Showing posts with label VEDAS. Show all posts
Showing posts with label VEDAS. Show all posts

Saturday, October 1, 2016

Eclipses scientifically explained in Rig Veda


There are many myths across many cultures about how eclipses occur.
In Rigveda (5-40-5 to 9), seer Atri explained scientifically why eclipse occurs.
Puranas have described the story of Rahu, Ketu (North Node and South Node of Moon) in a mystical way.
But the essence remains same as in Rig Veda, which was composed more than 23,000 years ago.
यत तवा सूर्य सवर्भानुस तमसाविध्यद आसुरः |
अक्षेत्रविद यथा मुग्धो भुवनान्य अदीधयुः ||
सवर्भानोर अध यद इन्द्र माया अवो दिवो वर्तमाना अवाहन |
गूळ्हं सूर्यं तमसापव्रतेन तुरीयेण बरह्मणाविन्दद अत्रिः ||
मा माम इमं तव सन्तम अत्र इरस्या दरुग्धो भियसा नि गारीत |
तवम मित्रो असि सत्यराधास तौ मेहावतं वरुणश च राजा ||
गराव्णो बरह्मा युयुजानः सपर्यन कीरिणा देवान नमसोपशिक्षन |
अत्रिः सूर्यस्य दिवि चक्षुर आधात सवर्भानोर अप माया अघुक्षत ||
यं वै सूर्यं सवर्भानुस तमसाविध्यद आसुरः |
अत्रयस तम अन्व अविन्दन नह्य अन्ये अशक्नुवन ||
The sage here described how Svarbhanu created eclipses of Sun and Moon and how Sun appeared after eclipse in sky.
Svarbhanu is Sva + Bha+ Anu. Sva means sky. Bha means light. Anu means follower.
Follower of light is shadow, which is present in the sky.
Eclipse is seen due to this shadow. It is a miracle or phenomenon and Asura means the same (not demon).
Stephen Hawking states that, according to Viking mythology, eclipses occur when two wolves, Skoll and Hati, catch the sun or moon.
At the onset of an eclipse people would make lots of noise, hoping to scare the wolves away.

Tuesday, May 31, 2016

Idol worship is always allowed in Vedas.



मूर्ति पूजा का विरोध क्यों ? जिस प्रकार मनुष्य का शरीर पञ्चतत्त्व से निर्मित होता है ऐसे ही दारु-धातुमय विग्रह भगवान् का शरीर होता है । मूर्ति पूजा की निन्दा करने वाले वास्तवमें मूर्तिका अर्थ केवल पाषाण ही समझते हैं , किन्तु मूर्ति का अर्थ है भगवान् का आकार या स्वरूप । रंग रूप आकार रहित भगवान् का अर्चन कैसे करें ? इसीलिए मूर्तिमय भगवान् का अर्चन किया जाता है । जैसे माता-पिता गुरुजनोंकी सेवा करना , यद्यपि माता-पिता अस्थि-चर्मसे निर्मित शरीर नहीं हैं , शरीरके अंदर... रहने वाले भगवदंश आत्मा ही हैं तथापि आत्मा की सेवा नही की जा सकती ,शरीरके द्वारा ही माता पिताकी सेवा की जाती है । अस्थि-चर्म निर्मित शरीरके द्वारा माता-पिताकी सेवाकी जाती है फिर भी ये नहीं कहते कि अस्थि-चर्मकी सेवा कर रहे हैं इसी प्रकार भगवान् का अर्चन श्रीविग्रहके द्वारा किया जाता है क्योंकि देव परोक्षप्रिय होते हैं -- "परोक्षप्रिया इव हि देवा: " !(ऐतरेय० १/३/१४) अब यदि कहो कि हम तो केवल यज्ञ किया करते हैं ,मूर्ति पूजा नहीं करते तब तो अज्ञानता ही है सुनिए - मूर्तिके द्वारा भगवान् का अर्चन कैसे करते हैं ? दारु-धातु-मृण्मय श्रीविग्रहकी षोड्शउपचारों द्वारा (धूप-दीप-नैवेद्य आदि) भगवद् अर्चन किया जाता है जिसे आप मूर्ति पूजा कहते हैं अब यज्ञके द्वारा यजन सुनिए - १०८०० इष्टकाओं,मृण्मयसे निर्मित यज्ञकुण्डमें समिधा द्वारा दूध ,दही ,घी ,सोमलता ,यवागू ,भात ,कच्चे चावल ,फल और जल इत्यादि से किया जाता है । अब दोनों ही पूजाओंमें क्या अंतर रहा ? इष्टकाओं-मृण्मय यज्ञकुण्डसे पूजन करना क्या मूर्ति पूजा नहीं है? भगवान् ने सृष्टिके समय यज्ञके रूप में अपनी मूर्तिकी पूजा की स्थापना की थी -- " अथैनमात्मान: प्रतिमामसृजत यद् यज्ञम् ,तस्मादाहु: प्रजापतिर्यज्ञ इत्यात्मनो ह्येनं प्रतिमासृजत !! (शतपथ ब्राह्मण ११/१/८/३) प्रजापति परमात्माने अपनी प्रतिमा (मूर्ति)के रूपमें सर्वप्रथम यज्ञको उतपन्न किया । अतः यज्ञ साक्षाद् भगवान् का स्वरूप हैं ।। निश्चित ही मूर्तिपूजा है ! हिन्दू यज्ञके द्वारा ,श्रीविग्रह के द्वारा सर्वशक्तिमान ईश्वरकी आराधना करता है न कि यज्ञ-मूर्तिकी ।



अन्धन्तम: प्रवशन्ति येऽसंभूतिमुपासते ! ततो भूय ऽ इव ते तमो यऽउ संभूत्या ँ् रताः !!( शुक्ल यजुर्वेद ४०/९) अर्थात्
 जो असम्भूति (अव्यक्त प्रकृति ) की उपासना करते हैं ,वे घोर अंधकारमें प्रवेश करते हैं और जो सम्भूति (कार्यब्रह्म) में रत हैं ,वे मानो उनसे भी अधिक अंधकारमें प्रवेश करते हैं ।
।" यहाँ श्रुति भगवती सम्भूतिकी(कार्य ब्रह्म -पृथ्वी-पाषाणादि) उपासना करने का फल अंधकारमय बता रही हैं


