, plantains, camphor etc. will be ready before the occupants so that they may worship God.
By pressing the fifth, plates of excellent food will be ready before them; while they are taking their dinner, the plates turn round through wires: by pressing the sixth: by pressing the seventh beds will be ready for all. Should the keys be kept as they were everything will vanish. With the help of steam or electricity it can travel four Kroshas per hour. Used for the above purposes.

Rohinee Yantram This is modeled after a hollow bamboo and is of bamboo color. Weighs three thousand Ratals. Carries fifty thousand Ratals. Contains five hundred compartments in which gun-powder, bullets, weapons etc. can be preserved. Though fire breaks out nothing will be burnt or damaged, because the fire is suppressed by the nature of the metal with which it is composed. With the help of steam or electricity, it can run six kroshas per hour. It is used chiefly in wars.

Raakaasya Yantram From the machine a glorious light will flow out just like moon-light once in three hours. This light illuminates a distance of sixty four Kroshas by which everything that lies in its range will be made clearly visible. Weights one ratal. In the machine there is a wheel turning to right round and round just like the Sun. Can travel on land, water and in air. Useful in finding out objects from afar off. With the help of spirits of sixteenth kind of wine it can travel four Kroshas per hour on land, eight kroshas on water and twelve Kroshas in air.

Chandramukha Yantram This machine has a front like the moon’s disk: it is dark in the middle and bright all round. Weighs 400 Ratals. Contains sixteen doors. Carries sixteen thousand ratals. Contains five storeys and sixty-eight cylinders. These cylinders are useful in filling the five kinds of smokes, the seven powers, thirty-two kinds of powders and forty-eight kinds of gas. When they are in those cylinders no harm is done to them. This travels in paths dug out inside the earth. Travels with the help of spirits of 13th quality of wine. Speed sixteen kroshas per hour. Used in wars.

Anthaschakra Ratham This is modeled after the crooked rod of a litter. This rod, resembling the two angularly bent rods of an oil mill, will be turning round and round always. There are thirty two screwed wheels. This machine must be fixed to the earth. It is used in transporting elephants, camels, horses, men, conveyances and son, or binging them near from a distance. This can be done by working at the screws inside. This must be fixed in the fifth circle of the warfield.

Panchanaala Yantram This is fitted by joining five cylinders. There are distillery machines in each of these cylinders. These distilleries are used in manufacturing not only oils, spirits, etc. but also smokes, powders and so on. Weighs 230 Ratals. Travels three Kroshas per hour with the help of spirits of 9th class of wine.

Thanthreemukha Yantram The front of this machine appears like a trap of wires. Inside the machine there is a magnetic wheel in the center. Behind this, there are exact representations of lions, tigers and other fierce animals all made of wires. In front there is a magnifying glass of 103rd class. By working at the keys, these iron lions, tigers and so on can be made to roar and pounce upon people that come near it. By doing so, none can go near it. Weights 80 Ratals. Carries thousand Ratals. With the help of the powers of spirits of the third class wine, it can travel four kroshas per hour. Useful in wars.

Vegineee Yantram This is modeled after an umbrella. It can run very fast by turning the screws at the junction of wheels. Can accommodate only three persons. Travels 8 kroshas per hour.

Shaktyudgama Yantram This is a machine which spreads the electricity in sky. It has five storey. Contains big glass vessels (containers) in each of them. In the first storey, the glass vessels will be filled with tar mixed with coal. In the second, the glass vessels will be filled with sea-foam or lather with the extract of tin. In the vessels of the third storey, sulphur with the oil of the seeds of Visha mushti will be filled.
Those of the 4th, will be filled with the five essences of oils of the Pranaksharas. The five balls along with mercury, are fitted in those of the fifth. Wires from these five vessels are united as per shastraic principles. The vessels of the first storey must be filled with electricity and through this the vessels of other storey must be filled. Through this it can spread in the sky. The machine weighs 32 Ratals. Used in constructing airplanes.

Mandalaavartha Yantram This is modeled after a spinning top. Contains six faces and sixty-four screws inside. Weighs 68 Ratals. Carries eight thousand Ratals. Like a top it turns round the armies and crowds of people, round and round. It can turn round thrice, a distance of two kroshas in an hour, with the help of electricity and spirit of eleventh of class of wine. Useful in wars and in mutinies of people.

Ghoshanee Yantram This is modeled after an immense serpent. Contains three coverings and 24 faces. It is filled with electricity. Contains also 148 cylindrical apartments to stock poisonous gas. By working at the inner screws, it can produce a noise equal to 32 thunderbolts. Emits poisonous gas as it travels. The sound thus produced will be heard for a distance of 14 ¼ miles. People near it die of the mortal effects of the deafening noise and poisonous gas. Those who are beyond eight kroshas of it will swoon. Weighs 116 Ratals. Carries six thousand Ratals. Can travel six kroshas per hour, with the help of electricity and spirits of 13th kind of wine.

Ubhayamukha Yantram This machine possesses the same symmetry on either side. Contains sixty-four small holes or doors on either side. Contains a fresh water stream inside. Above that stream, there flows another stream of tar. In the middle there are oils belonging to seven varieties. Contains 71 keys inside.
By working at these keys, the poisonous gases, powers or anything of the kind that is injurious to lives, will be swept off in the range of twelve miles (roughly) around the machine and purifies the atmosphere. Weighs 48 Ratals. Carries 108 Ratals. Travels five Kroshas per hour with the help of electricity or spirits of 27th class of wine. Use for purifying atmosphere whenever and wherever necessary.

