Saturday, May 14, 2016

Essence of his Philosophy of Advaitha-Dasa Sloki or Nirvana Dasakam- Adi Shankaracharya-Advaita Philosophy

Adi Sankara explains the essence of his Philosophy of Advaitha
in the following ten verses......Dasa Sloki or Nirvana Dasakam.
There are two stories about its origin.
One says that when Adi Sankara approached Sage Govinda Pada and requested him to make him his disciple, then it seems Govinda Pada asked the young boy, “Who are you?” and this is his reply.
Another story tells that when Sri Sankara said that he is about to leave this earth, his disciples wanted to tell them all his teachings in a summary form and this is the reply.
Swami Madhusudhana Sarawathi has written a commentary called “Sidhantha Bindu” on these ten verses.
You can hear this great stotra by clicking
Dasa Sloki or Nirvana Dasakam
Na bhoomir na thoyam na thejo na vayu,
Na Kham nendriyam vaa na thesham samooha,
Anaikanthikathwath suspthyeka siddha,
Thadekovasishta Shiva kevaloham. 1
I am not earth, I am not water.
I am not light, I am not wind,
I am not ether, I am not sense organs,
Nor am I a combination of these,
Because they don’t always exist.
I am simply Shiva the self,
For this remains even in sleep,
After everything is taken out.
Na varna , na varnasramachara dharma,
Na me dharana dhyana yogadhayopi,
Anathmasrayo aham mamadhya sahanath,
Thadekovasishta Shiva kevaloham. 2
I am not the caste, I am not the caste rules,
I am not stages of life,
I am not rules , I am not the just conduct,
I am not meditation, I am not yogic practice,
For the concept of I and me destroy all these.
I am simply Shiva the self,
For this remains even in sleep,
After everything is taken out.
Na matha pitha vaa na deva na loka,
Na veda na yagna na theertham bruvanthi,
Sushupthou nirasthadhi soonyath makathwath,
Thadekovasishta Shiva kevaloham. 3
Neither the mother nor the father.
Neither the celestial gods nor the earth,
Neither the Vedas ,nor the fire sacrifice,
Nor the holy waters, they say, exist in sleep.
But there is no void in sleep, either.
So I am simply Shiva the self,
For this remains even in sleep,
After everything is taken out.
Na sankhyam na saivam na thath pancha rathram,
Na jainam , na meemamskader matham vaa,
Visishtanubhoothya vishudhath maka thwath,
Thadekovasishta Shiva kevaloham. 4
Neither the Sankhya principle,
Nor the doctrine of Shaiva,
Not the principle of pancha rathra,
Nor the doctrine of Jainas,
Nor the principle of Meemasa,
Are Unique experiences,
For the soul is the purest known truth.,
So I am simply Shiva the self,
For this remains even in sleep,
After everything is taken out.
Na shuklam na krishnam na raktham na peetham,
Na peenam na kubjam na hruswam na deergam,
Na roopam thada jyothirakarakathwath,
Thadekovasishta Shiva kevaloham. 5
Neither white nor black,
Neither red nor yellow,
Neither large nor thin,
Neither short , nor tall,
And neither with a form is the soul,
For this soul is the form of the light,
So I am simply Shiva the self,
For this remains even in sleep,
After everything is taken out.
Na jagranna me swapnako vaa sushupthi,
Ne viswo na vaa thaijasa pragnako vaa,
Avidhyathmakathwath trayanam thureeyam,
Thadekovasishta Shiva kevaloham. 6
Neither the state of waking,
Nor the state of dream,
Nor the state of deep sleep is for me,
Neither the earthy feelings,
Nor the glorified feelings of dreams,
Nor the feeling of wakefulness in sleep am I,
For these are the souls of avidya,
And I am the fourth , the thureeya, which is beyond these,
So I am simply Shiva the self,
For this remains even in sleep,
After everything is taken out.
Na sastha na sasthram na sishyo na siksha,
Na cha thwam, na cha aham na cha ayam prapancha,
Swaroopavabadhadhi vikalapa sahishnu,
Thadekovasishta Shiva kevaloham. 7
Neither the origin of knowledge,
Nor the books of knowledge,
Neither he disciple nor the teacher,
Neither you, nor me and nor this world am I,
For this is not tolerated by innate realization,
So I am simply Shiva the self,
For this remains even in sleep,
After everything is taken out.
Na chordhwam na chadho na cha andhar na bahyam,
Na madhyam na thiryang na poorva paraddik,
Viyad vyapakathwath Akandaika roopa,
Thadekovasishta Shiva kevaloham. 8
Neither above , nor below,
Neither inside nor outside,
Neither the middle , nor the across,
Neither the east nor the west am I,
For like the all pervading ether,
I am spread everywhere,
So I am simply Shiva the self,
For this remains even in sleep,
After everything is taken out.
Api vyapakathwadhi Thathwa prayogath,
Swatha sidha bhavananya asrayathwath,
Jagat thuchamethath samastham thadanya,
Thadekovasishta Shiva kevaloham. 9
Being all pervasive and goal oriented,
Being dependent on its own nature,
Than depending on any out side thing,
This world is trivial as it is different from self.
So I am simply Shiva the self,
For this remains even in sleep,
After everything is taken out.
Na chaikam thadanyath dweetheeyam kutha syath,
Na chaa kevalathwam na vaa kevalathwam,
Na soonyam na chaa soonyamadvaidhakathwath,
Kadam sarva vedhatham sidham braveemi 10
It is not even one and how can it be two,
Neither is it unique and nor not unique,
Neither is it a vacuum nor something different from it,
For it is the essence of non dual reality
So how can I tell about what is established by all philosophy?
~ By Adi Sankara Bhagawat Pada: Translated by P.R.Ramachander via Puducode Rama Iyer Ramachander