अब अगला मन्त्र देखिए -
  "सम्भूतिं च विनाशं च यस्यद्वेदोभय ँ् सह ! विनाशेन मृत्युं तीर्त्वा सम्भूत्यामृतमश्नुते !!( शुक्ल यजुर्वेद ४०/११) अर्थात् -जो असम्भूति और कार्यब्रह्म( पृथ्वी-पाषाणादि) इन दोनोंको साथ साथ अर्थात् अव्यक्त प्रकृति और पृथ्वी-पाषाणादिको ब्रह्मही जानता है,वह कार्यब्रह्म (पृथ्वी-पाषाणादि) की उपासनासे मृत्युको पार करके अर्थात् जन्म-मृत्युके चक्रसे छूटकर असम्भूतिके द्वारा अर्थात् अव्यक्त प्रकृतिकेलय द्वारा अमृत्व प्राप्त कर लेता है ।
अर्थात् जगत् के कारण रूप परब्रह्मको और नाशवान् प्रकृति-शरीर आदि को एक ही जानता है वो मुक्त हो जाता है ।"
      ये श्रुति स्पष्ट कहती है - "ईशा वास्यमिद ँ् सर्वं यत्किन्च जगत्यां जगत् ! (शुक्ल यजुर्वेद ४०/१) अर्थात् - इस सृष्टिमें जो कुछ प्रत्यक्ष है ,जड़ अथवा चेतन है तथा प्राणी ,जीव, पर्वत ,समुद्र ,नदियां और भूमि हैं,वे सब परमात्माके द्वारा ही आच्छादित हैं !" जब सब कुछ परमात्माके द्वारा ही आच्छादित है तब प्रकृति-जड़ पाषाण-शरीरादि की उपासना निषेध क्यों होगी ? उसका फल अंधकारमय क्यों होगा ?
 अब यदि दयानन्द उपरोक्त मन्त्र ४०/९ में पृथ्वी-पाषाणादिकी पूजाको अंधकारमय ही मानते हैं तब ये वेद मन्त्र भी देखिए -
  "परि द्यावापृथिवी सद्यऽइत्वा परि लोकात् परि दिशः परि स्वः ! ऋतस्य तन्तुं विततं विचृत्य तदपश्यवत्तदभत्तदासीत !! (शुक्ल यजुर्वेद ३२/१२)
 अर्थात् - जो द्यावापृथ्वी को समस्त लोकों और दिशाओं को ब्रह्म मानते हुए स्वर्ग की परिक्रमा करते हैं तथा यज्ञ-कर्मको अनुष्ठानादि से संपन्न करके ब्रह्मको साक्षाद् रूप से देखते हैं ,वे अज्ञान से छूटकर उसी ब्रह्ममें एकाकार हो जाते हैं !" इस उपरोक्त यजुर्वेदके मन्त्र में पृथ्वी-स्वर्गादि समस्त चराचर जगत् को ब्रह्म मानकर परिक्रमा आदि उपासना करता है और जगत् को ब्रह्म ही मानता है जड़ नहीं वो ब्रह्ममें लीन हो जाता है ये स्पष्ट हो जाता है .........
मूर्ति पूजा प्रतिपादन - सत्यार्थ प्रकाश में दयानन्द सरस्वतीने शुक्ल यजुर्वेदके निम्न मन्त्रसे मूर्ति पूजा का निषेध किया है किन्तु ये बहुत ही भ्रामक है - दयानन्दका मन्त्र भाष्य - "अन्धतम: प्र विशन्ति येऽसम्भूतिमुपासते ! ततो भूयऽइव ते तमो यऽउ सम्भूत्या ँ् रताः !! ( शुक्ल यजुर्वेद ४०/९) अर्थात् - जो 'असम्भूति ' अर्थात् अनुत्पन्न प्रकृति कारण की , ब्रह्मके स्थान में उपासना करते हैं ,वे अंधकार अर्थात् अज्ञान और दुःखसागरमें डूबते हैं । और 'सम्भूति' जो कारण से उत्पन्न हुए कार्यरूप पृथ्वी आदि भूत, पाषाण और वृक्षादि अवयव और मनुष्यादि के शरीर की उपासना ब्रह्मके स्थान पर करते हैं ,वे अंधकार से भी अधिक अंधकार अर्थात् महामूर्ख चिरकाल घोर दुःखरूप नरक में गिरके महाक्लेश भोगते हैं !"जबकि इस मन्त्रमें मूर्ति पूजाका कहीं भी विरोध नही है .
 अब सही अर्थ देखिए -"अंध मूर्ति पूजा प्रतिपादन । सत्यार्थ प्रकाश एकादश समुल्लास पृष्ठ ३७७-३७८ में स्वामी दयानन्द ने - "न तस्य प्रतिमाऽअस्ति !!(यजुर्वेद ३२/३ अर्थात् - जो सब जगत् में व्यापक है उस निराकार परमात्मा की प्रतिमा ,परिमाण ,सादृश्य वा मूर्ति नही है !" ऐसा अर्थ करके मूर्ति पूजा का निषेध माना है ।
किन्तु इस मन्त्र का अब सम्यक् अर्थ करते हैं - " न तस्य प्रतिमाऽअस्ति यस्य नाम महद्यशः । हिरण्यगर्भऽइत्येष मा मा हि ँ् सादित्येषा यस्मान्न जातऽइत्येष: !! (शुक्ल यजुर्वेद ३२/३) अर्थात् - उस परमात्म स्वरूप पुरुष का कोई आकार नहीं है । उसका यशऔर नाम ही महान् है । "हिरण्यगर्भ" ,"यस्मान्न जातः ", और "मा मा हिंसित् " आदि मन्त्रों में उसकी महिमा का वर्णन हुआ है । " इस मन्त्र में कहा गया है यद्यपि उस परमात्मा का कोई आकार-स्वरूप या मूरत नहीं है तथापि उन महान् परमात्माका हिरण्यगर्भ आदि मन्त्रों में वर्णित है अर्थात् वो परमात्मा सृष्टि के आदि में आकार -स्वरूप रहित रहते हुए भी सर्गके समय स्वयं ही हिरण्यगर्भ ,विराटपुरुष ,प्रजापति और संवत्सर के रूप में मूर्तिमान् होता है । "संवत्सरे हि प्रजापतिरजायत । स इदं हिरण्यमाण्डं व्यसृजत् " ! ये विराट पुरुष या हिरण्यगर्भ ही इस परमात्माकी प्रथम मूर्ति है !
"संवत्सरस्य प्रतिमां यां त्वां रात्र्युपासते । सा न आयुष्मतीं प्रजां रायस्योषेण सं सृज " (अथर्ववेद ३/१०/३) अर्थात् - हे रात्रि ! संवत्सर (प्रजापति -परमात्मा ) की प्रतिमा (मूर्ति) जिस तेरी हम उपासना करते हैं ,वह तू प्रतिमा हमारी प्रजाको धान-पुष्टि आदिसे संयुक्त कर " की उक्ति से परमात्मा के साकार स्वरूप होने ,उनकी मूर्तिकी उपासना का प्रतिपादन किया गया है । भगवद्गीता में भी भगवान् कहते हैं - " मया ततमिदं सर्वं जगदव्यक्तमूर्तिना "(भगवद्गीता ९/४) । इन सब प्रमाणों से सिद्ध है शुक्ल यजुर्वेद का उपर्युक्त मन्त्र "न तस्य प्रतिमाऽअस्ति०"३२/३ में मूर्ति पूजा का निषेध नहीं है..
साभार-: कृष्णानुरागी वरुण

Thursday, January 14, 2016

Hindus Gotra System: Scientific Ancestry



gotra
In Hindu society, the term gotra means is same of what modern day Ancestry is. t comes from Sages whose name Gotra comes from .

Gotra means cowshed (Go=Cow, tra=shed) in Sanskrit. Paini defines gotra for grammatical purposes as apatyam pautraprabhrti gotram (IV. 1. 162), which means the word gotra denotes the progeny (of a sage) beginning with the son’s son. The system does not mean coming from Brahman(not cast basis), but all who were educated were called Brahman, means know er.
Hindu Brahmins identify their male lineage by considering themselves to be the descendants of the 8 great Rishis i.e Saptarishis (The Seven Sacred Saints) + Bharadwaja Rishi. So the list of root  Gotras is as follows :
. Angirasa
. Atri
. Gautam
. Kashyapa
. Bhrigu
. Vasistha
. Kutsa
. Bharadwaja
The offspring (apatya) of these eight are gotras and others than these are called  gotravayava. These eight sages are called gotrakarins from whom all the 49 gotras have evolved.
For instance, from Atri sprang the Atreya and Gavisthiras gotras.In almost all Hindu families, marriage within the same gotra is prohibited, since people with same gotra are considered to be siblings.
It connects to the root Seer. Gotra does not have to pass from father to children ,as in  Malayalis and Tulu’s its passed on from mother to children.

Additional rule in the Gotra system is that, even if the Bride and Bridegroom belong to different Gotras, they still cannot get married even if just one of their Gotra Pravara matches. Now, why only male carries fixed lastname and gotra and why female can change her last name, gotra after marriage?
Genes and Chromosomes Among Humans
Humans have 23 pairs of Chromosomes and in each pair one Chromosome comes from the father and the other comes from the mother. So in all we have 46 Chromosomes in every cell, of which 23 come from the mother and 23 from the father.
Of these 23 pairs, there is one pair called the Sex Chromosomes which decide the gender of the person. During conception, if the resultant cell has XX sex chromosomes then the child will be a girl and if it is XY then the child will be a boy. X chromosome decides the female attributes of a person and Y Chromosome decides the male attributes of a person.
When the initial embryonic cell has XY chromosome, the female attributes get suppressed by the genes in the Y Chromosome and the embryo develops into a male child. Since only men have Y Chromosomes, son always gets his Y Chromosome from his father and the X Chromosome from his mother. On the other hand daughters always get their X Chromosomes, one each from both father and mother.
So the Y Chromosome is always preserved throughout a male lineage  because a Son always gets it from his father, while the X Chromosome is not preserved in the female lineage (Mother, Daughter, Grand Daughter etc) because it comes from both father and mother.
A mother will pass either her mother’s X Chromosome to her Children or her father’s X Chromosome to her children or a combination of both because of both her X Chromosomes getting mixed (called as Crossover).
But Mitochondrial  gene in offspring comes only from mother so you can trace all son and daughter to mother by Mitochondrial gene.

On the other hand, a Son always gets his father’s Y Chromosome and that too almost intact without any changes because there is no corresponding another Y chromosome in his cells to do any mixing as his combination is XY, while that of females is XX which hence allows for mixing as both are X Chromosomes.
Women never get this Y Chromosome in their body. And hence Y Chromosome plays a crucial role in modern genetics in identifying the Genealogy ie male ancestry of a person. And the Gotra system was designed to track down the root Y Chromosome of a person quite easily. If a person belongs to Angirasa Gotra then it means that his Y Chromosome came all the way down over thousands of years of timespan from the Rishi Angirasa!
And if a person belongs to a Gotra (say Bharadwaja) with Pravaras (Angirasa, Bhaarhaspatya, Bharadwaja), then it means that the person’s Y Chromosome came all the way down from Angirasa to Bhaarhaspatya to Bharadwaja to the person.
This also makes it clear why females are said to belong to the Gotra of their husbands after marriage. That is because women do not carry Y Chromosome, and their Sons will carry the Y Chromosome of the Father and hence the Gotra of a woman is said to be that of her husband after marriage.






