Thursday, November 26, 2015

Hindu cosmology-Part 1

Western archeologists have a curious notion that although human beings have been around for hundreds of thousands of years, civilization itself is a recent invention of only six thousand years ago. It is believed and taught that the cradle of civilization began in the fertile crescent of the
The problems in tracing origins back through time are many. First is the fact that great periods of time have a tendency to erase traces of cultures. When all traces decay then the culture is effectively obliterated. Whatever is left undestroyed by time becomes subjected to the cultural and personal opinions of archeologists. Such opinions may destroy and obliterate knowledge of the culture much more effectively than time ever could. In the west we have a tradition of trying to understand life by studying corpses or trying to know health by studying disease. Archeology becomes an exercise of the imagination when trying to reconstruct a living culture based on remains of pot shards, bones and bricks.
Prior to the nineteenth century, it was piously believed in western civilization that the earth was created in seven days at around five thousand years ago. The Biblical version of creation was challenged by the dual developments of Darwinism and the discovery of dinosaur fossils. Even though the gradual acceptance of these new ideas forced a revision of geological time scales, a corresponding revision within archeological studies lagged. Part of this may have been due to another emerging ideology of the nineteenth century called progressivism. Progressivism is the idea that human beings are in a progressive march towards a goal of better living and greater knowledge. This seductive ideology had its roots in earlier centuries but had its greatest impact in the second half of the nineteenth century where it influenced the thinking of such great men as Darwin and Marx.
The western tradition of writing history may be traced to the Judeo‐Christian scriptures wherein one group of people with shared beliefs write about the happenings of that group and the people outside that group. The six‐thousand year barrier seems to be a common trait to that tradition. Other cultures, the Hindus for example, regard the earth in terms of billions of years old and civilization in terms of hundreds of thousands of years. The Hindus do not think of time in linear terms with a beginning and an end. Rather, they think in terms of great cycles of thousands and millions of years.
Hindu scriptures were routinely disparaged by early British indologists as exaggerated stories an myths. Biblical stories on the other hand where accepted by the same indologists as being somewhere between salient fact and articles of faith. German indologist Max Müller proposed the theory about Aryan invaders colonizing India from the north. This implies that the Indians are so inferior that it is unlikely, if not impossible, for them to civilize themselves without outside help. Native versions of the Indian origins found within living tradition and culture were totally ignored and thought to be unreliable. The British occupation of India produced scholars who's pious duty was to discredit the Hindu tradition and culture. Dates of events given in Hindu scripture based thousands of years ago were redated by the English to have occurred after the birth of Christ for no other reason than one could never rely on the version of a Hindu; the speculations of an English nobleman being wholly preferable. It remains ironic, however, that even if the dates given by the English be accepted at face value, the Hindu accomplishments in art, architecture, science, mathematics, literature, medicine and philosophy were made at a time when the English and all of Europe were still living a neolithic lifestyle.
Contrary to this point of view, it can be shown that not only did the Hindus develop a mature culture independent from western influences, the western cultures borrowed from the Hindus more often than otherwise.

Hindu astronomy, their method of observation and the resulting calendrics differs considerably from the Greeks. Now the question arises that if the Hindus borrowed from the Greeks why didn't the Hindus also modify their calendar with the Greek calendar? Remember that ancient astronomy and calendrics were inseparable. Another point: It is a usual occurrence that a borrowed concept takes along a borrowed technique. The methods of observation usually accompanies the knowledge of the things observed. Why is it that the Hindus have a totally unique system of measurement and observation indigenous to their astronomical lore? The champions of western culture would have us overlook these details.
It seems highly evident that the co‐existing Indian and Mesopotamian cultures exchanged ideas long before the Greeks learned how to civilize themselves. Any similarity between Greek and Hindu sciences is either co‐incidental or due to Greek plagiarism of Indian and Mesopotamian concepts. Yet the bias regarding Greek primacy in all things ancient persists in western educational institutions today. Cultural bias is as destructive of fact as is the passage of time erasing artifacts. What is often passed off as profound knowledge and discovery is nothing more than the reinforcement of bias.
The main concern that would indicate the existence of civilization long before six thousand years ago is that of time measurement or calendrics, the study of which reveals much of what is missing from the digging and dating of bones. The calendar is a vital point of focus for any organized culture or society. Religious, economic and agricultural activities revolve around the calendar. To construct accurate tables of heavenly cycles, a culture must observe the sky for many centuries or at least borrow tables from another culture that has spent centuries studying the heavens. The amount of accuracy derived from observing the heavens over a long period of time suggests that the roots of civilization and some of its earliest accomplishments are much older than six thousand years. Specifically the Indian and Mesopotamian cultures.

Basis of the Sexagesimal System

The sexagesimal system of measurement is based on the number sixty. There are sixty seconds in a minute, sixty minutes in a hour. When we measure angles, we use the sexagesimal to express units in degrees, minutes and seconds. This method of measurement familiar to both the Indian and Mesopotamian cultures. It may be that one culture borrowed from the other or that both developed the system independently. Or it could be of such antiquity that both cultures shared a common origin. Whatever the case, it seems quite evident that the sexagesimal system may be based in large part upon the observation of the planets, specifically Jupiter and Saturn.
After every sixty years, Jupiter and Saturn will return to the same relative place in the zodiac. Even though they conjoin every twenty years, it is every third conjunction that they will be in the same zodiacal position as they were sixty years before. Jupiter takes twelve years to complete one circuit of the zodiac. It takes thirty years for Saturn to complete a similar circuit.
Consider the following:
  1. Jupiter takes twelve years years to transit the zodiac. The zodiac has twelve signs. Jupiter travels an average thirty degrees or one complete sign in one solar year.
  2. Saturn takes an average thirty years to transit the zodiac. Each zodiacal sign has thirty degrees and Saturn travels one degree per month. Thirty months for Saturn to travel one sign. Three hundred and sixty months for Saturn to transit the entire zodiac. Jupiter divides the zodiac into twelve parts or signs. The number derived from Saturn's motion suggests the division of each sign into thirty parts or degrees.
  3. Jupiter and Saturn take sixty years between conjunctions to reach the same place in the zodiac. This joint motion suggests the third and fourth division of the degree into sixty minutes and each minute into sixty seconds.
The sixty years cycle of Jupiter and Saturn gives rise to another interesting number. In a sixty year period, Jupiter will complete five circuits of the zodiac and Saturn will complete two circuits. The combined individual cycles equal seven which is also the total number of visible planets plus the two luminaries.

The Seven Day Week

The primacy given to Saturn and Jupiter becomes apparent by the study of the origination of the seven day week which, contrary to common opinion, was not followed by everyone in the ancient world.
The ancient Egyptians had a ten‐day week. The Vedic Indians had a six‐day week. The ancient Babylonians who started the month on the day after the new moon, had the first, eighth, fifteenth and the twenty second day marked out for religious services. This was a kind of seven‐day week with sabbaths, but the last week might be of eight or nine days duration, according as the month, which was lunar, had a length of 29 or 30 days. The ancient Iranians had a separate name for each day of the month, but some days, at intervals of approximately seven, were marked out as Din‐i-Parvan, for religious practices. The pattern followed appears to have been similar to the Babylonian practice.
The continuous seven‐day week was evolved on astrological grounds by unnamed Chaldean astronomers at an unknown epoch, but at least, long before the first century AD, the Jews adopted it as a cardinal part of their faith during the days of their contact with the Chaldeans.
Chaldean astronomers flourished between the seventh century BC and the third century AD. They gave particular attention to the study of the movement of the Sun, the Moon, and the planets, which they identified with their gods. They believed the destiny of kings and states were controlled by the gods, (the planets), and attached the greatest importance to the observation of their positions and movements. They attached magical value to the number seven which was the number of planets or gods controlling human destiny. The two outermost planets, Jupiter and Saturn, moved slowly and solemnly and therefore determined the measured boundaries of all planets within. After every sixty years Jupiter and Saturn meet in the same general area of the zodiac. During that sixty years, Jupiter completed five circuits of the zodiac and Saturn completed two circuits. The combined number of circuits for these ponderous planets is seven.
Jupiter and Saturn along with the Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars, were identified with the chief gods of the Babylonian pantheon.
Table 1: Babylonian gods represented in the heavens by the planets.