Saturday, April 23, 2016

Varahamihira- Who discoverd Gravity before Newton

Real scientist who discovered gravity was Varahamihira (505–587 CE), a Hindu astronomer and mathematician who thought of the idea of gravity but did not give it a specific name or meaning. Varahamihira claimed that there should be a force which might be keeping bodies stuck to the earth, and also keeping heavenly bodies in their determined places.
Brahmagupta (598-670 CE), Hindu astrologer and mathematician who held the view that the earth was spherical and that it attracts things. He even compared it to elements like water and fire. He also talked about ‘gravity’ in one of his statements saying: 

Bodies fall towards the earth as it is in the nature of the earth to attract bodies, just as it is in the nature of water to flow. The Sanskrit term for gravity is Gurutvakarshan, which is an amalgam of Guru-tva-akarshan. Akarshan means to be attracted. The term Guru-tva-akarshan can be interpreted to mean, “to the attracted by the Master”. The 11th century saw the coming of another Hindu astrologer named Bhaskarachaya, also known as Bhaskara II.

Bhaskaracharya was one of the most prominent astronomers and mathematicians of the 12th century. He is also considered as the greatest mathematician from the medieval era. He is known amongst the theorist for discovering principles on astronomy and calculus. In his treatise Siddhant Shiromani he writes on planetary positions, eclipses, cosmography, mathematical techniques and astronomical equipment. He continued the efforts of Brahmagupta and also contributed to ‘Surya Siddhanta‘, an astronomical text dated around 400 A.D. In Surya Siddhant, he explains that earth has gravitational force (gurutvakarshan shakti). There is a mutual attraction between the planets and this allows them to hold themselves firmly in space. 
Surya Siddhanta is partly based on Vedanga Jyotisha, which itself might reflect traditions going back to the Indian Iron Age (around 1000 BCE). Here are some of the slokas of Bhaskaracharya that mentions how gravitation works: 

Objects fall on the earth due to a force of attraction by the earth. Therefore, the earth, planets, constellations, moon and sun are held in orbit due to this attraction. The spherical earth stands at the centre of earth in space due to the dharanatmikam sakti which prevents earth from falling away and helps it to stand firm. He also mentioned the shape of the earth while answering his daughter’s question.

Bhaskaracharya states that what we see is not the reality, Earth may appear flat but it is spherical in reality. He further explains this theory by stating: if you draw a very big circle and look at one fourth of its circumference, you see it as a straight line. But in true sense it is a circle. Similarly earth is spherical in shape. These historical mentions are the proofs that laws of gravity was first discovered in India. India is considered as a traditional country but the world is unaware of our contributions to this modern world. Our theories were used as a base for many concepts such as weather forecast, astronomy, astrology, aviation etc. India has developed some of the best mathematicians the world has ever seen. Many of these geniuses were not given credit for their work. 
Source: &