gotra5
Y is the only Chromosome which does not have a similar pair in the human body. The pair of the Y Chromosome in humans is X Chromosome which is significantly different from Y Chromosome. Even the size of the Y Chromosome is just about one third the size of the X Chromosome. In other words throughout evolution the size of the Y Chromosome has been decreasing and it has lost most of its genes and has been reduced to its current size.
Scientists are debating whether Y Chromosome will be able to survive for more than a few million years into the future or whether it will gradually vanish, and if it does so whether it will cause males to become extinct! Obviously because Y Chromosome is the one which makes a person male or a man.
Y Chromosome has to depend on itself to repair any of its injuries and for that it has created duplicate copies of its genes within itself. However this does not stop DNA damages in Y Chromosome which escape its local repair process from being propagated into the offspring males.
This causes Y Chromosomes to accumulate more and more defects over a prolonged period of evolution and scientists believe that this is what is causing the Y Chromosome to keep losing its weight continuously.
Y Chromosome which is crucial for the creation and evolution of males has a fundamental weakness which is denying it participation in the normal process of evolution via Chromosomal mix and match to create better versions in every successive generation, and this weakness MAY lead to the extinction of Y Chromosome altogether over the next few million years, and if that happens scientists are not sure whether that would cause males to become extinct or not.
And that is because Scientists are not sure whether any other Chromosome in the 23 pairs will be able to take over the role of the Y Chromosome or not.
On the other hand, it is not necessary that humanity will not be able to survive if males become extinct. Note that females do not need the Y Chromosome, and since all females have X Chromosomes, it would be still possible to create a mechanism where X Chromosomes from different females are used to create offspring, say like injecting the nuclei from the egg of one female into the egg of another female to fertilize it and that would grow into a girl child. So yes, that would be a humanity where only females exist.
Even modern scientists have concluded that children born to parents having blood relation (like cousins) can have birth defects. For example, there is a recessive dangerous gene in one person.
 Mathomathis

Sunday, August 23, 2015

The Vedas


The Vedas (Sanskrit वेद véda, “knowledge”) are a large body of texts originating in Ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism
Veda is the highest authority in Hindu knowledge system and the authority of all other scriptures are based on the authority of the Veda. Vedas are four – Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva. Rigveda contains prayers to Gods (Riks are the mantras). Yajurveda has methods to use Riks for sacrifices (Yajus-Yajna). Sama Veda introduces musical notes. Atharva Veda gives ways to make life successful, and contains methods to fulfill what can be called material aspirations.
Each Veda has three sections – Samhita, Brahmana and Aranyaka. Samhita has prayers or Suktas. Brahmana has sacrificial methods. Aranyaka has Mantras and methods that are practiced in the forests (that is, not for grhasthas). Upanishads normally appear in the last part of Aranyaka and deal with spiritual philosophy. Some Upanishads are exceptions and appear in Samhita and Brahmana too. Thus Upanishad, as it appears in the last part of the Veda, is called Vedanta. There are 108 Upanishads and 10 of them are famous. Since Upanishads mostly philosophical they are found in prose. But there are Upanishads like Taittireeya and Ganapathi Atharva seersha that have svara.
These four sections are mapped to the four Ashramas. A brahmacari is supposed to study the Samhita. Grhastha is supposed to follow the Brahmana. Vanaprasthi is supposed to follow Aranyaka. Sanyasi is supposed to contemplate on the Upanishads.
The Rigveda itself indicates that Truth is one – “ekam sad vipra bahudha vadanti agnim yamam matariswanam ahuh”[1] (meaning Truth is one, but the learned refer to it in different names like agni, yama, matariswan). But the concept that there is a single Parabrahman and that all Gods are Its forms, is more clearly visible towards the Vedanta (Upanishads). Its implications can be seen in later sections, especially when we discuss Darshanas and Puranas.
Veda literally means knowledge. Traditionally the following features are attributed to the Veda:
Veda is anantha (infinite). Only an infinitesimal portion of it is revealed to humans. This can be understood in the sense that knowledge is infinite. However, Veda is the knowledge of Brahman, the True, Absolute and the Infinite. And the essence of Veda is said to be understood if one knows the infinite, i.e., opens up to the infinite Self. Realizing the infinite through any single mantra/sukta of the Veda is equivalent to understanding the essence of any other mantra and the entire Veda. Thus it is said know the One (Brahman) by which everything else is known.
Veda is anadi, having no beginning or end. It said to exist eternally; it is called the breath of Paramatma. This is a poetic expression, this does not literally mean paramatma has a breath but just the way breath exists with a person’s life similarly veda exists with God/creation. While the modern view is that Rigveda is the oldest, it is only in compilation that it is possibly older. Rigveda itself mentions Yajurveda and Samaveda. For instance Purusha sukta (RV 10.90) says “Tasmaat yagnaat sarva hutaH, RucaH-samaani jagnire, chandaagmsi jagnire tasmaat, yajus tasmaadajaayata”.
Veda is apourusheya, not authored by humans(divine creation). The seers are said to reveal veda mantras to the world, they are called drashtas. Rigveda says “catvari vak parimita padani tani vidur brahmana ye minishinah, guha trini nihita neengayanti turiyam vaco manushya vadanti”[2], meaning vak exists in four forms and the learned know of them. Three are hidden and the fourth is what men speak. Vak (literally word, but meaning veda mantra here) is said to exist in four forms – para, pasyanti, madhyama and vaikhari. Para is the eternal form of vak. Pasyanti is when a seer envisions the mantra. Madhyama is when it descends into mind plane. Vaikhari is the expression. Thus the Veda mantras exist eternally, they are only revealed to the world by the seers.
Though there are four Vedas, there are alternate recitations in each Veda. These are called “pathantaram”s. Based on these, various branches exist in each Veda, each of them is called a Veda sakha.
There are various methods of chanting the Veda, like ghana and jata.
Purpose and Origin of the Vedas
Veda means knowledge. The Sanskrit word véda “knowledge, wisdom” is derived from the root vid- “to know”.Originally the Vedas were composed in Sanskrit. There are two types of Sanskrit, vaidika and laukika. The Vedic Sanskrit is called vaidika and it is more complicated both in its grammar and in the use of certain words which are only found in the Vedas. The worldly or more popular Sanskrit is called laukika. This is the language of the puranas and itihasas
According to Hindu tradition, the Vedas are apauruṣeya “of divine origin” are supposed to have been directly revealed, and thus are called śruti (“what is heard”). The four Saṃhitās are metrical . The term saṃhitā literally means “composition, compilation”. The individual verses contained in these compilations are known as mantras. Some selected Vedic mantras are still recited at prayers, religious functions and other auspicious occasions in contemporary Hinduism.
The Vedas are called the books of gods .Each word of veda is Powerful.Thus the knoweldge of Vedas is a secret .
The class of “Vedic texts” is aggregated around the four canonical Saṃhitās or Vedas proper (turīya), of which three (traya) are related to the performance of yajna (sacrifice) in historical Vedic religion:
There are four Vedas:
The Rigveda, containing hymns to be recited by the hotṛ;It contains 1028 hymns dedicated to thirty-three different gods; these gods were, quite expectedly, nature gods. The most often addressed gods are Indra (rain god; king of heavens), Agni (fire god) and Rudra.This oldest religious text in the world has10,589 verses which are divided into ten mandalas or book-sections.
The Yajurveda, containing formulas to be recited by the adhvaryu or officiating priest;The Yajur-Veda or the wisdom of sacrifices lays down various sacred invocations (yajurs) which were chanted by a particular sect of priests called adhvaryu. They performed the sacrificial rites. T
The Samaveda, containing formulas to be sung by the udgātṛ.The Sama-Veda or the wisdom of chants is basically a collection of samans or chants,
The fourth is the Atharvaveda, a collection of spells and incantations, apotropaic charms and speculative hymns It has 760 hymns, ts first part consists chiefly of spells and incantations, concerned with protection against demons and disaster, spells for the healing of diseases, for long life and for various desires or aims in life.
The Vedas are called Triyi Vidya because Ved is generally divided in to three kinds of Vidyas
Gyaan
Karma
Upasana
Rigveda
Main article: Rigveda
The mantras in Rigveda are called Riks. Rigveda has 10 mandalas, 1028 suktas and 10170 riks in the whole. Each sukta is a collection of riks on a devata and each mandala has many suktas. The samhita portion of Rigveda contains suktas alone and all suktas are addressed to devatas like Agni, Vayu, Vishnu, Rudra, Mitra, Varuna, Pushan, Aryaman.
The major Upanishads found in Rigveda sakhas are Aitareya and Kaushitaki.
Yajurveda
Main article: Yajurveda
As the name suggests, Yajurveda deals with Yajna, sacrifice. It applies riks and gives procedures and mantras for sacrifices.
There are two major sakhas in the Yajurveda, Sukla and Krishna. Krishna Yajurveda sakha is also called Taittireeya sakha. Samhita of Sukla Yajurveda is called Vajasaneya samhita and that of Krishna Yajurveda is called Taittireeya samhita. Brahmana of Sukla Yajurveda is called the Satapatha brahmana. In the Krishna Yajurveda, there is an overlap between samhita and brahmana portions and lays down the procedures for sacrifices. This can be understood in the light of the fact that brahmana is the sacrificial code and Yajurveda combines this with riks. Many sacrifices like Darsapurnamasa, Vajapeya, Somayaga, and Aswamedha are found in Yajurveda.
There is a special place for lord Rudra in the Krishna Yajurveda, and Rudra suktam is found in the middle of Taittireeya Samhita. It has 7 kandas and the fourth kanda has 9 chapters. Namakam is the 5th chapter and while Chamakam 7th chapter of the fourth kanda. This is because Rudra is the presiding deity of Yajnas and Yajurveda deals with Yajnas.
The major Upanishads found in Yajurveda are Brihadaranyaka, Maitri, Isa, Taittiriya, Svetasvatara and Katha.
Samaveda
Main article: Samaveda
Samaveda puts the riks in musical notes. The musical notes in samaveda are said to be the origin of traditional musical octet.
Major Upanishads found in Samaveda are Kena and Chandogya.
Atharvaveda
Main article: Atharvaveda
Atharvaveda, apart from hymns to gods, gives many ways to make life successful. While Gayatri mantra is said to be the essence of the three Vedas (Rig, Yajur and Sama), there is a different Gayatri mantra for Atharvaveda. And it requires that a second Upanayana is done for the pupil before he is initiated to learning Atharvaveda. (Another brahmopadesam of Atharva Gayatri is done here).
Atharvaveda contains prayers to Gods not mentioned in the other three Vedas, like Pratyangira. Atharvaveda also uses many Riks. For instance, the Manyu sukta of Rigveda appears as two chapters “sena nireekshana” and “sena samyojana” in the Atharvaveda.
Major Upanishads in Atharvaveda are Mandukya, Mundaka and Prasna.
mainly from hindupedia.com