Body God Function
1SaturnNinibGod of Pestilence and Misery
2JupiterMardukKing of the Gods
3MarsNergalGod of War
4SunShamashGod of Law and Justice
5VenusIshtarGod of Fertility
6MercuryNabuGod of Writing
7MoonSinGod of Agriculture
Notice that the order of the planets in Table 1 coincides with the apparent average daily motion of the planets from the slowest, Saturn, to the fastest, the Moon.
These seven gods, sitting in solemn conclave, control the destinies of kings and countries, and it was believed that their will and judgment with respect to a particular country or its ruler could be obtained from an interpretation of the position of the seven planets in the heavens, and the nature of the motion of the planets (direct or retrograde). Part of the divinatory practices included knowing what part of the day or night was being ruled or watched over by the gods. Occurrences during a particular watch was believed to forebode particular events consistent with the nature of the watching god.
The day was divided into 24 hours, and each of the seven gods was supposed to keep watch on the world over each hour of the day in rotation. The particular day was named after the god who kept watch at the first hour at Sunrise. Thus on Saturday, the watching god on the first hour was Saturn, and the day was named after him. The succeeding hours of Saturday were watched by the seven gods in rotation as follows:
Figure 1
Above shows the picture for Saturday. On this day Saturn keeps watch at the first hour, so the day is named after him. The second hour is watched over by (2)Jupiter, third by (3)Mars and so on. Saturn is thus seen to preside at the 8th, 15th and 22nd hours of Saturday. Then for the 23rd, 24th and 25th hours come in succession (2)Jupiter, (3)Mars and (4)Sun. The 25th hours is the first hour of the next day, which is accordingly named after the presiding planet of the hour, viz, (4) which is the Sun. We thus get Sunday following Saturday. If we now repeat the process, we get the names of the week days following each other, as follows:
Figure 2
Saturday, Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday.
The Jews, it may be mentioned, reckon the days by ordinal numbers—the first, second, third…seventh day. Although they derived their calendar almost entirely from the Babylonians, they eschewed the god names as being inconsistent with their monotheistic religion. the ordinal first day is Saturday, which is their sabbath.
The ancient Indians did not use the seven day week. The most ancient usage of day names used in India was that of the Nakshatra. There are twenty seven lunar asterisms or constellations in the old lunar zodiac. This number was derived from the average number of days it took the Moon to complete one circuit of the heavens in relation to any particular star (one sidereal revolution). Since the Hindus didn't use hours to divide their day, the natural consequence of using a seven day week would not follow. Instead they divided a day into 60 equal parts called ghatikas. Each ghatika is equal to 24 minutes. The word "ghatika" means little jar and thus the use of water clocks suggest itself. A ghatika is further divided into 60 vinadikas. So between the two cultures, it was the Hindus who made direct use of the sexagesimal system whereas the Chaldeans used an indirect method of 24 hours.
It wasn't until much later in the third century AD where we find the first usage of the seven day week in India. Indeed much of the rest of the world had not adopted it until after the first century AD. It was unknown to the writers of the New Testament who did not mention anything about the day of the week on which Christ was crucified or the the week day which he is alleged to have ascended to heaven. The fixing of Friday and Sunday for these incidents is a later concoction, dating from the fifth century after Christ. All that the New Testament books say is that he was crucified on the day before the Hebrew festival of Passover which used to be celebrated and is still celebrated on the full‐moon day of the month of Nisan. The continuous seven day week was unknown to the classical Greeks, the Romans, the Hindus and early Christians. It was introduced into the Christian world by an edict of the Roman emperor Constantine, about 323 AD, who changed the Sabbath to the Lord's Day (Sunday), the week day next to the Jewish Sabbath. Its introduction into India is about the same time and from the same sources. The week days are not found in earlier Hindu scriptures like the Vedas of the classics like the great epic Mahabharata. They occur only from 484 AD, but not in inscriptions of 300 AD or earlier. Even now, they form but an unimportant part in the religious observances of the Hindus which are determined by the Moon's phases and lunar asterisms.
In the schema of the Moon's phases we see a repeated pattern to that of Jupiter and Saturn. A lunar month is made up of 30 tithis. Each tithi is determined when the moon moves in advance of twelve degrees ahead of the Sun. Here we see the numbers 30 and 12 that are common with Saturn and Jupiter. A complete synodic period (a complete revolution around the zodiac in relation to the Sun) of the Moon, however, takes only 29 civil days. (A civil day for the Indians is reckoned from sunrise to sunrise). It is quite a regular occurrence for a tithi to be expunged from the consecutive civil day count. This characteristic of the Hindu calendar is not found in the Greek, Chinese or Mesopotamian calendars. Other cultures, without exception, use solely a civil day count of 28, 29 and 30 days for their lunation cycles and had not even considered a pure lunar day count independent from the civil reckoning. The consistency of the Hindu astronomical methods make it unlikely that they borrowed their knowledge from other sources. And the repeated usage of the sexagesimal measurement makes it more like that they were the inventors of the system.
The lunar asterisms (nakshatras) are derived from the average daily motion of the Moon's mean sidereal cycle, which is 13° 20′ of arc. In a circle of 360 degrees this would make twenty seven nakshatras. Each nakshatra has a planetary ruler and they are shown as follows:
Table 2: Nakshatras and their associated planetary rulers.

Nakshatra Ruler
11Purva PhalguniVenus
12Uttara PhalguniSun
20Purva AshadhaVenus
21Uttara AshadhaSun
25Purva BhadraJupiter
26Uttaea BhadraSaturn
In the above table you may have noticed the two strange words "Rahu" and "Ketu". These are the nodes of the moon and their usage in astronomy is important for predicting the eclipses of the Sun and the Moon. Although they possess no mass or density, they are treated as planets in the sense that they have an effect on human affairs.


Whatever constellation (nakshatra) the Moon was in at sunrise, the entire day was named after it. The nine rulers of the nakshatras are repeated three times in sequence. So in this sense you can say that the Hindus followed a nine‐day week. The same effect as a weekday is thereby achieved in terms of socio‐religious significance. Whereas the Chaldeans used an unbroken consecutive day count of hour and day rulers. The Hindus used a more concrete system of the observable Moon in a group of stars. But there is a common thread that is stitched between both the seven‐day week and the twenty seven nakshatras. It is this: As we look back to Figure 2 we see a seven pointed star indicating the weekday lords. Saturn is placed at the top because he is the slowest planet and the week was deemed to start with Saturday. Lets rotate that star and place the Sun at the top.
Figure 3
Now in Figure 4, lets make room for two more planets:
Figure 4
This figure appears in a book by Chiero the famous palmist in which he refers to this as the "Seal of Solomon." Other writers assert that ther are many different Seals of Solomon and that this is only one. Whatever the case may be, if we were to add two more planets to this seal the obvious place would be in the areas vacated by the points of Jupiter and Mercury. Their placement in the seal is shown in Figure 5.
Figure 5
Hindu astrology treats the nodes as planets even though they possess no mass and density. They are sensitive points where the path of the Moon crosses the path of the Sun. Being invisible, it is quite fitting that they should not have a point of the star aiming at them in the diagram shown above.
But note the general position of the planets and see how they are unchanged from the Chaldean star order. Now, the next diagram, Figure 6, will show the connection with the Hindu nakshatra order.
Figure 6
Compare this diagram with Table 2, Nakshatras and Rulers. Here the order is clockwise starting with Ketu, going to Venus, the Sun, down to the Moon, back up to Mars, over to Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn and finally bypassing over to Mercury. The detour down to the Moon doesn't seem so strange when you consider that the nakshatra reckoning is entirely dependent upon the Moon's position in the constellations. In fact, this diagram may taken as a single pointed star with the significant planet being at the single point.
It seems that the similarities between Hindu astronomy and Chaldean magical seals are too great to be a mere coincidence. It is quite likely that the two share a similar origin or that one was derived from the other. But since ancient Hindu tradition and current usage make more consistent usage of a direct base sixty system of counting, and the other cultures use a derivative of that, it seems more likely that the sexagesimal is of Hindu origin.
It may be argued that the sexagesimal was not founded upon the joint cycles of Jupiter and Saturn but upon some other measurement such as the average number of three hundred and sixty days in a year. This, of course, is assuming that ancient man was incapable of counting the correct number of days in a year and that he was infinitely unclever. For the sake of argument, lets accept that position. There still remains the problem of dividing the year into parts that would yield a base sixty system of counting. The Babylonians divided their year into three seasons. The Hindus, however, divided their year into six seasons. Of the two cultures which do you think would arrive at a base sixty system?
But judging from the rest of Hindu astronomical techniques it is clear that they knew precisely how long the solar year was. All the other planetary cycles were also studied with great scrutiny. From this it may be tempting to think that the sexagesimal was arrived at in order to provide the great average mean of measurement for celestial phenomena just as today the binary mode of counting is most convenient for computer science. Three hundred and sixty, which is a multiple of the sexagesimal, is the midpoint number between the 365 day solar year and the 354 day lunar year. One synodic period of mars is 780 days which is equally divided by 60 thirteen times. Between two consecutive conjunctions of Saturn and Jupiter in a twenty year period, Mercury will go retrograde a little over sixty times. The Hindus also based their knowledge of breath control, Pranayama, upon the sexagesimal system. In one twenty four hour period, or between two consecutive sunrises, a person takes an average of 21600 breaths, each breath being four seconds long. This number, 21600 divided by 60 equals 360.
To all but the harshest critic the above may be evidence enough to form an opinion on the origin of the sexagesimal system. But the critic may remain unconvinced for various reasons. The above is only circumstantial. One can apply any number of coincidental facts to any ancient culture and come up with some pretty amazing things. After all, no ancient text were quoted giving support to Hindu origins. To quell these doubts we present final evidence that not only shows the superiority of Hindu astronomy but also proves damaging to the theory that the Greeks were the greatest in all matters of the ancient world.

Hindu Cosmological Time Cycles

The structure of Hindu astronomy is built upon the foundation of their unique concept of cosmological time cycles. No other culture on Earth has or is known to have such a unique system of cosmology. The only other culture to come close to the vast scale of time conceived by the Hindus are the Mayan. Western scholars have completely misunderstood the value of the Hindu cosmological time cycles and believed them to be nothing more than crude number speculations. In their translation of the Surya Siddhanta, the editors Burgess and Whitney routinely disparage the Hindu authors:
The system of periods is not of astronomical origin…Its artificial and arbitrary character is apparent. It is the system of the Puranas and Manu, a part of the received Hindu cosmogony, to which astronomy was compelled to adapt itself… The arbitrary and artificial method in which the fundamental elements of the solar system are here represented is not peculiar to the Surya‐Siddhanta; It is also adopted by all other text books, and is to be regarded as a characteristic feature of the general astronomical system of the Hindus.
Not only is this opinion in error but the astronomical quantities derived from these cosmological time cycles are vastly more accurate than anything achieved by the Greeks. And they were in use at a time when the Britons were still living a neolithic lifestyle.