Thridala Yantram This is modeled after a three-leafed Bilwa patra…. Having three compartments. The first is square, the second is triangular, and the third is a hexagon in shape. Each of these compartments has two doors. Each compartment is provided with Peshanee Yantras. A Peshanee Yantra is one which grinds grain such as wheat into powder. Always filled with flour. This machine is conducted by electricity.

Thrikuta Yantram This machine has two towers, like the peaks of a mountain. Each of these towers is one hundred (bahu) or yards in height. Each of the towers contains 32 keys inside. There are cylinders at every key. Above the towers there are flags and wheels. In front there are instruments to measure the cold. Indicates the weather, wind, sun-light, rain, thunderbolt, fall of stars and other future phenomena.

Thripeetha Yantram This machine contains three bases. In the first, there is a machine having three heads like the elephant’s, but possessing two trunks in each head. In the second there is a three-headed instrument, each of the heads having two trunks of Vyali animal. In the third there is an instrument which has three heads, each of which has the appearance of a rhinoceros with tusks. They can be fitted together or separated as required.
The first of these Yantras can stop a stream of water, suck up water of the stream and thus change the direction of the stream. The second can tear mountain asunder and thus create passage. The third can bore a hole in earth, suck up water from down below, and jet the same out through the tusks above its head. Weighs six thousand Ratals. Carries 80 Ratals. Travels and works by the help of steam, electricity and spirits of 23rd class of wine. This machine is used in constructing roads in water and bridges, and in piercing tunnels across mountains and rocks.

Vishwamukha Yantram This is a very spacious machine. In it there are twelve cylinders containing magnifying glasses. These cylinders are very big and they are fitted that they can be turned into any direction as may be necessary. Weighs 1800 Ratals. Carries forty thousand Ratals. There are two stories in it, which can be separated or joined together with the help of keys. Travels twelve Yojanas with the help of spirits of 32nd quality, steam or electricity. The upper storey can be separated and can be soared into heavens. By fixing the cylinders to it in the sky an area of 24 Yojanas with forests, countries, seas, cities etc become clearly visible, and a picture/photo of the same can be obtained. Used in traveling and so on.

Ghantaakaara Yantram This machine appears as though seven almirahs are fixed together. Various kinds of wires, the essence or dravaka of the 16th kind of magnet, and many other dravakas are filled in it. There are two bells of bell-metal or white brass in each of these almirahs, and they are so fitted as to produce a terribly alarming sound just like the alarm of a clock. By the waves produced news of the world at large can be learned. Used in gathering information and in pictures.

Vishthrithaasya Yantram The machine contains a widely open mouth. Weighs 76 Ratals. Carries 120 Ratals. In front of this machine there are five keys appearing as turrets. In the first turret there is a vessel of Chandra Kantha stone of the sixth class. As soon as the moon rises, water oozes in this stone vessel and it is filled. The same water is used by the men in the machine to drink. The other turrets attract the powers of cloud, stars and so on. Travels three Yojanas per hour with the help of spirits of the 14th class or electricity. Used in traveling. Etc.

Kravyaada Yantram This machine contains three faces. Weighs a hundred Ratals. Carries ten thousand Ratals. With the help of steam it can travel nine Yojanas per hour. Used in traveling and in carrying goods.

Shankhamukha Yantram A machine containing a five faced boring instrument and resembling a conch shell is called Shankha mukha Yantram. There are keys to expand or contract the machine whenever or wherever necessary. Weighs a thousand Ratals. Used in constructing wells, digging, deep pits or boring holes in mines. It can dig 213 bahus or yards in an hour.

Used also for the purposes contained in the description.

Gomukha Yantram This is modeled after the face of a cow. Weighs 80 Ratals. Carries 700 Ratals. There is a constant flow of water through this mouth. Travels two Yojanas per hour with the help of spirits of the 20th class. Used in supplying water.

Ambaraasya Yantram This machine appears like sky for those who look at it. Weighs 180 Ratals. Carries 2400 Ratals. Used in transporting elephants, camels, and so on. Travels 3 Yojanas per hour with the help of steam and electricity.

Sumukha Yantram This machine presents a beautiful face of a crab. Weights 118 Ratals. Carries 1150 Ratals. Can travel with the help of spirits of the 14th class, steam or electricity. Travels two Yojanas on land, four Yojanas in air, and three Yojanas in water, per hour. Used in traveling and transporting goods from place to place.

Thaaraamukha Yantram The balls that are made out of the metal found where stars fall, are called Thaaraamanies. A machine which contains such balls is called Thaaraamukha Yantram. There are three big cylindrical pillars in it. There is another smaller machine inside this machine. The smaller machine contains some draavakas or acids, electricity, some glasses and so on. There are keys at the bottom of the three pillars, above named.
By working the first key a brilliant light just like the rainbow will be produced. By working the second key a brilliancy light just like sun-light covered by clouds will be given out. By working the third key smoke will be issued out like dew. When this machine sails on sea, it can take the photos/pictures of all machines and animals that travel or stay both on and under the surface of the sea. Used in finding out objects that are both on and under the surface of the sea.

Manigarbha Yantram This machine is round or circular in formation. Inside the machine there are balls called Souraka, Paavaka, and so on which attract the heat of solar rays. Weights 64 Ratals. Carries seventy thousand Ratals. Contains twelve faces to allow solar rays in. Travels three kroshas per hour with the help of the spirits of the third class. Used in traveling and attracting the heat of the sun-light.