Friday, August 21, 2015

Jewels of Hinduism, Sanatan Dharm



Vedanta: Hinduism Quotes



“Most humbly we bow to You, O Supreme Lord.
At Your command moves the mighty wheel of time.
You are eternal, and beyond eternity.”
(Artharva Veda)
--------------
“The one who loves all intensely begins perceiving in all living beings a part of himself…
He becomes a lover of all, a part and parcel of the Universal Joy.
He flows with the stream of happiness, and is enriched by each soul.”
(Yajur Veda)
--------------
“The human body is the temple of God.
One who kindles the light of awareness within gets true light.
The sacred flame of your inner shrine is constantly bright…
The experience of unity is the fulfillment of human endeavors.
The mysteries of life are revealed.”
(Rig Veda)
--------------
“Sing the song of celestial love, O singer!
May the divine fountain of eternal grace and joy enter your soul.
May Brahma, (the Divine One),
Pluck the strings of your inner soul with His celestial fingers,
And feel His own presence within.
Bless us with a divine voice
That we may tune the harp-strings of our life
To sing songs of Love to you.”
(Rig Veda)
--------------
“Of everything he is the inmost Self.
He is the truth; he is the Self supreme.” (Chandogya Upanishad)
--------------
“Meditating on the lotus of your heart,
in the center is the untainted;
the exquisitely pure, clear, and sorrowless;
the inconceivable;
the unmanifest,
of infinite form;
blissful, tranquil, immortal;
the womb of Brahma.”
(Kaivalyopanishad)
--------------
“Those in whose hearts OM reverberates
Unceasingly are indeed blessed
And deeply loved as one who is the Self.
The all-knowing Self was never born,
Nor will it die. Beyond cause and effect,
This Self is eternal and immutable.
When the body dies, the Self does not die.”
(Katha Upanishad)
--------------
“The whole mantram AUM
Indivisible, interdependent,
Goes on reverberating in the mind…
Established in this cosmic vibration,
The sage goes beyond fear, decay, and death
To enter into infinite peace.”
(Prashna Upanishad)
--------------
“O Almighty!
You are the infinite; the universe is also infinite!
From infinite the infinite has come out!
Having taken infinite out of the infinite, the infinite remains!
O Almighty! May there be Peace! Peace! Everywhere!”
(Ishawashya Upanishad)
--------------
“Meditating on the lotus of your heart, in the center is the untainted; the exquisitely pure, clear, and
sorrowless; the inconceivable; the unmanifest, of infinite form; blissful, tranquil, immortal; the womb
of Brahma.” (Kaivalyopanishad)
--------------
“O seeker, know the true nature of your soul, and identify yourself with it completely.
O Lord, (may we attain) the everlasting consciousness of Supreme Light and Joy.
May we resolve to dedicate our life to the service of humankind,
And uplift them to Divinity.”
(Yajur Veda)
--------------
“O Brahma, lead us from the unreal to the real.
O Brahma, lead us from darkness to light.
O Brahma, lead us from death to immortality…
Shanti, Shanti, Shanti, Om.”
(Brhadaranyaka Upanishad)
--------------
“Look to this day, for it is life, the very breath of life. In its brief course lie all the realities of your
existence; the bliss of growth, the glory of action, the splendor of beauty. For yesterday is only a
dream, and tomorrow is but a vision. But today, well lived, makes every yesterday a dream of
happiness, and every tomorrow a vision of hope. Look well, therefore, to this day.” (Ancient Sanskrit)
--------------
“The highest Self, all endless bliss, the unconditioned limitless consciousness, being realized, whether
through the great texts, or through Yoga, in all experience whatever—let one lose himself in the
ecstasy of Realization, for he has forever lost all touch with bondage of every description.”
(Svarajyasiddhi)
--------------
“This ritual is One.
This food is One.
We who offer the food are One.
The fire of hunger is One.
All action is One.
We who understand this are One.”
(Ancient Hindu Blessing)
--------------
“A particle of Its bliss supplies the bliss of the whole universe. Everything becomes enlightened in Its
light. All else appears worthless after a sight of that essence. I am indeed of this Supreme Eternal
Self.” (Vijnanananka)
--------------
“The knower catches in the ecstasy of his heart the full light of that Brahman (that Divine Essence)
which is indescribable—all pure bliss, incomparable, transcending time, ever free, beyond desire.”
(Vivekachudamani)
-------------
"Bright but hidden, the Self dwells in the heart.
Everything that moves, breathes, opens, and closes
Lives in the Self. He is the source of love
And may be known through love but not through thought
He is the goal of life. Attain this goal!"
(Mundaka Upanishad)
-----------
“All is change in the world of the senses,
But changeless is the supreme Lord of Love.
Meditate on him, be absorbed by him,
Wake up from this dream of separateness.”
(Shvetashvatara Upanishad)
---------------
“O mysterious and incomprehensible Spirit!
“In the depths of my heart, there is only You—You, for all time.”
(source unknown)

Friday, April 24, 2015

Western Scientists like Heisenberg & Schrodinger were inspired and influenced by Vedas

Recently Stupid Indian media was buzzing after a statement of Home minister Of India Mr Rajnath singh regarding Heisenberg’s theory and its roots in the Vedas. Let us look in to that-
rajnath
News link:http://www.firstpost.com/india/dear-pm-modi-rajnaths-tall-claims-heisenberg-bad-vikaaaaas-1806129.html
Encyclopedias are usually the first level of references and since this is about ancient sciences, I referred “Encyclopedia of History of Science” (published by “Springer Science & Business Media”), in which page 204 says Schrodinger, the co-creator of quantum theory, was inspired by the Vedic texts and he along with Heisenberg built theories which were consistent with Vedantic concepts.
schrodinger_encyc
Page 204 of this book:
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=kt9DIY1g9HYC&lpg=RA1-PA204&pg=RA1-PA204
While Indian media and students are forgeting Vedas education, Europian Scientists learned and used Vedas in their research. Even Indian Genetry try to stay away from Vedas etc why? because they have inferiority complex developed by British for 400 years and before that by Mughals for 200 years. Time to reclaim identity you son of Bhartas and Aryavart before Europeans say that Sanskrit and Vedas are theirs.
schrodinger_vedanta
Page 214 of this book:http://books.google.co.in/books?id=TWptZtEa0hcC
See how Heisenberg’s theory of uncertainty is consistent with the teachings of Rig Veda, the book titled “The Hindu Mind” by Bansi Pandit provides more insights with simple illustrations and parallels at page 334.
hindu_mind_heisenberg
Page 334 of this book:http://books.google.co.in/books?id=XA9zEw93KXEC
A biography on Schrodinger (by William Taussig Scott) shows how he was inspired by the concept of “Brahman” in the Upanishads.
schrodinger_intro_vedanta1
Page 141 of this book:http://books.google.co.in/books?id=sRsZVjJU8koC
For insights into the Vedic interpretation of Quantum theory by Bohr-Heisenberg, the book “Unified Theories” written by RL Amoroso is recommended
unified_conclusion
Page 75 of this book:http://books.google.co.in/books?id=FNlKo3-hDpoC
Bohr’s fascination & inspiration from Upanishads is also well documented.
bohr_upanishad
Page 168 of this book:
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=27HofxQ-VGwC
Moving beyond Quantum theories, Vedas had inspired scientists in nuclear sciences as well. For example, Oppenheimer (the father of atomic bomb) had publicly stated that access to the Vedas were the greatest privilege of the century.
oppenheimer_vedas
Page 23 of this book:http://books.google.co.in/books?id=mZ0ZAgAAQBAJ
Carl Sagan (a renowned Astrophysicist) was deeply inspired by Vedas and had stated that the Vedic cosmology corresponds to the modern scientific cosmology.
vedic_cosmology
Page 25 of this book:
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=mZ0ZAgAAQBAJ
During his visit to USA, Swami Vivekananda had inspired Tesla (popularly called father of electricity) to look into Vedic Sciences to overcome the challenges imposed by conventional sciences, which in turn helped Tesla build theories which were later used by scientists for research on quantum physics & relativity.
tesla_vivekananda
Sources:http://www.teslasociety.com/tesla_and_swami.htm
http://www.collective-evolution.com/2014/07/23/the-influence-vedic-philosophy-had-on-nikola-teslas-idea-of-free-energy/
Above references can be used to suggest that some of the Western Scientists were indeed influenced & some of their theories were inspired by Vedas & Upanishads.