Outline of Hindu Cosmology

Prior to the creation of the universe, Lord Vishnu lies asleep on the ocean of all causes. He rests upon a serpent bed with thousands of cobra‐like hoods. While asleep, a lotus sprouts from His navel. Upon this lotus is born Brahma the creator of the universe. Lord Brahma lives for a hundred years and then dies, while Lord Vishnu remains. One year of Brahma consists of three hundred and sixty days. At the beginning of each day Brahma creates the living beings that reside in the universe and at the end of each day the living beings are absorbed into Brahma while he sleeps on the lotus. One day of Brahma is known as a kalpa. Within each kalpa there are fourteen manus and within each manu are seventy one chatur‐yugas. Each chatur‐yuga is divided into four parts called yugapadas.
From the first chapter of Surya‐Siddhanta, the most revered authoritative source of Hindu astronomy, we have the following passage:
11 That which begins with respirations (prana) is called real… Six respirations make a vinadi, sixty of these a nadi: 12 And sixty nadis make a sidereal day and night. Of thirty of these sidereal days is composed a month; a civil (savana) month consists of as many sunrises; 13 A lunar month, of as many lunar days (tithi); a solar (saura) month is determined by the entrance of the Sun into a sign of the zodiac; twelve months make a year. This is called a day of the gods. 14 The day and night of the gods and of the demons are mutually opposed to one another. Six times sixty of them are a year of the gods, and likewise to the demons. 15 Twelve thousand of these divine years are denominated a chatur‐yuga; of ten‐thousand times four hundred and thirty two solar years is composed that chatur‐yuga, with its dawn and twilight. 16 The difference of the krita‐yuga and the other yugas, as measured by the difference in the number of the feet of virtue in each is as follows: 17 The tenth part of a chatur‐yuga, multiplied successively by four, three, two, and one, gives the length of the krita and the other yugas: the sixth part of each belongs to its dawn and twilight. 18 One and seventy chatur‐yugas make a manu; at its end is a twilight which has the number of years of a krita‐yuga, and which is a deluge. 19 In a kalpa are reckoned fourteen manus with their respective twilights; at the commencement of the kalpa is a fifteenth dawn, having the length of a krita‐yuga. 20 The kalpa, thus composed of a thousand chatur‐yugas, and which brings about the destruction of all that exists, is a day of Brahma; his night is of the same length. 21 His extreme age is a hundred, according to this valuation of a day and a night. The half of his life is past; of the remainder, this is the firsts kalpa. 22 And of this kalpa, six manus are past, with their respective twilights; and of the Manu son of Vivasvat, twenty seven chatur‐yugas are past; 23 Of the present, the twenty eighth chatur‐yuga, this krita‐yuga is past…
Now to make plain what is stated above. Commentaries are very clear on the fact that in verse 12 the "sidereal day" refers to a revolution of the Earth relative to any fixed star and is the true revolution reference point of the Earth. Verse 13 refers to "a day of the gods" means one sidereal year. A night of the gods is half a sidereal year. Verse 21 mentions "his extreme age is a hundred refers to the lifespan of Brahma and consists of one hundred years of 360 days. Each of these days being two kalpas long. Verse 23 shows that the Surya‐Siddhanta was composed right after krita‐yuga and during the treta‐yuga. The present yuga we are in right now is the kali‐yuga which is said to have begun on Friday February 18th 3102 BC of the Julian calendar. This becomes clearer when represented in a tabular form.
Table 3: Infrastructure of the Chatur–Yuga period.

Divine Years Solar Years
Krita–Yuga Period
Treta–Yuga Period
Dvapara–Yuga Period
Kali–Yuga Period

Infrastructure of the Kalpa Period

Two kalpas make a day and night of Brahma. The kalpa is 4,320,000,000 sidereal years made up of 1,000 chatur‐yugas or 10,000 kali‐yugas. An additional dawn and twilight of 1,728,000 years each is made to fit the kalpa.
one Chatur‐Yuga =4,320,000 sidereal years
one Manu = 71 Chatur‐Yugas = 306,720,000 sidereal years
+ 1 Krita‐Yuga = 1,728,000 sidereal years
=308,448,000 sidereal years
one Kalpa = 14 Manus = 4,318,272,000 sidereal years
+ 1 Krita‐Yuga = 1,728,000 sidereal years
=4,320,000,000 sidereal years
The entire lifepsan of Brahma may be measured thus:
Day of Brahma4,320,000 sidereal years
Night of Brahma4,320,000 sidereal years

8,640,000 sidereal years
× 360 days in a year3,110,400,000,000 sidereal years
× 100 years311,040,000,000,000 sidereal years
After Brahma dies it takes a period of time equal to his lifespan until he is reborn and the cycle starts over.

Derivation of Astronomical Values

Now that the Hindu cosmological time cycles are completed we can derive useful astronomical values from them. The first is the measurement of the day which begins with the breath. One respiration is a prana. Six prana equal one vinadi. Sixty vinadis equal one nadi, (also known as a ghatika). Sixty nadis equal one sidereal day. A sidereal day equal the time it takes for the earth to make one complete rotation on its axis in relation to a fixed star. A sidereal day is slightly shorter than a civil day of 24 hours. A sidereal day is equal to 23 hours, 56 minutes and 3.4446 seconds.
one sidereal day 23h 56m 03.4446s
sixty nadis 23h 56m 03.4446s
one nadi (ghatika) 23m 56.06s
vinadi 23.93s
one prana 3.99s
It is clear in the text of Surya‐Siddhanta and the current practice of Indian astrology that sidereal measurements are of primary importance. Tropical measurements are also used but in a secondary way.

Three Mean Motions of the Sun

The three mean motions of the Sun used to construct the Cosmological Time Cycles shown above are as follows:
one sidereal year = 360 sidereal days
+ 6 sidereal days
+ 0.2563795 sidereal days
= 366.2563795 sidereal days
Remember we are not talking about civil solar days here, we are talking about the total number of times the Earth rotates on its axis in relation to a single star during the course of one year. This happens to be one greater than the mean solar days in a year which is…
One sidereal year
365.2563795 mean solar days
These three mean motions of the Sun may be compared to the hour, minute and second hands of a clock. Each cycle is counted and completed separately. Using this system of the three mean motions, the ancients reckoned time that put the day, year and longer periods of time into exact correspondence with each other.

Proof of the Sexagesimal Number System

The first two mean solar motions, that of 360 + 6 Earth revolutions, generate the sexagesimal number system completely. A count of six for every 360 is the same as one for every 60. This is the basis of the six seasons of the year observed by the Hindus. Counting six days per year, the second mean motion of the Sun completes a cycle of 360, the number of degrees in a circle, after 60 years which correlates with the Babylonian sossos period and the cycles of Jupiter and Saturn.
Table 4: The structure of the Babylonian sossos period.
(sossos) 6021,60036021,960
(neros) 600216,0003600219,600
(saros) 36001,296,00021,6001,317,600
In the same interval that the first mean motion completes a count of 21600 it has done so at a rate 60 times greater than the second mean motion 360 × 60 and represents the number of arc minutes in a circle. The number 21600 is also the same average number of breaths (prana) a person will make in a 24 hour period.

Vedic Evidence of the Sidereal Year

The Rig Veda, the earliest of the Hindu scriptures says the following:
Twelve spokes, one wheel, navels three. Who can comprehend this? On it are placed together three hundred and sixty like pegs. They shake not in the least. (Dirghatama Rishi, Rig Veda 1.164.48)
A seven‐named horse does draw this three‐naved wheel… Seven steeds draw the seven‐wheeled chariot… Wise poets have spun a seven‐strand tale around this heavenly calf, the Sun. (Dirghatama Rishi, Rig Veda 1.164.1‐5)
The number seven related to the Sun has much significance when understanding the third mean solar motion (0.2563795). The Kali‐yuga of 432,000 years is the unit of reference for determining the length of the sidereal year in Hindu cosmological time cycles. During the course of 10,000 years there are seven rotations of the third mean solar motion. For a single year the count is 0.2563795 diurnal revolutions of the earth. For two years it is .512759 and so on. One complete rotation (to equal 366.2564…) of the third motion takes 1428.571429 sidereal years. Or you can reduce it to a fraction of 1428⁴⁄₇ sidereal years.

= 10000

= 1428⁴⁄₇ sidereal years
The integer of this sidereal interval, 1428 years, multiplied by the number of years in a Kali‐yuga and then further multiplied by seven equals the number of years of fourteen Manus. (see table 4).
1428 × 432,000 × 7 = 4,318,272,000 = 14 manus
The fractional part of this sidereal interval, ⁴⁄₇ years, multiplied by seven and further multiplied by the number of years in a Kali‐yuga equals the time of an introductory dawn (see table 4).
⁴⁄₇ × 7 × 432,000 = 1,728,000 years = introductory dawn.
Relating the Vedic verses above to what we have just demonstrated it is clear that the "navels three" refer to the three mean motions of the Sun and "seven‐wheeled chariot" to the rate of precession of the equinoxes. Thus, there can be no doubt that the cosmological time cycles were already an established conclusion at the time of the Vedic era and not in the formative stages.