Vahinee Yantram This machine contains 16 keys and twelve metallic cylinders. Is 32 feet in height and 11 feet in circumference. Underneath there are 48 boring instruments. There are 96 wheels which throw off the mud dug. There are 22 keys which dig up rocks. There are twelve instruments sucking water up. This is a machine to be fixed in earth firmly. The water thus sucked up flows like streams. This machine can dig earth as far as 82 thousand feet deep. Used in digging earth and sucking water up.

Chakranga Yantram This machine is modeled after a trap. There are wheels with stones throughout this machine. By turning one wheel plenty of wind blows out. By turning one wheel plenty of wind blows out. By turning another water flows down. In this way there are wheels by turning which fire, steam, poisonous gas, dew, power, colors and so on are issued. By the turning of the wheels it travels two kroshas per hour. Used in many ways.

Chaitraka Yantram This machine is modeled after a scorpion. There are 24 joints inside. There is a key at every joint. Every key is numbered and colored differently. Music, melodious instruments, conversation, photos and many other wonders will be produced according to the definite key that is pressed. Those who go near it to enjoy these wonders will be not only photographed of their appearance but also of their mind. Used in Bhedopaya or in conquering enemies of deceit.

Chanchupata Yantram This machine is modeled after a bird with its mouth open. Contains four wings. There are five keys to each of these wings. Wires are to be connected to earth from its open mouth. As long as these wires extend in earth, so long the earth will have acquired a peculiar power by which people, if standing in this area will be benumbed. By working the keys attached to the wings the people who stand in the infected area will faint, or the earth will crack and so on, according to the work allotted to be done by the keys.

Pingaaksha Yantram This is modeled after a litter. Throughout the body of this machine it is full of green eyes. There is a button in every one of these eyes. This is to be firmly fixed on the summit of a mountain. It is 60 ft. long and 14 ft. in circumference. This is to be fixed in a town or city when it is surrounded by enemies. From this machine keys are arranged and fixed through wires underneath the surface of the earth to the extent of twenty-four miles, around the place. Inside the machine buttons are arranged and numbered for all these keys outside.
By pressing the first button it will act upon the particular key and the gates of the fort will be shut. By pressing another the moats will get filled with water. In this way, by pressing the other buttons wonderful phenomena such as tremendous fumes of fire, floods of water, cyclones etc. will be created according to the defined work of each key. This machine is used in defending a city or country against strong enemies when offensive and defensive actions are at an end.

Puruhootha Yantram This is modeled after a mrindanga, or musical instrument. It is 25 feet in height and as much in circumference. There is a machine called Shabda-sphota Yantra inside the machine. When the key is worked a tremendous noise bursts out equal to the simultaneous roar of 63 fierce lions. Used as per the nature of its work.
Ambareesga Yantram This is modeled after an inverted earthen pot. 46 ft in height and 23 ft. in circumference. Contains keys resembling the feet of tortoise on all four sides. Travels in water 6 kroshas per hour with the help of Chakra Bhastrika. Used in finding the things on land under the surface of the seas and bringing them up.

Bhadraashwa Yantram This is modeled after a horse. It possesses a tail of 38 ft. in length. Weighs 54 Ratals. It gallops like a horse with the help of spirits of 32nd class. Possesses three horses’ speed. At the top of there are three-faced keys. When it is set to work by the key it goes on galloping just like a horse in a circular way. Circles a distance of twelve Yojanas per hour. While in gallops, brilliant sparks of light will come out and destroy all dew or fog covering that area and clear the atmosphere. Used in places and times of dew, where and when the dew obstructs the view.

Virinchi Yantram This is like a globe in appearance. Around it there are 32 wires of 80 ft long and 40 ft in circumference, both in front and back of the machine. There are three keys to these wires. By working the first key, it becomes loaded with powder and bullets. By working the second it gets ready to the aim. By working the third it fires. It rends the mountains asunder to an extent of 24 feet per shot. Used in constructing tunnels in mountains and rocks.

Kuladhar Yantram This is modeled after a crow. Contains three beaks like those of crows. Inside there is machinery of electricity and so on. At the top there are keys resembling small snuff boxes in which round buttons are inserted. When this machine is fixed on rocks and set to work it expels with the help of its beaks, slabs of stone as per desired dimensions. Cuts out 22 ft. stone in an hour. It is used in cutting stones.

Balabhadra Yantram This is modeled after an inverted metal boiler. 64 feet long and 16 feet wide. On either side there are 16 ploughs 16 ft by 4 ft. wide, fixed. Each plough contains two wings. At the beginning and end of them there are turning screws. Inside there is electricity or steam boiler. There are 24 keys above the machine. At the bottom of everyone of these keys are wheels. By the side there are 32 screws. As soon as they are pressed the machine goes on ploughing land. When the above 24 keys are set, the machine begins to run. Goes 3 Yojanas per hour. Ploughs an area of 3 Yojanas by 64 feet, per hour. The depth of the mud turned up in the land is 3 feet. Used in tilling the land.

Shaalmali Yantram This machine is square in shape and white in color as of the flower of acaria Shireesha. At the top there are sixteen keys each intended for a definite work. By turning the first key, there appear a pair of hands the trunks of elephants and they can hold a weight of hundred Ratals. By working the second key that weight will be placed wherever necessary. The other keys are intended to carry up weights from deep water, and to arrange pieces of stone, timber or the like in or above water in constructing bridges or so. It can also bring down weights from a height of 200 feet.