Monday, March 23, 2015

GEMS OF UPNISHAD

'"He who knows this Upanishad [the Truth, the Knowledge of Brahman] shakes off all sins and becomes firmly established in the infinite and the highest Heaven"
----------The Kena Upanishad: 4: 9

There are many verses in various Scriptures which teach that the ultimate goal of a man is to reach the Abode of God, the Heaven and to live an infinite life therein.
Most of us MISUNDERSTAND it to be the finite heaven which is a recurring as well as a temporary abode.
Whenever heaven is qualified with adjectives like-----"Infinite" and "Highest" and phrases like-----"Abode of God", then this is a metaphorical use which refers to Brahman and not heaven because there is nothing that is "infinite" and "greatest" except Brahman not even the heaven. 

Both statements i.e. being "infinite" and attaining "immortality" can be true only when It is Brahman. Heaven can neither be "infinite" nor can one attain "immortality" by entering it.

By the study of the Upanishads it has been made clear that a man can never become immortal by entering the finite heaven but only by realising his oneness with Brahman. So, definitely, by the METAPHORICAL comparison of Brahman and heaven a message is passed-----

"Let men craving for finite pleasures of finite heaven know that there exists an Infinite Heaven with infinite pleasures, entering [realising] Which a man becomes immortal and that is BRAHMAN. So, do not crave for a finite pleasure. Do crave for Brahman Who is infinite and never-ending bliss, Who is Heaven of heavens.....Pleasure of pleasures"

So, whenever you come across lines like-----"Heaven is the ultimate goal and we are going to live there for infinite period of time", take this Heaven as Brahman i.e. diffusing in Brahman is the ultimate goal for this is the only way for both the statements "Infinite" and "Immortality" to be true at once. Make sure to let those who misunderstand This infinite Heaven with the finite one know this too.'The Vedas are the essence of life and the Upanishads are the essence of the Vedas. The Gita is the cream of the Upanishads. This is why we call the Gita, "The essence of all the essences".
For a better understanding of the Upanishads, it is good to go through the Gita and to understand the Gita going through the Upanishads is the best.
Great Saint VedaVyas, before penning down the Gita in the epic, The Mahabharata, described the Gita as 'the summary of all the Upanishads'. So, let us study the Upanishads along with the Gita [the summary of the Upanishads].
"He who knows this Upanishad [the Truth, the Knowledge of Brahman] shakes off all sins and becomes firmly established in the infinite and the highest Heaven"
----------The Kena Upanishad: 4: 9
'OM Shanti. Shanti. Shanti.

Peace. Peace. Peace.' There are many verses in various Scriptures which teach that the ultimate goal of a man is to reach the Abode of God, the Heaven and to live an infinite life therein.
Most of us MISUNDERSTAND it to be the finite heaven which is a recurring as well as a temporary abode....
Whenever heaven is qualified with adjectives like-----"Infinite" and "Highest" and phrases like-----"Abode of God", then this is a metaphorical use which refers to Brahman and not heaven because there is nothing that is "infinite" and "greatest" except Brahman not even the heaven.

Both statements i.e. being "infinite" and attaining "immortality" can be true only when It is Brahman. Heaven can neither be "infinite" nor can one attain "immortality" by entering it.
'BRAHMAN verily is a never-ending inquiry. BRAHMAN is "the infinite ocean of Knowledge".
Glory be to BRAHMAN who is infinite and eternal. Glory be to the seekers of BRAHMAN who realise themselves to be a droplet in "That Infinite Ocean".
Hare Krishna  
Har Har Mahadev' By the study of the Upanishads it has been made clear that a man can never become immortal by entering the finite heaven but only by realising his oneness with Brahman. So, definitely, by the METAPHORICAL comparison of Brahman and heaven a message is passed-----
"Let men craving for finite pleasures of finite heaven know that there exists an Infinite Heaven with infinite pleasures, entering [realising] Which a man becomes immortal and that is BRAHMAN. So, do not crave for a finite pleasure. Do crave for Brahman Who is infinite and never-ending bliss, Who is Heaven of heavens.....Pleasure of pleasures"
So, whenever you come across lines like-----"Heaven is the ultimate goal and we are going to live there for infinite period of time", take this Heaven as Brahman i.e. diffusing in Brahman is the ultimate goal for this is the only way for both the statements "Infinite" and "Immortality" to be true at once. Make sure to let those who misunderstand This infinite Heaven with the finite one know this too.

'A man dying in the ignorance of the Self is condemned to roam in the world through an interminable chain of births and deaths. Therefore, a man should make every effort to attain the goal of life and terminate the chain of births and deaths by realising Brahman.
Living and non-living; Brahman is immanent in all. It [Brahman] alone exists. Names and forms are falsely superimposed on It [Brahman] through avidya [अविद्या] and Maya [माया].
He who knows Brahman becomes Brahman. The realisation of oneness with Brahman is the teaching of the Upanishads.

OM TAT SAT'A man dying in the ignorance of the Self is condemned to roam in the world through an interminable chain of births and deaths. Therefore, a man should make every effort to attain the goal of life and terminate the chain of births and deaths by realising Brahman.
Living and non-living; Brahman is immanent in all. It [Brahman] alone exists. Names and forms are falsely superimposed on It [Brahman] through avidya [अविद्या] and Maya [माया].
He who knows Brahman becomes Brahman. The realisation of oneness with Brahman is the teaching of the Upanishads.
'In reply to yesterday's query.

YES, there is a verse in the BHAGAVAD GITA which says the same as the ISHA UPANISHAD: 5. After all, the Gita is the summary of the Upanishads. They are to be referred together for the best understanding of Brahman [God].'There is a verse in the BHAGAVAD GITA which says the same as the ISHA UPANISHAD: 5. After all, the Gita is the summary of the Upanishads. They are to be referred together for the best understanding of Brahman [God].
It [Brahman] moves and moves not; It [Brahman] is far and likewise near. It [Brahman] is inside all this and It [Brahman] is outside all this.
----------The Isha Upanishad: 5
Can you present a verse from the Bhagavad Gita which is similar to the above verse of the Isha UPANISHAD
Harih Aum! Aum, the word, is all this [i.e. the whole universe]. A clear explanation of it is as follows: all that is past, present and future is, indeed, Aum. And whatever else there is, beyond the threefold division of time-----that also is truly Aum.
----------The Mandukya Upanishad: 1: 1
'The non-duality of Atman [Brahman], in spite of multiple number of bodies under Its [Brahman's] lordship, is explained by various illustrations in the Upanishads, one of which is as follows:

"As the same non-dual fire, after it has entered the world, appears to be different according to whatever it burns, so also the same non-dual Atman, dwelling in all beings, appears to be different according to whatever It enters."
----------The Katha Upanishad: 2: 2: 9

Samsara or the relative world is maya [illusory] and not real. Maya is superimposed on Brahman as Upadhis [limiting adjuncts]. This is why apparently, existence of many atmans is felt, but in reality i.e. when we view it from a perspective beyond maya, Atman is one without a second.

Hari Om Tat Sat
Om Namaha Shivaya'The non-duality of Atman [Brahman], in spite of multiple number of bodies under Its [Brahman's] lordship, is explained by various illustrations in the Upanishads, one of which is as follows:
"As the same non-dual fire, after it has entered the world, appears to be different according to whatever it burns, so also the same non-dual Atman, dwelling in all beings, appears to be different according to whatever It enters."
----------The Katha Upanishad: 2: 2: 9
Samsara or the relative world is maya [illusory] and not real. Maya is superimposed on Brahman as Upadhis [limiting adjuncts]. This is why apparently, existence of many atmans is felt, but in reality i.e. when we view it from a perspective beyond maya, Atman is one without a second.
He is the sun dwelling in the bright heavens. He is the air dwelling in the interspace. He is the fire dwelling on earth. He is the guest dwelling in the house. He dwells in men, in the gods, in truth, in the sky. He is born [present] in the water, on earth, in the sacrifice, on the mountains. He is the true and the great. ----------The Katha Upanishad: 2: 2: 2
'He is the sun dwelling in the bright heavens. He is the air dwelling in the interspace. He is the fire dwelling on earth. He is the guest dwelling in the house. He dwells in men, in the gods, in truth, in the sky. He is born [present] in the water, on earth, in the sacrifice, on the mountains. He is the true and the great.
----------The Katha Upanishad: 2: 2: 2

There are not different Atmans in different bodies. The same Atman dwells in all bodies. He is omnipresent. There is only one Atman without a second, which is the all-pervasive Self of the universe. Atman, being non-different from Brahman, completely excludes multiplicity and difference. Atman is omnipresent.' There are not different Atmans in different bodies. The same Atman dwells in all bodies. He is omnipresent. There is only one Atman without a second, which is the all-pervasive Self of the universe. Atman, being non-different from Brahman, completely excludes multiplicity and difference. Atman is omnipresent.