Precesional Constant Demonstrated

Before demonstrating the unmistakable fact of the precession inherent in the cosmological time cycles, let us show the readers how the Western translators of the Surya‐Siddhanta made fools of themselves when they wrote:
To make such a division accurate, the year ought to be tropical, and not the sidereal; but the author of the Surya‐Siddhanta has not yet begun to take into account the precession…The earliest Hindu astronomers were ignorant of, or ignored, the periodical motion of the equinoxes…
Again this opinion is in error. If Burgess and Whitney were not so blinded by cultural arrogance and conceit they might have been able to improve their knowledge by careful study of the Surya‐Siddhanta. The precession is clearly derived from the cosmological time cycles as shown below. The chatur‐yuga of 4,320,000 years is the unit of reference for determining the rate of precession used in the construction of the Hindu cosmological time cycles.
The constant rate of precession is 50″.4 = 0°.014 = ⁷⁄₅₀₀ degrees of precession per sidereal year.
This is the same as one degree of precession in 71³⁄₇ = 71.42857 sidereal years.
This correlates to the cosmological time cycles as follows:
One manu
71.4 chatur‐yugas
¹⁄₁₄th of an introductory dawn
0.02857… chatur‐yugas
¹⁄₁₄th kalpa
71.42857… chatur‐yugas
In the interval of ¹⁄₁₄th kalpa there are:
(71³⁄₇) × 4,320,000 × 0°.014 = 4,320,000 degrees of precession = 12,000 precessional years
From table one we see that a period of one chatur yuga is 4,320,000 years and is equivalent to 12,000 divine years.
Is it just a happy coincidence that the Cosmological Time Cycles agree with the precession? Burgess and Whitney would probably think so.
Other related values of interest are:
1 precessional year
25,714²⁄₇ sidereal years
7 precessional years
180,000 sidereal years
7 × 18 (126) cycles of the 3rd mean mothion of the Sun
7 × 24 (168) precessional years
1 chatur‐yuga
168,000 precessional years
1 kalpa
(4,320,000 ÷ 168) × 0°.014 = 360°

Derivation of the Tropical Year

In a chatur‐yuga there are: 4,320,000 sidereal years = 4,320,000 + 168 tropical years, where 168 is the number of precessional years. Therefore:
1 tropical year =
4,320,000 × (366.2563795… −1)


= 365.2421756… mean solar days
It has been shown conclusively that the Hindu Cosmological time cycles are based upon the diurnal motion of the Earth in reference to any particular fixed star, hence it is purely of sidereal origin. The later practice of adopting the ahargana or "heap of days" is based upon solar and civil day reckoning which is of obvious practical value for calendrics. The sidereal basis of the cosmological time cycles is without question the oldest known positive proof of the origin for the sexagesimal number system.

Comparison With Modern Science

The standard values for the tropical year and annual precession in longitude determined by Simon Newcomb for the epoch 1900.0, mean noon at Greenwich December 31st 1899 are:
One tropical year
Precession in one year
The sidereal year and its precessional constant may be derived from these values.
1 sidereal year (1900.0) =

360° − 50″.2564
× 365.2421988 + 1

= 366.2563627 diurnal revolutions of the Earth
Precession in longitude in one year = 50″.2564 ×


= 50″.2583
The following shows the astronomical quantities used in the construction of Hindu cosmological time cycles with those of Simon Newcomb for the epoch 1900.0

Constant of Precession50″.4 / year50″.2583 / year0″.1417 / year
Sidereal Year (Solar)365.2563795365.25636271.4 seconds / year
Tropical Year365.2421756365.2421988−2.0 seconds / year
The sidereal year in the above table refers to the number of solar civil days it takes for the earth to orbit the sun in relation to any particular star. The former is a sidereal‐diurnal relation and the later is a sidereal‐solar relation. The very close agreement between the length of the year as measured by Hindu cosmological time cycles and that determined by modern science, together with the demonstrated great antiquity of the cycles, shows that the rotation of the Earth is not being sensibly retarded by "tidal friction" or any other cause. Astronomers today would do well to look for lack of accuracy in their measurement of the Sun's mean motion and to the variations of long periods in the rotation of the Earth to explain the so‐called slowing down of the earth.

Breaking The Barrier

The question may be asked how could such accurate constants of precession, as that of the Hindu cosmological time cycles, have been obtained without modern instruments and techniques? At least one thing must be allowed for and that is a very long period of uninterrupted observation.
Naked eye observations are accurate up to one sixth of a degree. In the case of observing the precession moving uniformly on the celestial sphere, it would then be possible to obtain an accurate rate up to three decimal places in not less than 50″ × (72 years ÷ 1°) or 3,600 years. Measuring the precession is not as simple as that, however. Before attempting to measure the precession, the exact times of the equinoxes must be measured first. Ptolemy, the Greek astronomer, speaks with pride in the Almagest of "very accurately" observing the equinox to within a quarter of a day! That is, to within at best one quarter of one degree of arc. Add to this the difficulty presented by the proper motion of the stars. The star Sirius, for example, has a very large proper motion of −0″.553 ecliptic longitude per year. It would take 1,000 years for Sirius to move one sixth of a degree and for this mistake to be noticed by a naked eye observer. In addition to this, still, the motion of the Earth's perihelion would become noticeable and have to be accounted for. With all these factors, it is difficult to imagine how they can be resolved into a system that would allow continuous observation to produce a constant of precession accurate to three decimal places in less than 10,000 years.
Similar arguments can be put forth to show that to measure the sidereal period of the Sun to eight decimal places could not be accomplished by naked eye observations alone in any less time.
Even if we cannot comprehend a civilization going back 10,000 years prior to the six‐thousand year barrier, we still must face the incredible genius of the cosmological time cycles themselves: a calendar for eternity so accurate that its formulations must be considered as laws of nature, while at the same time a structure so simple, symmetrical, and orderly, that the best scholars and astronomers of modern times have completely failed to see the astronomical basis. In this light we can understand why the Hindus regarded this knowledge as a revelation from the gods.