Pushpak Yantram This is crescent in formation. It is provided with many cradles suspended to it. There are 14 of them on each of the sideways and 8 in the middle, suspended. In those of the right hand side there are machines resembling pigs, while in those of the left wing there are sawing machines. In those of the middle there are screwed wheels suspended to chains. There are two wheels. This machine is to be in a place where timber is to be cut and sawn. If the first key of the upper wheel is turned, the above said pigs come down one by one.
By working the second screw the pigs fall at the trunk of trees, beat them and cut them with tremendous noise and produce enormous quantity of smoke and fire. This fire spreads to the extent of 16 miles around, burns up all waste matter on land and clears the area. By the action of the fire on trees, the oil and so on will be extracted and stored up in bottles placed at the bottom of those trees. The heat of the fumes on the fire renders all the trees in that area soft like a plantain. The leaves of the trees fall down.
By working the third key some more pigs come down and roam about that place exhaling tremendous breaths. Owing to this wind blown the ashes of that area will be swept off and the land cleared. In the same way, if the key on left side be turned, the saws from the cradles come down one by one. By turning the first screw of that wheel the saws will get themselves ready at the place. of the trees where they are to be sawn. By working the 3rd screw, the saws will go back to their cradles and from them pairs of hands like the trunks of elephants will come down. These pairs of hands will collect the pieces of timber that are sawn down. This machine weighs 180 Ratals. Can travel in forest with the help of steam power. It is a machine to be fixed to the earth. It can saw 3200 ratals of weight of timber per hour. Used in hewing and sawing timber in large quantities.

Ashtadla Yantram This machine is modeled after a lotus containing 8 petals. Under each of these petals there will be an enclosure. In each of these enclosures. In each of these enclosures there will be the 8 things viz. smoke, electricity, water-vapor, air, Rushakam, Vishasaram, Manjusham and Katusaram which are described in Meghotpati Prakaranam. There is the key in the center of the lotus. In it there are eight screws for the 8 petals. By working any screw the things that are in the connected petal will go high above and form a cloud. By working the central key fumes like solar rays will be given out. As soon as the heat of these fumes acts upon those clouds formed before, they begin to rain. This machine is specialized to get rain.

Souryayana Yantram This is like a pillar 116 feet high and 58 feet in circumference. At the top there is a sieve containing holes and made of glass of the 96th class called Somapa. From this sieve in this pillar there are twelve machines in order. Above the sieve there is a covering of 97th class of glass called Somasya Darpana.
Above this covering there is a glass wheel called Kumudinee containing spokes made of 98th class of glass called Chandrika Darpana. In the twelve points of this machine there are twelve upper screws and twelve lower screws. Bu turning the first screw, the contents of the machine such as electricity, cold fluid, Shaitya Drava, Sudha Mushee, Soonruta, Pushkalee, Pranada, Dravinaamrutha, Sooraneee, Jambaalee, Lulita, Vaachaklavee, Gacyoosha, rise up in the definite proportions.
Through the cylindrical tubes which are fixed to the wheels of the sieve these powers pass and touch the glass covering above. By turning the electric screw then, the wheel turns 1192 rounds in a minute. Then a power called Someeya of the lunar rays is attracted by this wheel and it gets down through the sieve.
Thus the power fills in the bottle below in the form of gas. It must be kept air-tight. Its use is this. When such limbs as head, hands, feet, of a person are cut off, the limbs are fixed to the right place of the body and the body kept in a box. The body must be wrapped in a covering of the bark of a plant called Vaarshneeka Valkala. When to such a body the above Somadrava gas is injuncted 5 Rajanikas, the body is resuscitated. This must be done within five minutes after the injury is done. Used in setting the cut limbs right, or resuscitating the persons killed, in the above manner.


Sunday, May 10, 2015

Bhavisya puran and Islam, Christianity prediction

As per Bhavishya Purana, Mahamada (Incarnaion of Demon Tripurasura) = Dharmadushika (Polluter of Righteousness)
Religion founded by Mahamada = Paisachyadharma ( Demoniac Religion)
Original Sanskrit Version
Bhavishya Puran :  Prati Sarg: Part III 3.3.5-27