Sunday, April 10, 2016

Death of Hindu Empire of Vijay Nagar by Secular King

भारतीय इतिहास के सबसे बड़े सेक्युलर राजा की विनाश-गाथा 

जब उत्तर भारत ख़िलजी, तुग़लक़, ग़ोरी, सैयद, बहमनी और लोदी वंश के विदेशी मुसलमानों के हाथों रौंदा जा रहा था तब भी दक्षिण भारत के "विजयनगर साम्राज्य" (1336-1665) ने 300 से अधिक वर्षों तक दक्षिण मे हिन्दू अधिपत्य कायम रखा ! इसी विजयनगर साम्राज्य के महाप्रतापी राजा थे "कृष्णदेव राय" ।
बाबरनामा, तुज़के बाबरी सहित फ़रिश्ता, फ़ारस के यात्री अब्दुर्रज्जाक ने "विजयनगर साम्राज्य" को भारत का सबसे वैभवशाली, शक्तिशाली और संपन्न राज्य बताया है, जहां हिन्दू-बौद्ध-जैन धर्मामलंबी बर्बर मुस्लिम आक्रान्ताओं से खुद को सुरक्षित पाते थे । जिनके दरबार के 'अष्ट दिग्गज' में से एक थे महाकवि "तेनालीराम", जिनकी तेलगू भाषा की कहानियों को हिन्दी-उर्दू मे रूपांतरित कर "अकबर-बीरबल" की झूठी कहानी बनाई गयी ।
इसी शक्तिशाली साम्राज्य मे एक "सेक्युलर राजा रामराय" का उदय हुआ, जिस "शक्तिशाली विजयनगर साम्राज्य" पर 300 साल तक विदेशी आक्रांता गिद्ध आंख उठा कर देखने की हिम्मत नही कर सके थे, उसे एक सेक्युलर सोच ने पल भर मे खंडहर मे तब्दील कर दिया ।
राजा कृष्णदेव राय की 1529 मे मृत्यु के 12 साल बाद "राम राय" विजयनगर" के राजा बने । रामराय पडले दर्जे के सेक्युलरवादी थे, सर्वधर्मसमभाव और हिन्दू-मुस्लिम एकता मे विश्वास रखने वाले रामराय ने दो गरीब अनाथ बेसहारा मुस्लिम भाइयों को गोद लिया । इन दोनो मुस्लिम भाइयों को न सिर्फ अपने बेटे का दर्जा दिया बल्कि उनके लिये महल प्रांगण मे ही मस्जिद बनबा कर दिया ।
ऐसे राजा रामराय के शासनकाल मे "विजयनगर साम्राज्य" की सैन्य शक्ति मे कोई कमी नही आई थी, कहा जाता है उनकी सेना मे 2 लाख सिपाही थे । अकेले विजयनगर से जीत पाने मे असमर्थ मुस्लिम आक्रान्ताओं ने 1567 में "जिहाद" का नारा देकर एक साथ आक्रमण किया ।
जिहाद के नारे के साथ 4 मुसलिम राज्यों ( अहमदनगर, बीजापुर, गोलकुण्डा और बीदर ) ने एक साथ विजयनगर पर हमला किया, इस युद्ध को राक्षस-टंग़ड़ी' या "तालीकोटा का युद्ध" कहा जाता है । 4 मुस्लिम राज्यों के सम्मिलित आक्रमण के बावजूद विजयनगर युद्ध जीत चुका था पर एन मौके पर राजा रामराय के गोद लिये दोनो लड़कों ने रामराय पर पीछे से वार कर दिया और कत्ल कर दिया ।
रामराय के गोद लिये बेटों के हाथों मारे जाते ही मुस्लिम सेनयों ने भयंकर मार-काट मचा दिया, लगातार 3 दिनों तक विजयनगर के स्त्री-पुरुष-बच्चे बेदर्दी से कत्ल किये गये, जिसकी सांख्या 1 लाख से ज्यादा बताई जाती है, विजयनगर को आग लगाकर नष्ट कर दिया गया । इस प्रकार एक सेक्युलर सोच ने समृद्ध-सक्षम हिन्दू साम्राज्य का अंत कर दिया ! इसी महान साम्राज्य के खंडहरों पर खड़ा है आज का शहर "हम्पी", जिसे यूनेस्को ने विश्व धरोहर विरासत के रूप मे दर्ज किया है ।
इतिहास गवाह है --अपने माता-पिता सहित पूर्वजों के माथे के कलंक ये सेक्युलर प्राणी जन्म ही कुल-खानदान, स्वधर्म, मातृभूमि का नाश करने के लिये लेते हैं - 


Saturday, April 2, 2016

History of Phoenician- Ancient Indian descent and ancestors of current Europe

Did you know?