Sunday, November 1, 2015

Hindu history of world

Hinduism is the Mother of all Civilisation and Cultures 
Indian Hindu Links of AUSTRALIA 
Australian Aboriginal and Dingo Mystery
Proved Indian Hindu Links
of all civilization .
Australia holds some of modern humans’ earliest archeological evidence, with relics dating back to about 45,000 years ago. In other words, Australian aboriginals are the oldest continuous population of humans on the planet . Shares very strong bond with Ancient Hindus and their traditions .well before Europeans could even dream of exploring the far-off continent
Before you dig deep in to this part of case study u must understand the step motherly treatment given by these western scientist who always attempt to deminish Hindu's proud history of mankind as much as possible.
First they started with "Hindus have no culture " Later " Aryan invasion Theory" Now " Hindu prayed Aliens" tongue emoticon . These racist scientists even tried to tamper our history with "First humans came from africa theory" As many africans genetically looks closer to chimps . These are utterly a propaganda . Indian civilisations and our ancient hindus dont share any link All these propaganda is to twist our history as many civilisation from America to Australia have strong connections with Indian DNA and our culture .
So they created this theory thatAfricans migrated into Indian subcontinent then from there into other parts !!! Another desperate attempt .
. Slowly but steadily when science get advanced these western experts are finding it very hard to botch up the facts and new evidences . But i always said : West can fake / alter our history but cant change it !!!
1) Dr Raghavendra Rao from the Anthropological Survey of India, says that DNA evidence linking Indian tribes to Australian Aboriginal people points to the fact that humans arrived in Australia via a southern coastal route through India. His team used computer programs to predict that a common ancestor existed, between the Indian population and Aboriginal Australians, up to 50,000 years ago.
The Uru megalithic sites of Australia date back to between 30,000 and 50,000 years, with extensive sites in the central west of NSW. The Sun is the most common symbol that is seen in the Megaliths erected by the Uru of Australia.
The Uruans worshipped the Sky-Father and Mother Earth.These are concepts linked to the Vedic India. In India, the 'World-Mother' is worshipped as Goddess 'Jagadambika' (जगदम्बिका). The 'Sky-Father' in Sanskrit is 'Jagatpati' (जगत्पति) which is 'Vishnu'. Jagatpati is also another word for the Sun as per the Vedic tradition.
With this as the background lets apply Sanskrit to decipher the word 'Uru'- the name by which this civilization came to be known. In Sanskrit 'Uru' (उरु) means 'Earth'. This may be a reference to the 'Earth-Mother' of the Uruan culture.
However, in the megalithic sites of Australia, it is the Sun that takes prominence and is the most common and recurring symbol. In Sanskrit 'Aru' (अरु) means the 'Sun'. And the name Australia may be derived from 'Aru'.
The entire word Australia can be decoded if we apply Sanskrit. 'Arus' (अरुस्) means the 'Sun', 'Taral' (तरल) means liquid which may refer to the coastal route which the Indians took to arrive into Australia and the fact that the entire continent is surrounded by water - a logic similar to why Australia and New Zealand together are referred to as Oceania. 'Alaya' (आलय) means 'home' or a 'retreat'.
And here is something from the Gympie Times, Australia dated 30th October, 1975.
A Granite Hindu God Ganesha
Artefact found in Dogun, Australia
"At Dogun, schoolboy Cliff Brown, 13, found an elephant about 100mm high carved from beige granite. It is thought to be the Hindu God Ganesha." - The Gympie Times.
A statue found in the Gympie Ruins area
The 'Padma_Asana' Posture is the same as
Indian Vedic Goddess
And now a report from BBC News, dated 14th January, 2013 quotes a genetic research study which has concluded that Australia experienced a wave of migration from India about 4,000 years ago. It also says that a Genome-wide data substantiates that the Holocene gene flowed from India to Australia.*
An Australian Bushman with
the U-shaped Vedic Tilak on his forehead
In his book 'Oriental Fragments' Edward Moor made the following observation in 1854, "In the vast spread of Australia, for instance, we might expect to find ... traces and remains of Sanskrit, and temples and images and various Hinduisms - evincing indeed, the existence there, at no very distant period, of a magnificent Hindu empire..."
2) The Dingo Mystery and the Indian link of Australian Aborigines :
Before you dig deep in to this part of case study u must understand the step motherly treatment given by these western scientist who always attempt to deminish Hindu's proud history of mankind as much as possible. First they started with "Hindus have no culture " Later " Aryan invasion Theory" Now " Hindu prayed Aliens" tongue emoticon . These racist scientists even tried to tamper our history with "First humans came from africa theory" As many africans genetically looks closer to chimps . These are utterly a propaganda . Indian civilisations and our ancient hindus dont share any link . All these propaganda is to twist our history as many civilisation from America to Australia have strong connections with Indian DNA and our culture . So they created this theory than Africans migrated into Indian subcontinent then from there into other parts !!! Another desperate attempt .
. Slowly but steadily when science get advanced these western experts are finding it very hard to botch up the facts and new evidences . But i always said : West can fake / alter our history but cant change it !!!
Below are the findings by these western scientists . Again they tried to play it down by saying 4000 yeas ago ie,. 2000 BCE only but we all know our Hindu empire was a Naval super power and controled vast area of the world's terrirory even before any of these western civilisations came into existance. Let it be Truth will expose them sooner or Later !!! I tried my best to put all these infos in one single cover picture .
The Dingo Mystery
The dog in the below photo may look familiar to Indians as it closely resembles the free roaming dogs found in India. But this is Dingo, a dog species found in Australia and is also Australia’s largest terrestrial predator. Recent genetic studies of Australian Aborigines have revealed the missing link between Ancient India, Dingo and the natives of Australia. This study also negates the popular belief that Europeans were the first outsiders to arrive on the Australian soil. On the contrary, these studies reveal that ancient Indians were the the first outsiders to arrive on the Australian Soil 4000 years ago, to be exact some 4,230 years ago.
The Dingo Mystery was that, the oldest known fossil of this dog species in Australia dates back to 4000 years. There are no fossils of Dingo older than 4000 years found anywhere in Australia. So it was as if this dog suddenly arrived on the Australian landscape 4000 years ago. If so, then who brought it and from where? was the question.
The Mystery of the Archaeological Records in Australia
The archaeological records of Australia also indicated that there was a sudden change in the lives of the Australian natives 4000 years ago with improved agricultural practices and plant processing techniques (to remove toxins from edible plants), and new stone tools had arrived suddenly in Australia at around the same time. So from whom did the native Australian Aborigines learn all these new techniques 4000 years ago?
The Genetic Study of the Australian Aborigines
Now a Genetic study conducted by the researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany has reported evidence of substantial gene flow from India into Australia dating back to about 4,000 years ago. The timing or dating of this gene flow matches so well with the earlier explained mysteries that now it is clear that Ancient Indians had arrived on the Australian soil 4000 years ago, bringing with them the Dingo. They also taught the native Australians the new agriculture techniques, plant processing and stone tools creation. Read this news item Indians broke Australian isolation 4,000 years ago and a more detailed report Must be Indian: Human Settlement in Australia
This also explains the other so far unexplained mystery of the huge expansion of a new Aboriginal language group in Australia at around the same time i.e. some 4000 years back.
Ancient Indians, not modern Europeans were the first outsiders to enter Australia
Till now it was widely believed that Europeans who first arrived in Australia at the end of the 1700s were the first outsiders to enter Australia. But this new genetic study has now revealed that the ancient Indians were the first outsiders to set foot on the Australian soil 4000 years back. More importantly, this migration is supposed to have happened from southern India, the present Dravidian speaking population of India.
Why did it take so long for a proper genetic study to be conducted on the Aborigines of Australia? Researcher Mark Stoneking says that the Aboriginal Australians have been hesitant to participate in these kinds of genetic studies, and were suspicious about the intention of such studies till recently.
Another important point to be noted is also the fact that the native Australians themselves arrived to Australia some 50,000 years back from India. The current theory of human origin and expansion, called the “Out of Africa” theory says that, humans originated in Africa, and from there migrated to India, and from India spread to the rest of the world. So every non-African human being has his ancestral roots in India.


Durga / Kali worshiped in ancient American continent.(Mayans , Aztec , Sumerians) And do you know Maha Kali temple still exists in Mexico ? 

Aztec is derived from "worshipper of Ashtabhuja or Ashtak ( 8 armed ) " , the eight armed God- found in Mexican temples. Nowhere in the word are multi-armed idols found, except in ‪#‎India‬.
Another strong evidence can be found in sumerians scrips ~!!! The cuneiform tablets of Sumer display eight-pointed impressions made thousands of years ago by a stylus pushed into wet clay, and we know today that these eight-pointed impressions signify Inanna, Goddess of Morning and Evening. It seems fitting that the impressions of this ancient written language bring to mind images of both flower-like rosettes and pointed stars, for images that capture both the intensity of a star and the subtle delicacies of a flower reflect well the Goddess’ paradoxical nature.
In this alone, Inanna is like Kali, the Hindu goddess often called “Mother of the Universe” or “The Divine Mother”, as Kali’s magical diagram, or yantra, contains the eight-petalled lotus. Further, Inanna’s powers as a goddess with her command of both the life-giving and life-taking aspects of the universe, in addition to the physical proximity of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers to the Indus Valley, tells us that Inanna and Kali are related not by coincidence, but by a direct tie of the Sumerian to the early Indian cultures.
First, in looking at this ancient symbol of Inanna and in thinking of the Kali yantra, I began to wonder as to the significance of the number eight. I began researching a variety of sources and found consistent references to strength and beauty, dominion, confidence, good judgment and power all associated with the number. These, I thought, would all be appropriate attributes for a goddess, and I began to wonder if Sumer and Inanna were the original source for the formation of these correspondences.
Barbara G. Walker notes in The Woman’s Dictionary of Symbols and Sacred Objects that, “an eight-pointed star, usually black, indicated the fixed stars in ancient astrology.” It may be that rays of light coming off the stars and planets of the night sky were first counted to be eight by these ancient astrologers, or perhaps for some other reason of which we are not yet aware. But it would seem fitting that the special place of Inanna in Sumer dictated that she be represented by a symbol of the magnitude and wonder of the night stars, (she is particularly associated with the planet-“star” Venus) thereby giving special significance later on in recorded history not only to the number eight, but to the attributes or characteristics of Inanna in relation to that number as well.
However, given the virtually goddess-less patriarchal culture we have known for millennia, although we have come to associate the number eight with Inanna’s qualities, we have forgotten Her almost entirely, thereby missing with this omission the link to primordial creativity and passion that is found in Her sparkling light. With the return of the Goddess to the consciousness of many today, perhaps links such as this one will become increasingly apparent and we will begin to draw again on the ancient wisdom of the Divine Feminine, in all of her forms.
One thing is for sure ,We hindus are the oldest civilization in the world today .
We are continuation of the Longest chain of most scientific and most powerful civilization ,
Forgotten history of Annunaki- and Hinduism
Forgotten Hindu History of Mankind !!!
In modern times, the main reference we have to learn about the supposed alien race that has colonized Earth, in remote times, are the books of Zecharia Sitchin, like it or not. Debunkers, "in the box" scholars and general skeptics claim he misinterpreted Sumerians tablets and ancient Mesopotamian scriptures, that alien colonization never happened and the Anunnaki are just myths. Well it seems that the Sumerians weren't the only source of information about these extraterrestrial humanoids. They were reported by many ancient civilizations, as the Greeks, Romans, Meso-americans... but the scriptures of ancient Hindu civilization, seem to have massive information about them, during the times it was knew as "Rama Empire".
Comparing texts from the Ayurveda scriptures with the translations of Zecharia Sitchin, we can see a very strong similarity between the Sumerian gods and the Hindu gods. Personalities, behaviors, doctrines, passions, wars, technologies, architectures and many events that suggest the ancient Hindus weren't talking about mythic creatures or fantasy deities, but real beings, super humanoids coming from stars and their interaction with mankind. Before start expose my point here, I wanna let clear, I won't elaborate about the spiritual and religious implications of the Anunnaki presence in the Hindu civilizations. It's more like an anthropological approach.
The meaning of the word "Ayurveda" itself, already give us a clue about them: Ayur means "life" and Veda means "science." The ancient Hindu "gods", the so called "Vedas", were scientists, actually. Bearers of high advanced knowledge about material sciences and occult sciences. So you ask - "What the Anunnaki have to do with hindu gods?"
According to Zecharia Sitchin, when the Anunnaki returned to Earth after the last ice age, they decided to create realms and split among them. Most of them were built in Egypt, around the Persian Gulf and Mediterranean. But ENLIL, the first on command, decided to give the area of the Indus Valley, to his grand-daughter, INANNA.
"Inanna "liked to roam the lands and took a liking to the people who in the upper plain of the two rivers dwelt. They were the IGIGI who descended to Earth from heaven, from Lahmu (Mars). The Igigi Aryans moved east, following Inanna (they called her Ishtar) to the Indus Valley region (Aratta) and laid the foundation for the Indo-European culture."
[Tellinger, M., 2006, Slave Species of god, page 499]
According to Michael Tellinger, another researcher of Sumerian Culture, the princess Inanna moved with a team of IGIGI, "astronauts", to raise a civilization in the plains of the Indus Valley. The word "Aryan" seems to come from the combination "Ayur", life + "An", sky, space. "Those who live in the space". Later this word became a general label to define the descendants of the crossbreeding between the Anunnaki and the humans of that region.
"Trimurti", the sacred Hindu triad formed by Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva is identical to Sumerian Anunnaki triad ANU, ENKI and ENLIL. Brahma, the "grandfather", is the god who "rules from the sky", Vishnu is the "creator", the "preserver", the "life engineer" and Shiva is the "destroyer".
Notice that Vishnu's characteristics are identical of the Sumerian god Enki, the great Anunnaki genetic engineer. In the Mahabharata is mentioned he created men and the "nagas", serpent beings that looks more like reptile humanoids and also the "danavas", giant humanoids very similar to the "Nephilim".
Shiva matches too much with Enlil. In Sanskrit literature he's depicted as "the One who is eternally pure" or "the One who can never have any contamination of the imperfection of Rajas and Tamas". Enlil was the Anunnaki that hated the crossbreeding between his race and the humans. Shiva is the most feared god of Hindu cosmogony. He's the one that destroyed the "three cities of Asura demons", that totally looks like Sodom, Gomorrah and the Babel Tower. He's the god that provide powerful weapons to other gods and warriors. The Asuras are similar to the rebel Anunnaki that matched with human females.
Above, a scheme of vedic symbols related to engineering of the physical and ethereal body, disclosing the points of energy flow, vortexes known as "Chakras" where each vortex is associated with a specific element. Notice the symbol of sexual chakra, the most powerful vortex of human body, is a pyramid. It's associated to fire element. It seems that pyramids aren't only related to Anunnaki architecture, but also with occultist science.
Other ancient Hindu very known symbol, is the swastika, that originally represents life flow, life cycle, life preservation and was inverted to be used as an evil archetype by the nazis.
Another very important aspect of similarity between the Sumerian and Hindu gods, is the architecture. Despite the Anunnaki didn't build pyramids in India (but built in China), the characteristic megalithic edifices, assembled with mega blocks cut with surgical precision or straightly carved in mountains. The shape of the main building is very common in many temples over the India and is identical to schemes of Vimana crafts, depicted in the Samarangana Sutradhara, an encyclopedic work on classical Indian architecture and engineering (Vastu Shastra) written by Paramara King Bhoja of Dhar (1000-1055 AD).There's been enough research done on Petra to show how it was built. There is proof for example, in the walls rising up which show evidence of wooden planks used as scaling in order to build/carve the structure from top to bottom. The same method was probably used in India. They were carved from top to bottom using wooden scaffolds. I think there's a Discovery channel program about Petra, worth a watch, it has plenty of detail.
:"Shining in every direction, their machine (yantra) could travel wherever the imagination dictated. From their great height they saw stimulating dances, drama plays, and pristine dance ceremonies. Their yantra gained renown among Royal dynasties and various nations. In such a manner the High-Souled ones flew, while the lower classes walked. All those friends succeeded in their much-deserved acquisition of a yantra, by means of which human beings can fly in the air, and non-earthling, Celestial Beings, can come down to mortals in their visits to Earth."
"An extremely swift and nimble vimana can be built, as large as the temple of the God-in-motion. Into the interior structure four strong mercury containers must be installed. When these have been heated by a controlled fire from iron containers, the flying machine develops thunder-power through the mercury, becoming a highly desirable yantra. Moreover, if this iron engine with properly welded joints be filled with fluid [mercury?], when ascending or descending over land it generates power with the roar of a lion.
Chapter XXXI
Vimana aircrafts seem to be the same vehicles reported by Sumerians, the DIN.GIR, piloted by the Anunnaki. And the model of Vimana seems to be the same flying object seen by Sumerians and Babylonians as the Anunnaki aircraft depicted as the "winged disk". there are too many coincidences that can't be ignored. Different cultures that corroborates the translations of Zecharia Sitchin. Like it or not. A bit of scrutiny over these similarities and many secrets are revealed.
So if you have any ideas,
Too many similarities for this being coincidence. 
Ancient mayan Artifact-