Bhavishya Puran Muhammad : tripurasur
Bhavishya Puran Muhammad : tripurasur
Shri Suta Gosvami said: In the dynasty of King Shalivahana, there were ten kings who went to the heavenly planet after ruling for over 500 years. Then gradually the morality declined on the earth. At that time Bhojaraja was the tenth of the kings on the earth. When he saw that the moral law of conduct was declining he went to conquer all the directions of his country with ten-thousand soldiers commanded by Kalidasa. He crossed the river Sindhu and conquered over the gandharas, mlecchas, shakas, kasmiris, naravas and sathas. He punished them and collected a large ammount of wealth. Then the king went along with Mahamada (Muhammad), the preceptor of mleccha-dharma, and his followers to the great god, Lord Shiva, situated in the desert. He bathed Lord Shiva with Ganges water and worshipped him in his mind with pancagavya (milk, ghee, yoghurt, cow dung, and cow urine) and sandalwood paste, etc. After he offered some prayers and pleased him.
 Suta Goswami said: After hearing the king’s prayers, Lord Shiva said: O king Bhojaraja, you should go to the place called Mahakakshvara, that land is called Vahika and now is being contaminated by the mlecchas. In that terrible country there no longer exists dharma. There was a mystic demon named Tripura(Tripurasura), whom I have already burnt to ashes, he has come again by the order of Bali. He has no origin but he achieved a benediction from me. His name is Mahamada(Muhammad) and his deeds are like that of a ghost. Therefore, O king, you should not go to this land of the evil ghost. By my mercy your intelligence will be purified.Hearing this the king came back to his country and Mahamada(Muhammad) came with them to the bank of the river Sindhu. He was expert in expanding illusion, so he said to the king very pleasingly: O great king, your god has become my servant. Just see, as he eats my remnants, so I will show you. The king became surprised when he saw this just before them. Then in anger Kalidasa rebuked Mahamada(Muhammad) “O rascal, you have created an illusion to bewilder the king, I will kill you, you are the lowest…”
That city is known as their site of pilgrimage, a place which was Madina or free from intoxication. Having a form of a ghost (Bhuta), the expert illusionist Mahamada(Muhammad) appeared at night in front of king Bhojaraja and said: O king, your religion is of course known as the best religion among all. Still I am going to establish a terrible and demoniac religion by the order of the Lord . The symptoms of my followers will be that they first of all will cut their genitals, have no shikha, but having beard, be wicked, make noise loudly and eat everything. They should eat animals without performing any rituals. This is my opinion. They will perform purificatory act with the musala or a pestle as you purify your things with kusha. Therefore, they will be known as musalman, the corrupters of religion. Thus the demoniac religion will be founded by me. After having heard all this the king came back to his palace and that ghost(Muhammad) went back to his place.
The intelligent king, Bhojaraj established the language of Sanskrit in three varnas – the brahmanas, kshatriyas and vaisyas – and for the shudras he established prakrita-bhasha, the ordinary language spoken by common men. After ruling his kingdom for 50 years, he went to the heavenly planet. The moral laws established by him were honored even by the demigods. The arya-varta, the pious land is situated between Vindhyacala and Himacala or the mountains known as Vindhya and Himalaya. The Aryans reside there, but varna-sankaras reside on the lower part of Vindhya. The musalman people were kept on the other side of the river Sindhu.
On the island of Barbara, Tusha and many others also the followers of Isamsiha were also situated as they were managed by a king or demigods.

Note This

Lord Shiva said: O king Bhojaraja, you should go to the place called Mahakakshvara, that land is called Vahika and now is being contaminated by the mlecchas. In that terriblecountry there no longer exists dharma. There was a mystic demon named Tripura(Tripurasur), whom I have already burnt to ashes, he has come again by the order of Bali. He has no origin but he achieved a benediction from me. His name is Mahamada(Muhammad) and his deeds are like that of a ghost.
According to Bhavishya Purana Muhammad was the rebirth of Tripurasura the Demon. Tripurasura was killed by Shiva in his(Tripurasura’s) past life.

Tripurasura’s Past life (Mythology[not from bhavishya purana])

Tripurasur was the son of Sage Gritsamad. One day the sage sneezed and from this was created a young boy who the Sage brought up as his own son. The sage taught the boy the Ganana Twam, Ganesh Mantra. Equipped with this mantra the boy meditated intensely on Lord Ganesh who ultimately blessed him. He was given three pura-s of gold silver and iron. Since he was the owner of these three pura-s he was given the name Tripur. Ganesh also bestowed on Tripur to be the most powerful, who none but Lord Shiva himself could destroy and after being destroyed by Lord Shiva he would attain mukti-salvation.
This boon made Tripur proud and he brought havoc in the entire world. He conquered the Nether world and then proceeded to takeover Heaven. He defeated Indra the king of heaven. His aggression made Lord Brahma hide in a lotus and Lord Vishnu in the Shirsagar. He soon also took over Lord Shiva’s Kailash Parvat and thus became the King of all the three worlds. The gods wondered on how to vanquish Tripurasur. Lord Narada told them that, since he had been granted a boon by Lord Ganesh himself it would be very difficult to vanquish him. He advised them to meditate on Lord Ganesh. Pleased Lord Ganesh decided to help the Gods.
Disguised as brahmin he visited Tripurasur and told him that he was a very enlightened Brahmin and could make for him three flying planes. Riding these he woud be able to go anywhere he wished within minutes. The planes could only be destroyed by Shiva.In return Lord Ganesh asked him to get him the statue of Chintamani which was at the Kailash Mountain. Lord Shiva refused to give the statue to Tripurasur’s messenger. The angry Tripurasur himself went to get the statue. A fierce battle started between him and Lord Shiva. He destroyed everything that belonged to the Lord Shiva who too retired to the Girikandar.
Lord Shiva too realized that he was unable to destroy Tripurasur because he had not paid his respects to Lord Ganesh. He recited the Shadaakshar Mantra to invoke Ganesh. On doing so from his mouth emerged Gajanan to grant Shiva a boon. Shiva continued his invocation of Ganesh who ultimately directed him on how Tripurasur could be killed. Lord Shiva was asked to recite the Sahastranam and then direct an arrow at the three pura-s of Tripurasur. Lord Shiva followed these instructions and finally vanquished Tripurasur.
The place where Lord Shiva invoked Lord Ganesh he also created a temple for him. The town surrounding this temple was called Manipur. The village Ranjangaon is considered to be the place where Lord Shiva himself sought the blessings of Ganesh and ultimately destroyed Tripurasur.
This prayer (chalisa) praises the Lord Shiva (Related to Tripurasura killing)
Tripurasur sang yuddha machayi,
sabahin kripa kari leen bachayi.
By fighting and killing the Demon Tripurasur,
You forgave everybody and saved the Gods.
Mlechha (meaning)
(from Sanskrit dictionary)