  • Western/Latin and other alphabets come from the Phoenician alphabet?
  • Beritus or Berytus (modern Beirut, Lebanon) had a very important School of Law in the Roman Empire?
  • The Bible is called thus because it refers to the Phoenician city of Byblos (“marketplace of papyrus or byblinos” in Greek?
    • Despite the fact that the Romans destroyed Punic Carthage in about 150 B.C., in 193 A.D. the Punic Septimius Severus became Emperor of Rome and one third the Roman Senate was made of Punic people.
    • King Solomon’s great Temple was built in the style of Tyre’s Melqart Temple by Phoenician artisans using the Cedars of Lebanon?
    • The Egyptian Pharoahs employed Phoenician cedar for their wood needs?
    • King Solomon, in his old age, became a worshipper of the Phoenician goddess Ashtarte?
    • Melchizedek, the King of Salem (King of Jerusalem) and Priest of the Most High God (El Elion), who offered bread and wine to Abraham, was Phoenician? [PP: Well,some say it was Shemhimself who founded Jerusalem & lived 600 years!]
    • The Pentateuch (Moses’ first five books, if not more, of the the Old Testament Bible, the Torah) was/were written down (transliterated) in Phoenician script?
    • Jesus Christ visited Phoenicia and among the first to believe in him was a Phoenician woman?
    • The bishops of all Phoenician cities were consecrated as bishops by the Apostles or their immediate successors?
    • Tyre, Sidon and other Phoenician
    •  Christian cities and towns provided rest-stops and shelters for the Apostles on their way to convert the world?
    • St. Jerome referred to Tyre as the place where St. Paul once knelt; and called Zarephath, Elijah’s town?
    • Phoenicians circumnavigated Africa?
    • Phoenicians were the first to use the Pole Star for navigation?
    • Phoenicians were able traders throughout the Mediterranean?
    • Phoenicians colonized the far corners of the Mediterranean from the Island of Cyprus in the East to Spain and Gibraltar including the outer Atlantic coast and North Africa in the West?
    • Britain was the Phoenicians’ secret treasure of tin where the name “Britain” may be coming from Barr (land) of Tannic (Tin)? Hence Britannia did not come from Prutani, the name applied to the Celts by the Romans, and some claim that the Celts were Phoenicians.
    • The Phoenicians reached North America BC and Punic inscriptions in Massachusetts and Iowa confirm this fact?
      • In the Iliad and the Odyssey, Homer mentions Phoenicia, Phoenicians and Phoenician cities.
      • The Phoenician possessed the science or art of dentistry as evident by the fine braces on a lower jaw of a scull?
      • The Phoenician language is still spoken today in Malta (orMaltese is a mixture of Phoenician/Punic and other Mediterranean languages) ?
      • To beef up their naval powers, conquerors employed the Phoenicians in building warship-fleets
        • The Phoenicians raised elephants on farms?
        • The first parliament ever to convene in the Middle East met in the Phoenician confederate city of Tripoli?
        • Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (193 – 211 AD) descended from early Phoenician settlers and spoke with a Phoenician accent?
        • Pythagoras was Phoenician and was initiated into the ‘Ancient Mysteries’ of the Phoenicians c. 548 B.C. and studied for about 3 years in the temples of Tyre, Sidon, and Byblos and that his father was a Phoenician merchant from Tyre?
        • Archimedes c.287 B.C.-212 B.C., Greek mathematician, physicist, and inventor, died during the Roman assault on Syracuse while designing a catapult and the Carthaginians fought on his side to defend the city.
        • Thales of Miletus (who was half Phoenician), one of the first great scientists, is said to have forecast the solar eclipse of the year 585 BC.
        • Zeno of Citium was a glowing star in the pre-Socratic age but was ridiculed in Athens for his Phoenician appearance.
        • Popes Anicetus (155 – 166 AD), John V (685-686 AD), Sergius I (687-701 AD) and Gregory III (741-752 AD) and Constantius were Phoenicians?
        • Aristotle held up the constitution of Carthage as a model.
        • Hasdrubal-Clitomachus added to Arcesilas a critical interpretation of certitude which makes him a forerunner of modern thought.
        • St. Augustine was Phoenician. He wrote “…there was a great deal of virtue and wisdom in the Punic books”.
        • St. Jerome believed Punic erotic poetry to be pernicious and described it as “lewd”.
        • Many parts of the Old Testament were plagiarized from Phoenician literature, poetry, and religion, similar to plagiarizing of the Book of Job (for example ) from Babylonian tales?
        • Phoenician sacrifice of children to the gods was copied/practiced by many Semites such as Abraham’s attempt to sacrifice his son?
        • The Phoenicians had a rough knowledge about pi (3.1416) at the time of Hiram and the building of Solomon’s Temple?
        • St. Frumentius, Phoenician from Tyre, converted Ethiopia to Christianity?
        • Mochus, a Sidonian, wrote a work on the atomic theory.