Ancient Maya artifact centuries old !
Hold ur breath Watch it closely ! You wont belive your eyes... Ancient vimanas of India was widely used to explore our planet from gold silver etc ! The ancient indian civilization had wide range of historical evidence of mining in Australia , Mexico and other parts of world .
Cave men of those times called them as Angels from sky !!! Or Fallen Angels ... And western scientists called them "Aliens" . High time we investigate ancient Hindu texts which hold the key for so called "Missing link" the link is not in the skies may be just beneath us.
 " Indian civilisation's evidence will topple the force structure of today's world.. So this will hurt western countries the same people who made us to believe hindus were very backward than Christian civilization until they invaded ‪‎India‬."
Indian civilization history is very old . You can give certain time line to all other civilizations of the world but no one so far predicted India's . Why ? Every time when some one come up with time line like 3000BC living evidence of Indus civilization goes beyound 8000BC . When we set> 8000BC as beginning Findings of Dwaraka -Sunken city of lord Krishna under gujarat cost will put our civilization time line way beyond 12000-24000 BC . When you fix this as our time line "Lumeria" or Kumari kandam (Kumari continent) which stretched from Madagascar South India (including Sri Lanka) to far West of Australia . Now its under water for many 100000s of years . Computer scientific calculations showed this land mass existed some 1.5 lac to 25000 BC fully sunken during 12000bc to 6000bc before due to pole shift and melting of ice age which altered the landmass of our world . Just imagine the loss occurred during these natural disasters ? Remember Tsunami ? Now multiply it by 1 lac times . But unlike tsunami water dint withdraw but stayed as it is . Thats why you will find more and more new discoveries of underwear cities , under water pyramids which slaps western arguments of Egyptians built their pyramids . If so then who built pyramids in china , peru , under water pyramids of japan etc ?
Mayan Civilization and Hinduism-
Maya Civilization of Mexico. Baffling Links with Ancient India
By Anand Sharma
There are two specific archaeological discoveries pertaining to 761 AD, about which
most Mexican historians are silent, that attract our attention as possible links of Maya civilization to ancient India. The first one is a wall panel (Panel No. 3 of Temple 0-13, at Piedras Negras, Guatemala; reproduced as Plate 69, page 343 of 'The Ancient Maya' by S.G. Morley) belonging to the Later Classic Stage of Mexican history, associated with the peaking of Maya architecture and sculpture. Mexican historians have not given any interpretation of this panel. It appears that the scene depicted in the panel relates to the great Indian epic 'Ramayana'. [Emphasis added-DD] It shows a king sitting on the throne and one maidservant with two children standing on the right side of the throne. A guard stands behind the three. On the other side of the king,
three important personages are standing whereas the vassal chiefs and important feudatories are sitting in front of the throne. The king on the throne is believed to be Suryavanshi Ram with his three illustrious brothers standing by his side. The two little children are his two sons with a maid and a guard behind them. Amongst the three persons on the right, two are engaged in a discussion whereas the third one, apparently Lakshman, is standing with a bold, brave and confident demeanour which was characteristic of him. The above panel is a beautiful piece of sculpture and an evidence of great Mayan heritage, their artistic taste and superior creative ability and, above all, an archaeological evidence to prove India's link with Mexico in the 8th century at least.
The artistic design and postures of the figures carved can be compared to those found at Ajanta and Ellora caves in India. This interpretation, however, remains only a plausible one till the hieroglyphics and frescoes surrounding the wall panel are deciphered.
Another archaeological discovery at the same place i.e. Piedras Negras, Guatemala, is a stone stela (No. 12, Plate No. 18, page 61 of 'The Ancient Maya' by S.G. Morley). A mythological scene has been carved in this stela, depicting the architectural and artistic maturity of the Maya people of the Classic Stage (594 - 889 AD).
There is a beautiful image of a deity with eight hands (ashtabhuja). The art style is discernibly Indian as in no other religion of the world deities of this type were worshipped. It may be mentioned that the ruling dynasty of Mexico at the time of the conquest by Spaniards was 'Aztec' or Ashtak (Eight). The evidence in the form of such images leaves little doubt about the presence of Indian culture amongst the ancient Mexicans. The stela pertains to the period of more than eight centuries before Columbus set foot on the soil of the so-called New World.
The place where these pieces have been discovered - Piedras Negras - appears to
be a distorted form of 'Priyadarsh Nagraj' in Sanskrit, as has been the case with so
many words distorted by European pronunciation.
These stone sculptures are adornments of a Mayan temple and depict some popular mythology prevalent amongst the people of the time. Both human sacrifice
and idolatry were much in practice amongst Maya people. Morley has given a
detailed and vivid account of Maya culture and society in his book 'The Ancient
Maya', profusely quoting Bishop Diego de Landa.
Bishop Landa states that Maya people "…had a very great number of idols and
temples which were magnificent in their own fashion and besides the community
temples, the lords, priests and leading men also had oratories and idols in their houses where they made their prayers and offerings in private". Not only of gods but idols of even animals and insects were prepared by Maya people, who believed in immortality of soul and afterlife. This definitely smacks of an Indian connection.
More serious efforts to connect the ancient American civilizations with those of ancient India have to be made. The Trans-Pacific contacts of the people of south-east Asia with the people of ancient America have been established beyond doubt. It is also a well-proven fact of history that Indians of ancient times were great sea-farers. In pre-Mahabharata era as well as in the subsequent period,
the kings of southern India possessed large fleets used for trade with the Arabian and European countries where Indian merchandise was much in demand. India's links with south-east Asia and other far-off islands of the Pacific Ocean are an established fact of history. The conquest of Malaya by Rajendra Chola, the story of
Buddhagupta the Great Sailor (Mahanavik), the religious expeditions of Indians to preach the gospel of Buddhism in the distant lands of Cambodia, Annam, Bali, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Japan, Korea, Mongolia and China are proofs of the impact
of Indian culture.
A remarkable feature of the Indian culture has been that colonial domination was never identified with economic exploitation. The Buddhist Jatakas (folk tales) narrate many stories relating to maritime adventures and daring sea journeys which establish that such activities were an essential part of Indian life at that time.
[The author is a historian settled in Vienna. ]A previous discussion from Viewzone is now at the URL
The Egyptians came, according to their own records, from a mysterious land...on the shore of the Indian Ocean, the sacred Punt; the original home of their gods...who followed thence after their people who had abandoned them to the valley of the Nile, led by Amon, Hor and Hathor. This region was the Egyptian 'Land of the Gods,' Pa-Nuter, in old Egyptian, or Holyland, and now proved beyond any doubt to have been quite a different place from the Holyland of Sinai. By the pictorial hieroglyphic inscription found on the walls of the temple of the Queen Haslitop at Der-el-babri, we see that this Punt can be no other than India. For many ages the Egyptians TRADED with their old homes, and the reference here made by them to the names of the Princes of Punt and its fauna and flora, especially the nonmenclature of various precious woods to be found but in India, leave us scarcely room for the smallest doubt that the old civilization of Egypt is the direct outcome of that the older India."
(source: Theosophist for March 1881 p. 123).
Peter Von Bohlen (1796-1840) German Indologist, compared India with ancient Egypt. He thought there was a cultural connection between the two in ancient times.
(source: German Indologists: Biographies of Scholars in Indian Studies writing in German - By Valentine Stache-Rosen. p.15-16).
In his book, Empire of the Soul: Some Journeys in India, Paul William Roberts, states:
" Recent research and scholarship make it increasingly possible to believe that the Vedic era was the lost civilization whose legacy the Egyptians and the Indians inherited. There must have been one. There are too many similarities between hieroglyphic texts and Vedic ones, these in turn echoed in somewhat diluted form and a confused fashion by the authors of Babylonian texts and the Old Testament."
(source: Empire of the Soul: Some Journeys in India - By Paul William Roberts p. 300).
It is believed that the Dravidians from India went to Egypt and laid the foundation of its civilization there. the Egyptians themselves had the tradition that they originally came from the South, from a land called Punt, which an historian of the West, Dr. H.R. Hall, thought referred to some part of India.
The Indus Valley civilization is, according to Sir John Marshall who was in charge of the excavations, the oldest of all civilizations unearthed (c. 4000 B.C.) It is older than the Sumerian and it is believed by many that the latter was a branch of the former.
(source: The Bhagvad Gita: A Scripture for the Future - Translation and Commentary by Sachindra K. Majumdar p. 28).
Adolf Erman (1854-1937) author of Life in ancient Egypt and A handbook of Egyptian religion, says that the persons who were responsible for a highly developed Egyptian civilization were from Punt, an Asiatic country, a description of which is unveiled by this scholar from the old legends - a distant country washed by the great seas, full of valleys, incense, balsum, precious metals and stones; rich in animals, cheetahs, panthers, dog-headed apes and long tailed monkeys, winged creatures with strange feathers to fly up to the boughs of wonderful trees, especially the incense tree and the coconut trees.
Dr. Erman further says that analyzing the Egyptian legends makes it clear that from Punt the heavenly beings headed by Amen, Horus and Hather, passed into the Nile valley...To this same country belongs that idol of Bes, the ancient figure of the deity in the Land of Punt.
M A Murray author of Legends of Ancient Egypt rightly observes that as a race the Egyptians are more Asiatic than African. He cites the type 'P' as depicted by Hatshepsut's artists as his support.
(source: The Aryan Hoax: That Dupes The Indians - By Paramesh Choudhary p. 225).
Klaus K. Klostermaier, in his book A Survey of Hinduism p. 18 says:
"For several centuries a lively commerce developed between the ancient Mediterranean world and India, particularly the ports on the Western coast. The most famous of these ports was Sopara, not far from modern Bombay, which was recently renamed Mumbai. Present day Cranganore in Kerala, identified with the ancient Muziris, claims to have had TRADE contacts with Ancient Egypt under Queen Hatsheput, who sent five ships to obtain spices, as well as with ancient Israel during King Soloman's reign. Apparently, the contact did not break off after Egypt was conquered by Greece and later by Rome.