म्लेच्छ mleccha 1 A barbarian,a non Aryan ( One not speaking the Sanskrit Language or not conform in to Hindu or Aryan institutions),a foreigner in general

2 An Outcast, a very low man, Bodhayana thus defines the word:
gomAmsakhAdako yastu viruddhaM bahubhAshhate | sarvAchAravihInashcha mlechchha ityabhidhiiyate |
He who eats cow’s meat, and speaks a lot against shastras and he, who is also devoid of all forms of spiritual practice, is called a mlechha.
3 A sinner, A wicked person, A savage or barbarian race

Paisachya (meaning) (from Sanskrit dictionary)


Paisachya : Demonical, Infernal

Tripurasura : Asura meaning (from Sanskrit dictionary)
Asura असुर
1 An evil spirit,demon
2 A general name for the enemies of Gods,


AMSTERDAM: Prestigious Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam recently X-rayed its thousand years old monumental Shiva-Nataraja statue as a part of research and was surprised to know that it was cast in solid bronze.Hollow sculptures have reportedly been a common practice in Europe since the Greek Antiquity. Museum discovered after X-ray that even the aureole and the demon under Shiva’s feet were also solid.
Hindu statesman Rajan Zed has applauded Rijksmuseum for its interest in Hindu artifacts.This Dancing Shiva statue was X-rayed using high-energy digital radiation, along with the lorry transporting it, in the most powerful X-ray tunnel for containers of the Rotterdam customs authority, normally used to scan sea containers for suspicious contents. It is said to be the first research of its kind on a museological masterpiece.
At 153 cm x 114.5 cm, this 300 kilograms Shiva statue is claimed to be the largest known bronze statue from the Chola Dynasty kept in a museological collection outside of India. “This solid bronze Shiva is evidence of a high level of mastery of bronze casting”, a Museum release says.Zed, who is President of Universal Society of Hinduism, in a statement in Nevada (USA) Monday, urged the major museums of world to acquire more Hindu sculpture and art; dedicate permanent space to Hindu artifacts; and organize more exhibitions of Hindu art, sculptures, and architecture to make aware the present and future generations about their richness.
Rajan Zed argued that because of their richness and other factors, Hindu artifacts were becoming favorite of museums in America and the West. Many prestigious museums already owned Hindu sculptures and other artifacts and many were planning to acquire.Even some formations in world famous Grand Canyon National Park of USA were named as Shiva Temple, Krishna Shrine, Vishnu Temple, Rama Shrine, Brahma Temple (7851 feet), and Hindu Amphitheater, Zed pointed out.
According to Rajan Zed, various renowned museums in USA which have acquired statues and other artifacts of Hindu deities include Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; Ackland Art Museum in Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Los Angeles County Museum of Art, California; Asian Art Museum in San Francisco, California; Virginia Museum of Fine Arts in Richmond; Norton Simon Museum in Pasadena, California; Museum of Art and Archaeology in University of Missouri-Columbia, Missouri; Mingei International Museum in San Diego, California; American Museum of Natural History, New York; Philadelphia Museum of Art in Pennsylvania; Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, Maryland; Dallas Museum of Art, Texas; Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City, Missouri;  etc.
Zed further says that other prestigious world museums, which possess statues of Hindu deities, include British Museum in London, United Kingdom; Musée Guimet in Paris, France; Museum für Asiatische Kunst in Berlin, Germany; Te Papa Museum in Wellington, New Zealand; Beijing World Art Museum, China; National Museum in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, Canada; Victoria and Albert Museum in London, United Kingdom; etc. Thailand reportedly has a private Ganesha Museum.
Rajan Zed asked foremost art museums of the world, including Musee du Louvre and Musee d’Orsay of Paris, Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, Los Angeles Getty Center, Uffizi Gallery of Florence (Italy), Art Institute of Chicago, Tate Modern of London, Prado Museum of Madrid (Spain), National Gallery of Art in Washington DC, etc., to frequently organize Hindu art focused exhibitions, thus sharing the rich Hindu art heritage with the rest of the world.
The Rijksmuseum is the national museum of the Netherlands, whose collection comprises 1.1 million objects dating from the Middle Ages to the 20th century. Its history goes back to 1800 and it attracts about 900,000 visitors each year. A. Ruys is Chair while Anna Ślączka is curator of South Asian Art of this Museum which contains many stone and bronze sculptures from India.Zed said that art had a long and rich tradition in Hinduism and ancient Sanskrit literature talked about religious paintings of deities on wood or cloth. Hinduism, oldest and third largest religion of the world, has about one billion adherents and moksh (liberation) is its ultimate goal.