There is a city of eleven gates belonging to the Unborn ATMAN [Self] of undistorted Consciousness. He who meditates on Him grieves
no more; liberated [from the bonds of ignorance], he becomes free.
----------The Katha Upanishad: 2: 2: 1
The body is the city, the 11 gates are the apertures-----the two eyes, the two ears, the two nostrils, the mouth, the navel, the two lower organs and the aperture at the top of the head through which the life breath of a yogin goes out at the time of death.
As rainwater falling on a mountain peak runs down the rocks in all directions, even so he who sees the attributes as different from Brahman verily runs after them in all directions.
----------The Katha Upanishad: 2: 1: 14
The perception of multiplicity, resulting from ignorance, is the cause of all suffering. As rainwater running down the sides of a steep hill, divides itself into innumerable channels and ultimately becomes lost without serving any fruitful purpose, so also h...e who sees multiplicity of Brahman, becomes lost in the relative world and does not attain Liberation, which is the ultimate goal.
'As rainwater falling on a mountain peak runs down the rocks in all directions, even so he who sees the attributes as different from Brahman verily runs after them in all directions.
----------The Katha Upanishad: 2: 1: 14

The perception of multiplicity, resulting from ignorance, is the cause of all suffering. As rainwater running down the sides of a steep hill, divides itself into innumerable channels and ultimately becomes lost without serving any fruitful purpose, so also he who sees multiplicity of Brahman, becomes lost in the relative world and does not attain Liberation, which is the ultimate goal.

"Therefore, one should discard the fallacious advice of the misguided logicians who proclaim the multiplicity of Atman and the erroneous counsel of the heretics who teach Its [Atman's] non-existence, and should realise Atman's non-duality as taught by the Vedas"
------Adi Guru Shankaracharya' "Therefore, one should discard the fallacious advice of the misguided logicians who proclaim the multiplicity of Atman and the erroneous counsel of the heretics who teach Its [Atman's] non-existence, and should realise Atman's non-duality as taught by the Vedas"
------Adi Guru Shankaracharya

"It is through Atman through that one knows form, taste, smell, sounds, touches and carnal pleasures. Is there anything that remains unknown to Atman?"
----------The Katha Upanishad: 2: 1: 3



"Oh scion of Bharata, you should understand that I [Ishvar] [God] am the embodied soul [jeevaatma] [जीवात्मा], the knower in all bodies"
----------Ishvara [ईश्वर] (Vasudeva Shri Krishna) in the Gita: 13: 2

'It is said that the first signs of entering YOGA are lightness of body, health, thirstlessness of mind, clearness of complexion, a beautiful voice, an agreeable odour and scantiness of excretions.
----------The Shvetashvatara Upanishad: 2: 13'It is said that the first signs of entering YOGA are lightness of body, health, thirstlessness of mind, clearness of complexion, a beautiful voice, an agreeable odour and scantiness of excretions.
----------The Shvetashvatara Upanishad: 2: 13
'Forms that appear like snow, smoke, sun, wind, fire, firefly, lightning, crystal and moon, precede the manifestation of BRAHMAN in Yoga practice.
----------The Shvetashvatara Upanishad: 2: 11

If these forms gradually manifest themselves during Yoga practice, one can be sure that the manifestation of Brahman is not very far off. These represent the various stages of mental modifications as one progresses towards the ultimate realisation.'Forms that appear like snow, smoke, sun, wind, fire, firefly, lightning, crystal and moon, precede the manifestation of BRAHMAN in Yoga practice.
----------The Shvetashvatara Upanishad: 2: 11
If these forms gradually manifest themselves during Yoga practice, one can be sure that the manifestation of Brahman is not very far off. These represent the various stages of mental modifications as one progresses towards the ultimate realisation.

Wednesday, March 11, 2015

Advaita-Vaad in Ved (वेद में अद्वैत वाद- Origin of universe, Nasadiya Sukta

'VED : THE ORIGIN OF ADVAITA   

=========== Advaita-Vaad in Ved (वेद में अद्वैत वाद) ===========
 
 In the Bhagavad Gita, Sri Krishna himself says that those who are devoid of proper knowledge of the real purport of the Ved and the proper method of propitiating the Almighty, are deluded by ignorance. They think that they themselves are capable of performing Vedic sacrifices, even without the help or grace of God. 

~ (Sri Ramanuja's Commentary on Bhagavad Gita 15.15)   

The literal meaning of Advaita has been explained by Madhusudana Saraswati as "That in which there is no two-foldness". 

Shankara’s Advaita Siddhanta is not only the climax of all spiritual philosophies and the highest philosophy of ethics, but also a way of life. As the culmination of man’s metaphysical contemplation and spiritual evolution it is the natural final goal of our spiritual Sadhanas. 

In fact, some of the most beautiful Upanishadic verses which Shankara has interpreted in the light of Advaita occur in the Samhita portion of the Rig Ved.   
________________________________________________

The Nasadiya Sukta :

The famous ‘Nasadiya Sukta’ (Rig Ved 10.129) contains the most sublime depiction of Advaitic idea that was later elaborated upon in the Upanishads and expounded by the great Shankaracharya. 

In this hymn all phenomena are traced to the one Principle which is beyond opposites like life and death, existence and non-existence, being and non-being, day and night, and so on. The one Reality is neither existence nor non-existence; it is beyond name and definition. The concept of maya, which explains why the perfect Reality appears as this imperfect world, has its roots in the ‘Nasadiya Sukta’.    

The Brahman without attributes, the ultimate Truth, is neither Void (Shunya, as the Buddhists proclaim) characterized by Non-existence, nor the phenomenal universe (the empirical reality) characterized by Existence. 

It is beyond Space-Time-Causation (देश-काल-निमित्त). The following mantra shows that there was no Space (sky) prior to creation :

नासदासीन नो सदासीत तदानीं नासीद रजो नो वयोमापरो यत |   

......... Rig Ved 10.129.1  

" Existence was not then, nor non-existence ; The world was not, the sky beyond was neither. "  

(Translated by Swami Vivekananda)   

The following mantra also shows that Space-Time is a part of the universe. When there was no creation, Space-Time did not exist.   

This mantra negates separate ' day and night ' prior to creation. It is basically a negation of the concept of Time prior to creation : 

न मर्त्युरासीदम्र्तं न तर्हि न रात्र्या अह्न आसीत्प्रकेतः |
आनीदवातं सवधया तदेकं तस्माद्धान्यन न परः किं चनास ||  

......... Rig Ved 10.129.2

" Death was not then, no immortality, The night was neither separate from day, But motionless did That vibrate alone, with Its own glory one— Beyond That nothing did exist. "  

(Translated by Swami Vivekananda)     

The term 'That vibrate alone' is an implication that Brahman is not just an insentient material cause of the universe like a lump of clay is of pots etc., but it is Pure Consciousness in nature (शुद्ध चैतन्य स्वरुप).

The One Homogeneous Existence as a whole beyond all Names and Forms (नाम-रूप भेद ), i.e. without any differentiating attributes is proclaimed :  

तम आसीत तमसा गूळमग्रे.अप्रकेतं सलिलं सर्वमािदम |    

......... Rig Ved 10.129.3

"At first in darkness hidden darkness lay ; Undistinguished as one mass of water."  

(Translated by Swami Vivekananda)   

Then the 'Sankalpa' (divine will, the desire) of creation arose in Brahman and Non-existence (the attributeless Brahman) became Existence (the phenomenal universe) :   

कामस्तदग्रे समवर्तताधि मनसो रेतः परथमं यदासीत |
सतो बन्धुमसति निरविन्दन हर्दि परतीष्याकवयो मनीषा ||    

......... Rig Ved 10.129.4

" First desire rose, the primal seed of mind ; The sages have seen all this in their hearts, Shifting existence from non-existence. "  

(Translated by Swami Vivekananda)   

But how can it happen ? 

This is being answered in the next mantra. Creation is the play of the ' Maya Shakti ', the inexplicable creative energy. 

Brahman (the Self-sustaining principle) is the substratum (अधिष्ठान) of This creative energy : 

तिरश्चीनो विततो रश्मिरेषामधः सविदासी.अ.अ.अत |
रेतोधाासन महिमान आसन सवधा अवस्तात परयतिः परस्तात ||  

......... Rig Ved 10.129.5   

" Creative then became the glory ; With self-sustaining principle below. And Creative Energy above. "

(Translated by Swami Vivekananda)     

Here we may very well remember that Advaita is, after all, a matter of inner experience (" Anubhavaikavedyam" ; 'known through experience alone’, in the language of Shankaracharya) and not a subject for philosophical speculation.