Max Muller had also observed that the mythology of Egyptians (and also that of the Greeks and Assyrians) is wholly founded on Vedic traditions. Eusebius, a Greek writer, has also recorded that the early Ethiopians emigrated from the river Indus and first settled in the vicinity of Egypt.
In an essay entitled On Egypt from the Ancient Book of the Hindus (Asiatic Researchers Vol. III, 1792), British Lt. Colonel Wilford gave abundant evidence proving that ancient Indians colonized and settled in Egypt. The British explorer John Hanning Speke, who in 1862 discovered the source of the Nile in Lake Victoria, acknowledged that the Egyptians themselves didn't have the slightest knowledge of where the Nile's source was. However, Lt. Colonel Wilford's description of the Hindus' intimate acquaintance with ancient Egypt led Speke to Ripon Falls, at the edge of Lake Victoria.
Louis Jacolliot (1837-1890), who worked in French India as a government official and was at one time President of the Court in Chandranagar, translated numerous Vedic hymns, the Manusmriti, and the Tamil work, Kural. This French savant and author of La Bible Dans L'Inde says:
"With such congruence before us, no one, I imagine, will appear to contest the purely Hindu origin of Egypt, unless to suggest that: "And who tells you that it was not Indian that copied Egypt? Any of you require that this affirmation shall be refuted by proofs leaving no room for even a shadow of doubt?
"To be quite logical, then deprive India of the Sanskrit, that language which formed all other; but show me in India a leaf of papyrus, a columnar inscription, a temple bas relief tending to prove Egyptian birth."
(source: Hinduism in the Space Age - by E. Vedavyas p.117).
Heinrich Karl Brugsch agrees with this view and writes in his History of Egypt that,
"We have a right to more than suspect that India, eight thousand years ago, sent a colony of emigrants who carried their arts and high civilization into what is now known as Egypt." The Egyptians came, according to their records, from a mysterious land (now known to lie on the shores of the Indian Ocean)."
Col. Henry Steel Olcott, a former president of the Theosophical Society, who explained in a March, 1881 edition of The Theosophist (page 123) that:
"We have a right to more than suspect that India, eight thousand years ago, sent a colony of emigrants who carried their arts and high civilization into what is now known to us as Egypt...This is what Bengsch Bey, the modern as well as the most trusted Egyptologer and antiquarian says on the origin of the old Egyptians. Regarding these as a branch of the Caucasian family having a close affinity with the Indo-Germanic races, he insists that they 'migrated from India before historic memory, and crossed that bridge of nations, the Isthus of Suez, to find a new fatherland on the banks of the Nile."
The dawn of human civilization finds the Hindus as captains of industry and entrepreneurs of commerce. They were in touch with the Pharaohs of Egypt. The mummies of the Egyptians‬ were wrapped in ‪#‎muslin‬ which was imported from India. Hindu TRADE gave to the land of the Nile ivory, gold, spices, tamarind-wood, sandal-wood, monkeys, and other characteristic Indian plants and animals. It is also believed that the textile craftsmen of Egypt dyed their cloth with ‪‎Hindu‬ indigo. Hindu ships brought the Indian commodities to the Arabian ports, or to the Land of Punt; and from there these were transported to Luxor, Karnak and Memphis.
Hindu commerce with the land of the Euphrates was more intimate and direct. As early as about 3000 B.C. the Hindus supplied the Chaldean city of Ur on the Euphrates with teak-wood. The Assyrians also, like the Egyptians, got their muslin from India. In fact, vegetable "wool", i.e. cotton, and wool producing plants have been some of the earliest gifts of Hindu merchants to the world. From the tenth to the sixth century B.C. the Assyro-Babylonian TRADE of the Hindus seems to have been very brisk. Hindus brought with them apes, elephants, cedar, teak, peacocks, tigers, rice, ivory, and other articles to Babylon, the Rome of Western Asia. It was through this Indo-Mesopotamian trade that the Athenians of the sixth century B.C. came to know of rice and peacocks.
This expansion of Hindu activity influenced the literature of the time, e.g. the Vedas and Jatakas. A cylinder seal of about 2,000 B.C. bearing cuneiform inscriptions and images of Chaldean deities have been unearthed in Central India. In Southern India has been found a Babylonian sarcophagus.
Hindu TRADE with the Hebrews also was considerable. Soloman (1015 B.C), ‪#‎King‬ of Judaea, was a great internationalist. In order to promote the trade of his land he set up a port at the head of the right arm of the Red Sea. He made his race the medium of intercourse between Phoenicians and Hindus. The port of Ophir (in Southern India) is famous in Hebrew literature for its trade in gold under Solomon. The Books of Genesis, Kings and Ezekiel indicate the nature and amount of Hindu contact with Asia Minor. It is held by Biblical scholars that the stones in the breast plate of the high priest may have come from India. The Hindus supplied also the demand of Syria for ivory and ebony. The Hebrew word, tuki (peacock), is derived from‪#‎Tamil‬ (South Indian) tokei, and ahalin (aloe) from aghil.
According to the Skandha Purana, Egypt (Africa) was known as Sancha-dvipa continent mentioned in Sir Willliams Jones' dissertation on Egypt. At Alexandria, in Egypt, Indian scholars were a common sight: they are mentioned both by Dio Chrysostom (c. 100 A.D.) and by Clement (c. 200 A.D.) Indirect contact between ancient India and Egypt through Mesopotamia is generally admitted, but evidence of a direct relationship between the two is at best fragmentary. Peter Von Bohlen (1796-1840) German Indologist, compared India with ancient Egypt. He thought there was a cultural connection between the two in ancient times. There are elements of folk art, language, and rural culture of Bengal which have an affinity with their Egyptian counterparts and which have not been explained satisfactorily in terms of Aryan, Mongolian, or Dravidian influences. There are similarities between place names in Bengal and Egypt and recently an Egyptian scholar, El Mansouri, has pointed out that in both Egypt and India the worship of cow, sun, snake, and river are common.
Recently, more definitive evidence suggesting contact between India and Egypt has become available. A terracotta mummy from Lothal vaguely resembles an Egyptian mummy and a similar terracotta mummy is found also at Mohenjodaro. In this context it is of interest to note that the Egyptian mummies are said to have been wrapped in Indian muslin. Characters similar to those on the Indus seals have also been found on tablets excavated from Easter Island.
Of all the Egyptian objects and motifs indicating some contact between India and Egypt during the Indus Valley period, "the cord pattern occurring in a copper tablet in the Indus Valley and on three Egyptian seals is the most striking link between the two countries. Gordon Childe has said, "In other words, in the third millennium B.C. India was already in a position to contribute to the building up of the cultural tradition that constitutes our spiritual heritage as she notoriously has done since the time of Alexander."
the Sacredness of All Cows in egypt and hinduism :
Indian society has addressed the cow as gow mata. The Churning of the Sea episode brings to light the story of the creation of the cow. Five divine Kamadhenus (wish cows), viz, Nanda, Subhadra, Surabhi, Sushila, Bahula emerged in the churning.
Thousands of names in our country are cow-related: Gauhati, Gorakhpur, Goa, Godhra, Gondiya, Godavari, Goverdhan, Gautam, Gomukh, Gokarna, Goyal, Gochar etc.
They signify reverence for the cow, and our abiding faith that the cow is Annapurna.
In Egyptian mythology, Apis or Hapis (alternatively spelled Hapi-ankh), is a bull-deity that was worshipped in the Memphis region. "Apis served as an intermediary between humans and an all-powerful god (originally Ptah, later Osiris, then Atum)." [quote: Virtual Egyptian Museum]
According to Manetho, his worship was instituted by Kaiechos of the Second Dynasty. Apis is named on very early monuments, but little is known of the divine animal before the New Kingdom. Ceremonial burials of bulls indicate that ritual sacrifice was part of the worship of the early cow deities and a bull might represent a king who became a deity after death. He was entitled "the renewal of the life" of the Memphite god Ptah: but after death he became Osorapis, i.e. the Osiris Apis, just as dead humans were assimilated to Osiris, the king of the underworld. This Osorapis was identified with the Hellenistic Serapis, and may well be identical with him. Greek writers make the Apis an incarnation of Osiris, ignoring the connection with Ptah.
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Apis was the most important of all the sacred animals in Egypt, and, as with the others, its importance increased as time went on. Greek and Roman authors have much to say about Apis, the marks by which the black bull-calf was recognized, the manner of his conception by a ray from heaven, his house at Memphis with court for disporting himself, the mode of prognostication from his actions, the mourning at his death, his costly burial, and the rejoicings throughout the country when a new Apis was found. Auguste Mariette's excavation of the Serapeum at Memphis revealed the tombs of over sixty animals, ranging from the time of Amenophis III to that of Ptolemy Alexander. At first each animal was buried in a separate tomb with a chapel built above it.
Khamuis, the priestly son of Ramesses II (c. 1300 B.C.), excavated a great gallery to be lined with the tomb chambers; another similar gallery was added by Psammetichus I. The careful statement of the ages of the animals in the later instances, with the regnal dates for their birth, enthronement, and death have thrown much light on the chronology from the Twenty-second dynasty onwards. The name of the mother-cow and the place of birth often are recorded. The sarcophagi are of immense size, and the burial must have entailed enormous expense. It is therefore remarkable that the priests contrived to bury one of the animals in the fourth year of Cambyses.
Hathor,goddesses of Egypt can be considered forms of Hathor. She was the primordial Mother Goddess, ruler of the sky, the sun, the moon, agriculture, fertility, the east, the west, moisture and childbirth. Further, she was associated with joy, music, love, motherhood, dance, drunkeness and, above all, gratitude.
Not only this even burial system in the Egyptian civilization where efforts are made to make the soul comfortable with all necessary things because they believed that the soul will need all these till it finds a material body. Reincarnation in short. This is a Hindu Vedic concept.—nobody else can claim this Sanskrit verse.
Lots of connections can be found ! But my question is why so called intelectuals hiding these facts ? High time we Hindus rise as one and spread these information as much as possible . Please contribute . Just Share and Tag your friends and Family.
Lord Krishna states in Srimad Bhagavad-Gita: chapter 10, verse 28
dhenunam asmi kamadhuk
dhenunam-among cows, asmi-I am, kamadhuk-the wish fulfilling cow