        Missionaries of Civilization

        The Phoenicians were instrumental in disseminating their form of writing which became our modern alphabet and in opening up various civilizations and cultures of the Mediterranean basin to each other. Both sciences and pseudosciences spread from Egypt and Mesopotamia to Phoenicia and Anatolia. The Phoenicians, in particular, transmitted much of this knowledge to the various lands of the Mediterranean, especially to the Greeks. The direction taken by these influences can be followed from Egypt to Phoenicia, Syria and Cyprus. The evidence comes thanks to a combination of excavated art forms that prove the direction of movement, as well as to Greek tradition. The latter lays great stress on what the early Greek philosophers learned from Egypt. Mesopotamian influence can be traced especially through the partial borrowing of Babylonian science and divination by the Hittites and later by the transmission of information through Phoenicia. The Egyptians and Mesopotamians wrote no theoretical treatises; information had to be transmitted piecemeal through personal contacts.
        Phoenician, what’s in a name?

        It is not certain what the Phoenicians called themselves in their own language; it appears to have been Kena’ani (Akkadian: Kinahna), “Canaanites.” In Hebrew the word kena’ani has the secondary meaning of “merchant,” a term that well characterizes the Phoenicians.
        The name ‘Phoenicians,’ was not what the Phoenicians called themselves but what the Greeks called them; the word means dark red in Greek and refers to the royal Tyrian purple dye that Phoenicians extracted from murex shells to dye cloth with and sold to the rich of the ancient world. The name appears in Psalm 45:14, in the phrase bat melek Ponnima (daughter of the king of the Phoenicians), which parallels bat Sor (daughter of Tyre) of verse 13. The same term, Ponnim (meaning the Phoenician language), appears in a comedy called Poenulus, by the Roman playwright T. Maccius Plautus (died 184 B.C.). TheLatin poenus (noun) and punicus (adjective), as well as Greekphoinikos, refer to the term Phoenician.

        Geography and Major Cities
        Political Structure and Colonies
        Their city states had a loose alliance and they established colonies in the far corners of the Mediterranean.
        Religion and Mythology
        They worshiped fertility gods and goddesses and their belief system was influenced by other religions in the Eastern Mediterranean and had some influence on Greek and Roman mythologies. At the beginning of the Christian era, Phoenicians were the first to accept the new faith after the Jews.
        Troubled History
        Phoenician cities, at the cross-roads of the East, were often invaded and subjugated by foreign conquerors which include Egyptians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Macedonians, Persians, and Romans, in addition to others. However, the Phoenicians were basically traders not warriors; and trade and war do not work well together.
        Creators of Alphabet
        They created a form of alphabet which evolved and was adapted by the Greeks to become the backbone of modern alphabet.
        Commerce and Other Achievements
        The Phoenicians were sea-faring traders who carried merchandise and goods across the Mediterranean. They circumnavigator Africa and used the Polar Star as a navigational guide.
        Important Visitor to Phoenicia (as opposed to invaders)
        Herodotus, historian
        Jesus Christ of Nazareth
        Saint Paul
        Saint Peter and other Apostles
        Origen, Christian scholar
        Pythagoras, mathematician and philosopher
        Others (more to come)
        Very Important Phoenicians (VIPs)
        Antipater of Sidon, Phoenician epigrammatist (150 BC – 127 BC)
        Aquilina of Byblos, Christian martyr (died in 293 A.D.)
        Barbara of Baalbeck/Heliopolis, Christian martyr (died in 237 A.D.)
        Cadmus, “Teacher of the Phoenician Alphabet”