Ice age Swastika fount in Ukraine

We have inserted two essays above to assist with us true mission, namely to clarify the basics of Earth Mother Culture. First We reminded you that Joseph Campbell8 was a serious mentor and a great inspiration to take the understanding of the meaning and the symbols of EMC to a new level. Second We introduced you to some new insights about the strong influence in the past of the great Earth God or Earth Father of our ancestors. We live in a world that has been in denial about this god for most of the last 1-4 millennia. The serpent in the Garden of Eden story is clearly a remnant of this culture. Surely you recognize that the worldwide circumcision-type ceremonies were likely practiced in the old Serpent cultures. (The ancient king, the serpent priest or living earth god, shed his blood [a sacrificial symbol] for the religious benefit of the people!) And certainly you can affirm from our use of the modern symbol of the medicine profession [the caduceus] shown in Figure 1 that the Sun (eagle wings) and the Serpent were the great gods of wisdom and knowledge in ancient times. This concept remains unopposed!
Figure 2 shows a sampling of the art of from the Ice Age site at Mezin in the Ukraine located approximately 100 km northeast of Kiev.10,11 The artifacts were bird figurines carved from mammoth ivory with inscribed patterns that included elaborate swastikas [ca 10,000 BCE]. We view these items as sacred images of the Earth Mother, represented as the Bird Mother, inscribed with symbols indicating her Earth Father consort, the Serpent. This is the essence of paleolithic EMC when it was principally a fertility cult!
In 1939 Franz Hancar of Vienna wrote a survey10 on the various paleolithic “Venus” statues that had been discovered. He included the Mezin bird figurines but did not make a firm claim for the existence of EMC. The source of the Mezin figures appears to be the articles by FK Volkov11 in 1909, however the finds could have been earlier or involved others. The swastika patterns were first recognized by VA Gorodcov,8 and it was Hancar10 who called them the oldest swastikas found thus far. Campbell8 quotes the conservative ca 10,000 BCE date for Mezin. I subsequently found the book by Klein12 who cites Abramova13 as an authority on Mezin. The actual layer for the artifacts could be as old as 17,000 BCE, but perhaps I misunderstood. None of these sources discusses the actual workof FK Volkov.11