The ‘Nasadiya Sukta’ is perhaps the most scientific description of the ultimate Reality as well as of the projection of the phenomenal world. It makes the relative and the Absolute, nature and Spirit, the twin aspects of that one Reality and shows that men of wisdom (Kavayah), who had controlled their senses, found out the ultimate cause of this world (which appears to be real) in their own hearts (Hridi) through concentrated intellects (Manisha).   
________________________________________________

The concept of Maya : 

रूपं-रूपं परतिरूपो बभूव तदस्य रूपं परतिचक्षणाय |
इन्द्रो मायाभिः पुरुरूप ईयते युक्ता हयस्य हरयःशता दश ||   

............. Rig Ved 6.47.18

भावार्थ : 

इन्द्रदेव मायाशक्तियों द्वारा अनेक रूप बनाकर यजमान के पास प्रकट होते हैं | इन्द्रदेव के रथ में उनकी अनेक शक्तियों के रूप में सहस्रों घोड़े युक्त हैं |   

English : 

" Indra, has assumed various forms, and such is his form as that which (he adopts) for his manifestation ; Indra through Maya appears as of many forms (to his many worshippers), for his horses, yoked to his chariot are a thousand. "    

Indra has been identified here with the Supreme Lord, the Brahman associated with (aggregate of) Maya. Here ' Maya ' denotes the projecting power (विक्षेप शक्ति) of the Supreme Lord.' Maya ', although one, but its powers to cover the true nature of Brahman are manifold according to different Jivatmas (individual selves).  

As a forest, from the standpoint of the units that compose it, may be designated as a number of trees, and as a reservoir from the same point of view may be spoken of as quantities of water, so also ignorance when denoting separate units is spoken of as many.  
________________________________________________

The Realisation of Brahman : 

The well-known ‘Devi Sukta’ (Rig Ved 10.125) is another striking example of a Samhita mantra depicting Advaitic experience. 

The word  " चिकितुषी " in the third mantra of this sukta is explained by Sayana as : 

"cikitushi yatsakshat kartavyam param barhma tajnatavati svatmatya sakshat krtavati "

" She (the rishi) had known or realized as her own Self the supreme Brahman, that which must be realized. "   

In this sukta, realising her identity with Brahman, Vaak who is the daughter of Rishi Ambhrina, says :

अहं रुद्रेभिर्वसुभिश्चराम्यहमादित्यैरुतविश्वदेवैः | 
अहं मित्रावरुणोभा बिभर्म्यहमिन्द्राग्नीहमश्विनोभा || 

............. Rig Ved 10.125.1

" I move with Rudras and Vasus, I walk with the Sun and other deities, I esteem mithra, varuna And Indra, fire and the Aswini devas. "  

अहं मनुरभवं सूर्यश्चाहं कक्षीवाँ ऋषिरस्मि विप्रः।
अहं कुत्समार्जुनेयं न्यृञ्जेऽहं कविरुशना पश्यता मा॥ 

............... Rig Ved 4:26:1

" I was Manu and I was Surya; I am the wise rishi Kaksivan ; I have befriended Kutsha, the son of Arjuni ; I am the far-seeing Usana ; behold me. " 

This mantra attributed to sage Vamdev : the sage uttered the verse and the following two verses, while yet in the womb, knowledge of Brahman being generated in him, and enabling him to identify himself with universal existence; through the eye of supreme truth I am everything. 

Innumerable mantras of the Rig Ved Samhita have been explained by Sayanacharya in an exclusively Advaitic sense.    
_______________________________________________

The Identity of Jiva and Brahman :

Some mantras of the ‘Purusha Sukta’ (which occurs in the Shukla Yajur Ved as well) are interpreted even by Sayanacharya in Advaitic terms. 

Sayana commenting on the mantra beginning with : 

परि द्यावापृथिवी यन्ति सद्यः परि लोकान् परि दिशः परि सुवः  

~ Shukla Yajur Ved 32.12 

" Having gone swiftly round the earth and heaven, around the worlds, around the sky, around the quarters", 

Acharya Sayana states : 

"Here the nature of jiva is Brahman." 

~ (Sayanacharya's commentary on Shukla Yajur Ved 32.12)

Similarly, the Krishna Yajur Ved Samhita too is full of mantras which have an Advaitic content. The Tandya Brahmana and the Samavidhana of the Sama Ved are equally rich in Advaitic ideas. So also the Atharva Ved.

For example, the following mantra traditionally associated with the Mundak Upanishad (3.1.1) is found in the Rig Ved as well : 

दवा सुपर्णा सयुजा सखाया समानं वर्क्षं परि षस्वजाते | 
तयोरन्यः पिप्पलं सवाद्वत्त्यनश्नन्नन्यो अभि चाकशीति || 

........... Rig Ved 1.164.20

" Two birds that are ever associated and have similar names, cling to the same tree. Of these, one eats the fruits of divergent tastes, and the other looks on without eating. " 

The mantra brings out the essence of Advaita philosophy and the identity of jiva and Brahman. The bird on the lower branch is the jiva and the one sitting on the upper branch of the tree as witness, without eating fruits, is God Himself.This mantra shows that though its philosophical and logical perfection is reached in Upanishadic literature, the origin of Advaita philosophy is, in fact, to be found in the Rig Ved Samhita itself.     
________________________________________________

The Conditioned and Supreme Brahman : 

One of the most striking depictions of the relation between the macrocosm and the microcosm, the absolute and the relative, the ultimate cause and its effect : Karana Brahman and Karya Brahman (कार्य ब्रह्म एवं कारण ब्रह्म) and the assertion that both are, in reality, infinite, full and perfect, occurs towards the end of the Shukla Yajur Ved Samhita in the Shanti mantra for the Ishavasya Upanishad beginning with : 

‘ पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदं .....‘ 

" That (supreme Brahman) is infinite, and this (conditioned Brahman) is infinite. "   

The above mantra occurs also in Brihadaranyak Upanishad 5.1.1.(see Shankaracharya's commentary).

Several portions of the Shukla Yajur Ved Samhita (for instance, the ‘Rudradhyaya’) contain ideas that are strikingly Advaitic in content and form. 

The Rig Ved gives a great message in the first mantra of the thirteenth Sukta of the tenth mandala. This is perhaps the most forceful expression of man’s divinity and immortality found in the whole of Vedic literature. It runs as follows: 

युजे वां बरह्म पूर्व्यं नमोभिर्वि शलोक एतु पथ्येवसूरेः | 
शर्ण्वन्तु विश्वे अम्र्तस्य पुत्रा आ ये धामानिदिव्यानि तस्थुः || 

........... Rig Ved 10.13.1

" O my sense organs and their presiding deities, I salute you (that is, I merge you all with the eternal Brahman through meditation). May this hymn of praise spread everywhere through the medium of the wise. May you all, children of immortal Bliss, and all those living in the bright (divine) worlds, listen to me ! "   
________________________________________________

The word Brahman or Brāhmaņa occurs more than a hundred times in the Rig-Ved. In only one place, the Purusha Sūkta occurring in the tenth mandala, uses the term Brāhmaņa to signify an order.

Again, Brahman of the Rig-Ved is not the Brahman, Para Brahman of the Upanishads, the highest principle of Existence. Rig-Ved uses the words "tad ekam", "That one," param (beyond), "Ekam Sat" (one reality) to signify the principle of Para Brahman or “The one without a second" of the Upanishads.

Brahman is used in the Rig Ved as term for a high divinity or as another name for Agni : 

असादि वर्तो वह्निराजगन्वानग्निर्ब्रह्मा नर्षदने विधर्ता |
दयौश्च यं पर्थिवी वाव्र्धाते आ यं होता यजति विश्ववारम || 

......... Rig Ved 7.7.5

“He has come, chosen bearer, and is seated in man's home, Brahman, Agni, the Supporter, He whom both Heaven and Earth exalt and strengthen whom, Giver of all boons, the Hotar worships ." 

The term Brahman is also used to represent the spoken word. Brahman acquires the meaning of unchanging, infinite, immanent and transcendent reality in the Upanishads.   

" Om Shanti Shanti Shanti "'=Advaita-Vaad in Ved (वेद में अद्वैत वाद)====
In the Bhagavad Gita, Sri Krishna himself says that those who are devoid of proper knowledge of the real purport of the Ved and the proper method of propitiating the Almighty, are deluded by ignorance. They think that they themselves are capable of performing Vedic sacrifices, even without the help or grace of God.
~ (Sri Ramanuja's Commentary on Bhagavad Gita 15.15)
The literal meaning of Advaita has been explained by Madhusudana Saraswati as "That in which there is no two-foldness".
Shankara’s Advaita Siddhanta is not only the climax of all spiritual philosophies and the highest philosophy of ethics, but also a way of life. As the culmination of man’s metaphysical contemplation and spiritual evolution it is the natural final goal of our spiritual Sadhanas.
In fact, some of the most beautiful Upanishadic verses which Shankara has interpreted in the light of Advaita occur in the Samhita portion of the Rig Ved.