        Christina of Tyre, Christian martyr (died in 300 A.D.)
        Dorotheus, Jurist and Professor of Roman Law
        Eusebius Bishop of Berytus (Beirut)
        Eusebius of Caesarea, Christian Icon
        Frumentius, Saint, Apostle of Abyssinia
        Hanno, Circumnavigator of Africa
        Himilco, Voyager
        Hiram the Architect, Solomon’s Temple Designer
        Jezebel Princess of Sidon and Queen of Israel (wife of King Ahab of Israel)
        John Mark Bishop of Byblos designated Bishop by St. Peter
        Pamphilus, Saint
        King Hiram of Tyre
        King Abi-Milki of Tyre
        King Ethbaal of Sidon (father of Princess Jezebel)
        King Ahiram of Byblos
        King Rib-Addi of Byblos
        King Zimrida of Sidon
        King Jabin of Hazor
        Matrona of Perge, Saint
        Mochus of Sidon wrote on the atomic theory
        Papinian, Jurist
        Perpetua and Felicity, Christian martyrs of Carthage (died in 203 A.D.)
        Philo of Byblos, Writer
        Porphyry of Tyre, Writer
        Phoenician Popes
        Sanchuniathon, Writer
        Thales of Citium
        Thales of Miletus, Astronomer
        Theodosia of Tyre, Christian martyr (died 293 A.D.)
        Ulpian, Jurist
        Zadok the Priest
        Zeno of Citium, Philosopher
        Zeno of Sidon, Philosopher
        Others (more to come)
        Phoenician Art, Crafts, Music, and Literature
        They dyed cloth which was the prized possession of the rich and worked in precious metals and ivory. Most Phoenician literature is unknown or was lost. However, second hand information and some ecclesiastical Phoenician works survive. Traces of their music may still be found in some church music today.
        The Logo or Coat of Arms ©
        The logo or Coat of Arms is my own creation and it represents Phoenician achievements and mythology. The two creatures or mythological monsters — part horse, part fish — called hippocampus come from Phoenician antiquity and represent Phoenician mythology. (The Trade link, under the subtitle Transit Trade, contains an image of a Phoenician silver coin with an impression of the hippocampus monster and a Phoenician ship.) Further, on the top of the logo, a piece of marble with Phoenician script represents Phoenician alphabet. Beneath it, the cloth represents famous Phoenician dyed cloth. At the very bottom, amphorae represent vessels which were used to carry Phoenician merchandise, as they traded about the Mediterranean.
        Why a Web page about Phoenicia?
        As a duty to my ancestors, to my national origin, to the young and old who do not know, to the old who wish to ignore the facts or like to hide them and to all those who are interested in history and cultures, I compiled this information.
        I dedicate this site in loving memory to my parents, Lucy and George, and to the good people of Bmakine, Souk El-Gharb, Ein El-Saiydeh, and Ein El-Rimmeneh — in the Lebanese mountains — where ever they may be.
      • © Copyright, All rights reserved by original referenced materials and the author: © Phoenician Canaanite Encyclopedia — ©Phoenician Encyclopedia — © Punic Encyclopedia — © Canaanite Encyclopedia — © Encyclopedia Phoeniciana, Encyclopedia Punica, Encyclopedia Canaanitica.
        Use of materials from this site are not allowed withou
        t written permission and must hyperlink back to

Ancient India ,Egypt, South America and Yugas


  The duration of the Satya Yuga millennium equals 4,800 years of the demigods; the duration of the Dvāpara millennium equals 2,400 years; and that of the Kali millennium is 1,200 years of the demigods […] As aforementioned, one year of the demigods is equal to 360 years of the human beings. The duration of the Satya-yuga is therefore 4,800 x 360, or 1,728,000 years. The duration of the Tretā-yuga is 3,600 x 360, or 1,296,000 years. The duration of the Dvāpara-yuga is 2,400 x 360, or 864,000 years. And the last, the Kali-yuga, is 1,200 x 360, or 432,000 years in total.’
The Dvapara Yuga is the third out of four yugas, or ages, described in the scriptures of Hinduism. This yuga comes between Treta Yuga and Kali Yuga.
According to thePuranas, this yuga ended at the moment when Krishnareturned to his eternal abode of Vaikuntha. According to theBhagavata Purana, the Dvapara Yuga lasts 864,000 years.