Hindu History of Indonesia-

Hindu History of Indonesia
Many civilizations in South East Asia have been closely patterned on the Indian model. Wonderful monuments such as Angkor wat, Pagan, Prambanan and Borobudur stand testimonial to Indian cultural influence.
Sanskrit writings along with sophisticated rituals and architectural technique - great organization and control of wealth and prosperity.
SuhartoSukarno‬ (1901- 1970) Indonesian nationalist leader and the first President of Indonesia. He helped the country win its independence from the Netherlands. He echoed the same sentiments.
In a special article in The Hindu on 4 January 1946, Sukarno wrote:
"In the veins of every one of my people flows the blood of Indian ancestors and the culture that we possess is steeped through and through with Indian influences.
Two thousand years ago people from your country came to Jawadvipa and Suvarnadvipa in the spirit of brotherly love. "
"They gave the initiative to found powerful kingdoms such as those of Sri Vijaya, Mataram and Majapahit. We then learnt to worship the very Gods that you now worship still and we fashioned a culture that even today is largely identical with your own. Later, we turned to Islam: but that religion too was brought by people coming from both sides of India."
Java was known by Indian chroniclers before 600 BCE. The name Java comes from the Sanskrit Jawadwip, which means a (dvip) island (yawa) shaped like a barley corn. The Vedic Indians must have charted Java, Yawadvip, thousands of years ago because Yawadvip is mentioned in India's earliest epic, the Ramayana. The Ramayana reveals some knowledge of the eastern regions beyond seas; for instance Sugriva dispatched his men to Yavadvipa, the island of Java, in search of Sita. It speaks of Burma as the land of silver mines.
"yatnavanto yava dviipam sapta raajya upashobhitam | suvarNa ruupyakam dviipam suvarNa aakara maNDitam || 4-40-30 yava dviipam atikramya shishiro naama parvataH | divam spR^ishati shR^ingeNa deva daanava sevitaH || 4-40-31 eteSaam giri durgeSu prapaateSu vaneSu ca | maargadhvam sahitaaH sarve raama patniim yashasviniim ||" 4-40-32 - The Ramayana.
“You strive hard in the island of Yava, which will be splendorous with seven kingdoms, like that even in Golden and Silver islands that are enwreathed with gold-mines, in and around Yava islands. On crossing over Yava Island, there is a mountain named Shishira, which touches heaven with its peak, and which gods and demons adore. You shall collectively rake through all the impassable mountains, waterfalls, and forests in these islands for the glorious wife of Rama.”
The Agni Purana, along with many other Puranas, calls India proper as Jambudvipa as distinguished from Dvipantara or India of the islands or overseas India. Towards the end of the fifth century, Aryabhatta, the famous Indian astronomer, wrote that when the sun rose in Ceylon it was midday in Yavakoti (Java) and midnight in the Roman land. In the Surya Siddhanta reference is also made to the Nagari Yavakoti with golden walls and gates. Strong Hindu influences were inevitable, given that the spiritual inspirational source
Prambanan Temple is situated 18km east of Yogyakarta city in Central Java. It is the largest Hindu temple compound in Indonesia and is dedicated to Trimurti, the three highest gods in Hinduism. It is known locally as the Loro Jongrang temple, after the nearby village, or the temple of Durga or the ‘Slender Virgin’.
There are a total of 237 temples in this Shivaite temple complex but many are in ruin. The architecture is tall and pointed and the central building is the tallest at 47m high. It is dedicated to Shiva. Hence is known as Chandi Shiva Mahadeva temple.
Prambanan is a stunningly beautiful building built in the 9thcentury during the reign of two kings, and Rakai Pikatan Balitung. Rises as high as 47 meters (5 meters higher than Borobudur temple). The temple complex is huge, much more spread out than Borobodur. It's a pity that the glory of this temple is largely shadowed by the more monotonous architecture of the Borobudur Temple nearby.
In fact, the Prambanan Temple compound is more beautiful and as magnificent as the Borobudur! the Prambanan looks imposing and serene ornate and intricate ......its popularity to tourists is overshadowed by Borobudur. This site is completely worth a visit, even more so than Borobodur.