From Figure 2 we observe that the original swastika was an elaborate form with spiral arms, whereas the more modern symbol is like the gammadion (geometrical) form with short arms.14b Truncation to the gammadion form does not change the meaning of this symbol in connection with the Earth Mother or Goddess culture, but it lessens the chance of interpretive insight. The crux of the matter is this: the swastika is a double-symbol for a fertility religion having two gods, the Earth Mother and the Earth Father. To get to this point, you must study the symbols of ancient art until you conclude that the principal meaning of the equal-arm cross is reference to the Earth Mother. In addition to these context-related sources, numerous examples14a,c of ancient minimal art of human females and birds make the same suggestion about the cross. The point then is that the ancient swastika was an equal-arm cross with a serpent-symbol spiral attached to the tip of each arm. You can see this in Figure 2, and it is over 12,000 years old. Further to this point, we have published14d,e sacred bird images from ancient Australia and Shang China with inscribed snakes. Serious confirmation indeed!
Perhaps you are not acquainted with ancient double- symbols. A familiar double-symbol is the caduceus used for the modern symbol of the medical profession (see Figure 1). Our interpretation is symbols of the Sun (eagle wings) and Serpent as the gods of wisdom/knowledge in ancient times. The frequently used “Yin/Yang” symbol refers to the Swastika gods. The so-called circle cross is a double-symbol alternative to the swastika. We interpret the circle to be the Serpent in the “uroborus” configuration, implying the protective aspect of the Male Principle. Finally, the hexagram is an ancient symbol of sexual union of the gods, the downward-pointed triangle being the female and the upward-pointed triangle being the male.
Most of the ancient connections are quite simple. Surely you grasp the idea that the Sun was the Son of the Earth Gods in many cultures. That is why Sun and Son have the same sound! Referring to the old hexagram symbol, you surely know that “sex” and “six” have the same sound in many languages (eg, German, Latin). The reason for this is that the hexagram sex symbol has six points! Send us your alternative explanation.
It is the nature of the closure of what might be called scientific proof that the pieces of an original puzzle can come together with some unsuspected clarity and perhaps new unsuspected predictions of reality. Two examples from physics illustrate the point, and they come across each year to diligent new graduate students as virtual miracles. In the course of developing electromagnetic theory, James Clerk-Maxwell added a previously undetected mathematical term to the equations. As a result, he showed that the ordinary description of electricity and magnetism was capable of predicting the existence of electromagnetic waves, including light. His closure was that these waves were predicted to travel at the speed of light, a value so large that it was barely measurable at that time. He was correct! The essence of Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity is the requirement that the speed of light must have the same value for all observers in non-accelerating frames of reference. The result of this assumption is the prediction that mass is a form of energy. The closure of this discovery is that the energy released in a nuclear explosion actually comes at the expense of the loss of a small amount of this mass form of energy. We had no clue before Einstein published his article!
It is easy to understand that the word “Swastika” could have great significance and yet be called by some abstract name with an obscure meaning. An example is the Indo-European word “raga”, which means “king” or “high person”, but is made up of two sounds that give no hint of the correct meaning. But fortunately that is not the case for the very old word “Swastika”, and hence we can obtain a bonus if you agree that the finding makes some sense.
There are three spellings and two pronunciations of our special word. They are “Swastika” and “Suastika” pronounced with a w-sound and “Svastika” pronounced with a v-sound. The Indo-Germanic word is pronounced with the v-sound, which is the usual EMSL-sound with V = B = F = P generally assumed.4 The Oriental and Native American languages prefer the w-sound rather dominantly but with the old v-meaning.15The English/Welsh language speakers pronounce the Germanic-w with the w-sound instead of the v-sound. They have many other w-sounds that are non-Germanic in origin.
The point of this discussion is to gain understanding that “Svastika” is a double-name EMSL word, naming both male and female gods. Thus we view the word “Svastika” as “S(a)va-stika” with the EMSL translationThe-father (&) the earth. Isn’t this exactly what the above discussion of the double-symbol meaning of the “Svastika” claimed? All of this is very simple, but is there really any reason to expect something else? Could this be some outrageous linguistic accident that any scholar can see right through? The Establishment can only hope for one of its great linguistic knights to awake from academic slumber. Send us your claims, your refutations, or your real research!
Let us remind the reader that we still use remnants of this scheme of linguistics in our words for “fathe(r)”. The Germanic languages prefer the name “vate(r)”. Of all the EMSL rules,4 surely the argument for the occurrence of imbedded definite articles (eg, te/the) in names is one of the easiest to accept. And surely the goddess names “Ban(a), Bona, Fauna, Vana, Venus” could be consorts of gods named “Ba, Bo, Fau, Va, Ve”. And finally one could write a book on all of the “Ga/Ka” sounds that occur in ancient sacred names. Our largest continent is called “Asia” but pronounced “Agea/Ashea”, as in the names “Agean” sea or “Achaean” people. And, of course, the “Ocean” is a part of the great Earth. Her name is pronounced “Okea(ni)/Ogea(ni)”, which just happens to be a sacred name for the Earth. In one of the more sensible Flat Earth Theories, the Greeks alleged that the Ocean waters were contained by a great encircling serpent (what else!) named “Okenos”, which has the EMSL translation Of-the-serpent. Here we have demonstrated the value of literal closure! The most common EMSL name-usages are probably the words “Ga/Naga” and “Ka/Kana”.
It is a challenge to summarize a topic that we have laid out so many times from so many internally consistent points of view. We suggest that our ancient ancestors followed a simple, straightforward fertility religion for thousands of years prior to the officially recognized date of ca 6500 BCE at Çatal Hüyük in modern Turkey.8
A flaw in the conventional interpretation is the requirement that followers of what I call EMC must have “Venus” statuettes for archaeological artifacts. If you survey the art of the native peoples of the world, you will see that many have some recognizable form of this old culture. Very few of them make “Venus” statuettes! The point is that they chose to use easy to make symbols instead.
Finally, Figure 3 presents some Swastikas from the historic-era with snake-like arms. This suggests that many historic-era people knew the old Swastika meaning. These examples plus the general EMC context of most Swastika-usage suggest that the present model is the dominant interpretation.
Figure 3. Selected Swastika symbols from ancient art of the historic era having snake-like arms: A-Tray from Rhodes (585 BCE) [Brit Mus]; B – Vase from the Greek culture (ca 500 BCE) of Messapia in So. Italy [Toledo Art Mus]; C – Bird vase from E Greek culture (ca 500 BCE) [Roy Ont Mus]; D – Bowl from E Greek culture (615 BCE) of Denos [Brit Mus]; E – Figurine shield from Joche III (ca 300 CE) in Peru [St Louis Art Mus]; F – Woodland Indian (ca 1000CE) pattern die [McClung Mus, Univ TN]; G – Vase from the Canosean culture (300 BCE) of Greek Italy [Roy Ont Mus]. Line drawings (A & F) by BH Moseley from JJ White photographs.
  1. Constance Irwin, Fair Gods and Stone Faces, St Martin’s Press, New York, 1963, 347p.
  2. JJ White and BH Moseley, “Burrows Cave: Fraud or Find of the Century? (aka Men of Tyre in Ancient Illinois and Other Worldwide Destinations)”, The Ancient American 1(2), 4-15 (1993).
  3. JJ White, “Tyre – Circle Cross Connection Found at Burrows Cave”, Midwestern Epigraphic J 7, 91 (1993).
  4. JJ White, “Earth Mother Sacred Language: A Key To Ancient Names Worldwide”, Midwestern Epigraphic Journal 10(1), 23-33 (1996).
  5. JJ White, “Self-Consistency of EMSL: The Case of the Words ‘Man’ and ‘Ban’, Midwestern Epigraphic Journal 12/13, 55-62 (1998-9).
  6. Gertrude Jobes, Dictionary of Mythology Folklore and Symbols, Scarecrow Press, New York, 1962, pp 1193, 1517; she was a thorough scholar, and yet her essay gives no hint of the original EMC usage and meaning.
  7. Barbara G Walker, The Women’s Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets, Castle Books, Edison, NJ, 1996. See, pp 733, 964-965.
  8. Joseph Campbell, The Flight of the Wild Gander, HarperPerennial, New York, 1990, pp 136, 146-147, 150, and 165. FP 1951
  9. Eric Partridge, Origins: A Short Etymological Dictionary of Modern English, Greenwich House, New York, 1983. See, “night”, p 435.
  10. F Hancar, “Zum Problem der Venusstatuetten im eurasiatischen Jungpaläolithikum”, Praehistorische Zeitschrift, XXX-XXXI Band, 1939-40, 1/2 Heft, pp 85-156. See Taf VII, p 127 and Taf VIII, p 129.
  11. FK Volkov, “Paleoliticeskaya stojanka v Mezine”, Tr XIV archeol sjezda v Cerigove, t III, 1909; F Vovk, “Paleoliticni znachidki s Mizeni”, Zap Ukr nauk tovaristva, k IV, 1909.
  12. RG Klein, Ice-Age Hunters of the Ukraine, University of Chicago, Chicago, 1973, p 86.
  13. ZA Abramova, Paleolithic Art in the Territory of the USSR, AN SSSR, Moscow, 1962, plates 31, 32, and 35.
  14. JJ White and BH Moseley, back page art, Midwestern Epigraphic NL 12(5), 17(3), 18(1), 18(2), and19(3).
  15. JJ White, “Applications of Earth Mother Sacred Language”, Midwestern Epigraphic Journal 14, 135-138 (2000).