Submarine megalithic structures off the coasts of Malta, Egypt, Lebanon, India, China, andJapan in waters up to 70 meters deep, were evidently submerged when the Ice Age ended and sea-level rose about 100 meters because of runoff from the melting of the Ice Age ice-packs.

Many of these megaliths were astronomical measuring devices, which indicates that their Ice Age constructors had map-making capabilities and sailed the seas, as demonstrated by a commonality of the architectural motifs of the megaliths worldwide, and as demonstrated by Turkish navigational maps which were sourced from ancient Phoenician maps and show coastlines of the Ice Age world with accuracies of latitude and longitude to not be matched until modern times.
Mainstream earth-chronologists insist that the Ice Age ended around 10000 B.C., at which point the sea-level rose to submerge these megaliths. However, the submerged megaliths are of designs and uses characteristic of around 2000 B.C. Are we therefore to believe that advanced civilizations actually began before 10000 B.C., and not around 3000 B.C. (as is commonly published)?
Mainstream archaeologists have said that the advanced civilizations of the Old and New Worlds appeared suddenly around 3000 B.C. without evidence of cultural and technological evolution to that pyramid-building level of mathematical and engineering sophistication. Therefore, how can it be that the megaliths were submerged 12,000 years ago?
In the Rig Veda of ancient Hinduism, the text says that the N.W. Indian city of Dwarka was submerged by the encroaching ocean when the ancient patriarch Krishna died.
Are we to believe that Krishna died around 10,000 B.C, and therefore that Hinduism is over 12,000 years old?
The megaliths of ancientDwarka are in fact found submerged just offshore from modern Dwarka, and the huge stone walls built of megalithic blocks which had been interlocked with chiseled L-shaped dovetails are characteristic of the Indus Civilization that popularly is advertised to have had flourished near 2,000 B.C., not 10,000 B.C.
he Gulfs of Cambay and Kutch, just south of Dwarka, also hold submerged megalithic Indus Civilization structures that were covered by the ocean at the melting of the Ice Age. Computer-generated maps of the world as it was during the Ice Age reveal thatancient Dwarka was about 100 km inland during the Ice Age.
Also inland were the now submerged Indus Civilization megaliths on the floor of the Gulfs of Kutch and Cambay, as were the megaliths of Tamil pyramidal construction off the coast of southern India at Cape Cormorin and Madurai.
Ancient Hindu legends reveal that two Sangams (schools) were submerged by encroaching seas, and local divers say that thesubmerged pyramids look like the current Sangam pyramid at Madurai.
According to the computer-generated Ice Age maps, about 25 million square miles of land were submerged by the rising sea-level because of the melting of the Ice Age ice-pack, and much of that land is now the floor of the shallow seas of southern Asia.
To the east of India, Ice Age megaliths of the Jomon Civilization are found on the sea-floor between Japan and Taiwan (at Yonaguni, Kerama, Chatan, and more). These stone circles, tiered plazas, and step-pyramids of astronomical measuring significance are found on the sea-floor, as they are on land, thus proving that these buildings were of the same time period.
Are we to believe that these astronomically significant megaliths were built some 12,000 years ago at a time when mainstream earth-chronologists insist that the Ice Age ended and sea level as a result rose about 100 meters to engulf these megaliths which are evidently and contradictorily of 2,000 B.C. vintage?
Are we to believe that the Hindu and Tamil recounts of history have been going on for 12,000 years, and that humanity developed no further and built no more for 7,000 years (from 10,000 B.C. to 3,000 B.C.) until advanced cultures reemerged in Egypt and Sumeria (Babylon)?
Such a torturous manipulation of the evidences from the archaeology and the ancient legends is unnecessary with the realization that the Ice Age did in fact end much later than is popularly advertised.
Egypt and Sumeria were building their megaliths when the Indus,Tamil, and Jomon people were building theirs during the Ice Age.
The ancient history book Popol Vuh of the Olmec-descendedMayans recalls the time when their seafaring ancient ancestors arrived from the east because of their sophisticated navigational skills as they “studied and measured the round face of the earth and the arch of the sky” in a time of “constant twilight” and “black rain.”
The obviously heavy volcanic ash content of this rain and the dense cloud-cover from which this rain came that blocked the sun to cause “constant twilight”, shows that the Mayan ancestors arrived during the Ice Age.