 ________________________________________________
The Nasadiya Sukta :
The famous ‘Nasadiya Sukta’ (Rig Ved 10.129) contains the most sublime depiction of Advaitic idea that was later elaborated upon in the Upanishads and expounded by the great Shankaracharya.
In this hymn all phenomena are traced to the one Principle which is beyond opposites like life and death, existence and non-existence, being and non-being, day and night, and so on. The one Reality is neither existence nor non-existence; it is beyond name and definition. The concept of maya, which explains why the perfect Reality appears as this imperfect world, has its roots in the ‘Nasadiya Sukta’.
The Brahman without attributes, the ultimate Truth, is neither Void (Shunya, as the Buddhists proclaim) characterized by Non-existence, nor the phenomenal universe (the empirical reality) characterized by Existence.
It is beyond Space-Time-Causation (देश-काल-निमित्त). The following mantra shows that there was no Space (sky) prior to creation :
नासदासीन नो सदासीत तदानीं नासीद रजो नो वयोमापरो यत |
......... Rig Ved 10.129.1
" Existence was not then, nor non-existence ; The world was not, the sky beyond was neither. "
(Translated by Swami Vivekananda)
The following mantra also shows that Space-Time is a part of the universe. When there was no creation, Space-Time did not exist.
This mantra negates separate ' day and night ' prior to creation. It is basically a negation of the concept of Time prior to creation :
न मर्त्युरासीदम्र्तं न तर्हि न रात्र्या अह्न आसीत्प्रकेतः |
आनीदवातं सवधया तदेकं तस्माद्धान्यन न परः किं चनास ||
......... Rig Ved 10.129.2
" Death was not then, no immortality, The night was neither separate from day, But motionless did That vibrate alone, with Its own glory one— Beyond That nothing did exist. "
(Translated by Swami Vivekananda)
The term 'That vibrate alone' is an implication that Brahman is not just an insentient material cause of the universe like a lump of clay is of pots etc., but it is Pure Consciousness in nature (शुद्ध चैतन्य स्वरुप).
The One Homogeneous Existence as a whole beyond all Names and Forms (नाम-रूप भेद ), i.e. without any differentiating attributes is proclaimed :
तम आसीत तमसा गूळमग्रे.अप्रकेतं सलिलं सर्वमािदम |
......... Rig Ved 10.129.3
"At first in darkness hidden darkness lay ; Undistinguished as one mass of water."
(Translated by Swami Vivekananda)
Then the 'Sankalpa' (divine will, the desire) of creation arose in Brahman and Non-existence (the attributeless Brahman) became Existence (the phenomenal universe) :
कामस्तदग्रे समवर्तताधि मनसो रेतः परथमं यदासीत |
सतो बन्धुमसति निरविन्दन हर्दि परतीष्याकवयो मनीषा ||
......... Rig Ved 10.129.4
" First desire rose, the primal seed of mind ; The sages have seen all this in their hearts, Shifting existence from non-existence. "
(Translated by Swami Vivekananda)
But how can it happen ?
This is being answered in the next mantra. Creation is the play of the ' Maya Shakti ', the inexplicable creative energy.
Brahman (the Self-sustaining principle) is the substratum (अधिष्ठान) of This creative energy :
तिरश्चीनो विततो रश्मिरेषामधः सविदासी.अ.अ.अत |
रेतोधाासन महिमान आसन सवधा अवस्तात परयतिः परस्तात ||
......... Rig Ved 10.129.5
" Creative then became the glory ; With self-sustaining principle below. And Creative Energy above. "
(Translated by Swami Vivekananda)
Here we may very well remember that Advaita is, after all, a matter of inner experience (" Anubhavaikavedyam" ; 'known through experience alone’, in the language of Shankaracharya) and not a subject for philosophical speculation.
The ‘Nasadiya Sukta’ is perhaps the most scientific description of the ultimate Reality as well as of the projection of the phenomenal world. It makes the relative and the Absolute, nature and Spirit, the twin aspects of that one Reality and shows that men of wisdom (Kavayah), who had controlled their senses, found out the ultimate cause of this world (which appears to be real) in their own hearts (Hridi) through concentrated intellects (Manisha).
________________________________________________
The concept of Maya :
रूपं-रूपं परतिरूपो बभूव तदस्य रूपं परतिचक्षणाय |
इन्द्रो मायाभिः पुरुरूप ईयते युक्ता हयस्य हरयःशता दश ||
............. Rig Ved 6.47.18
भावार्थ :
इन्द्रदेव मायाशक्तियों द्वारा अनेक रूप बनाकर यजमान के पास प्रकट होते हैं | इन्द्रदेव के रथ में उनकी अनेक शक्तियों के रूप में सहस्रों घोड़े युक्त हैं |
English :
" Indra, has assumed various forms, and such is his form as that which (he adopts) for his manifestation ; Indra through Maya appears as of many forms (to his many worshippers), for his horses, yoked to his chariot are a thousand. "
Indra has been identified here with the Supreme Lord, the Brahman associated with (aggregate of) Maya. Here ' Maya ' denotes the projecting power (विक्षेप शक्ति) of the Supreme Lord.' Maya ', although one, but its powers to cover the true nature of Brahman are manifold according to different Jivatmas (individual selves).
As a forest, from the standpoint of the units that compose it, may be designated as a number of trees, and as a reservoir from the same point of view may be spoken of as quantities of water, so also ignorance when denoting separate units is spoken of as many.
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The Realisation of Brahman :
The well-known ‘Devi Sukta’ (Rig Ved 10.125) is another striking example of a Samhita mantra depicting Advaitic experience.
The word " चिकितुषी " in the third mantra of this sukta is explained by Sayana as :
"cikitushi yatsakshat kartavyam param barhma tajnatavati svatmatya sakshat krtavati "
" She (the rishi) had known or realized as her own Self the supreme Brahman, that which must be realized. "
In this sukta, realising her identity with Brahman, Vaak who is the daughter of Rishi Ambhrina, says :
अहं रुद्रेभिर्वसुभिश्चराम्यहमादित्यैरुतविश्वदेवैः |
अहं मित्रावरुणोभा बिभर्म्यहमिन्द्राग्नीहमश्विनोभा ||
............. Rig Ved 10.125.1
" I move with Rudras and Vasus, I walk with the Sun and other deities, I esteem mithra, varuna And Indra, fire and the Aswini devas. "
अहं मनुरभवं सूर्यश्चाहं कक्षीवाँ ऋषिरस्मि विप्रः।
अहं कुत्समार्जुनेयं न्यृञ्जेऽहं कविरुशना पश्यता मा॥
............... Rig Ved 4:26:1
" I was Manu and I was Surya; I am the wise rishi Kaksivan ; I have befriended Kutsha, the son of Arjuni ; I am the far-seeing Usana ; behold me. "
This mantra attributed to sage Vamdev : the sage uttered the verse and the following two verses, while yet in the womb, knowledge of Brahman being generated in him, and enabling him to identify himself with universal existence; through the eye of supreme truth I am everything.
Innumerable mantras of the Rig Ved Samhita have been explained by Sayanacharya in an exclusively Advaitic sense.
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The Identity of Jiva and Brahman :
Some mantras of the ‘Purusha Sukta’ (which occurs in the Shukla Yajur Ved as well) are interpreted even by Sayanacharya in Advaitic terms.
Sayana commenting on the mantra beginning with :
परि द्यावापृथिवी यन्ति सद्यः परि लोकान् परि दिशः परि सुवः
~ Shukla Yajur Ved 32.12
" Having gone swiftly round the earth and heaven, around the worlds, around the sky, around the quarters",
Acharya Sayana states :
"Here the nature of jiva is Brahman."
~ (Sayanacharya's commentary on Shukla Yajur Ved 32.12)
Similarly, the Krishna Yajur Ved Samhita too is full of mantras which have an Advaitic content. The Tandya Brahmana and the Samavidhana of the Sama Ved are equally rich in Advaitic ideas. So also the Atharva Ved.
For example, the following mantra traditionally associated with the Mundak Upanishad (3.1.1) is found in the Rig Ved as well :
दवा सुपर्णा सयुजा सखाया समानं वर्क्षं परि षस्वजाते |
तयोरन्यः पिप्पलं सवाद्वत्त्यनश्नन्नन्यो अभि चाकशीति ||
........... Rig Ved 1.164.20
" Two birds that are ever associated and have similar names, cling to the same tree. Of these, one eats the fruits of divergent tastes, and the other looks on without eating. "
The mantra brings out the essence of Advaita philosophy and the identity of jiva and Brahman. The bird on the lower branch is the jiva and the one sitting on the upper branch of the tree as witness, without eating fruits, is God Himself.This mantra shows that though its philosophical and logical perfection is reached in Upanishadic literature, the origin of Advaita philosophy is, in fact, to be found in the Rig Ved Samhita itself.
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The Conditioned and Supreme Brahman :
One of the most striking depictions of the relation between the macrocosm and the microcosm, the absolute and the relative, the ultimate cause and its effect : Karana Brahman and Karya Brahman (कार्य ब्रह्म एवं कारण ब्रह्म) and the assertion that both are, in reality, infinite, full and perfect, occurs towards the end of the Shukla Yajur Ved Samhita in the Shanti mantra for the Ishavasya Upanishad beginning with :
‘ पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदं .....‘
" That (supreme Brahman) is infinite, and this (conditioned Brahman) is infinite. "
The above mantra occurs also in Brihadaranyak Upanishad 5.1.1.(see Shankaracharya's commentary).
Several portions of the Shukla Yajur Ved Samhita (for instance, the ‘Rudradhyaya’) contain ideas that are strikingly Advaitic in content and form.
The Rig Ved gives a great message in the first mantra of the thirteenth Sukta of the tenth mandala. This is perhaps the most forceful expression of man’s divinity and immortality found in the whole of Vedic literature. It runs as follows:
युजे वां बरह्म पूर्व्यं नमोभिर्वि शलोक एतु पथ्येवसूरेः |
शर्ण्वन्तु विश्वे अम्र्तस्य पुत्रा आ ये धामानिदिव्यानि तस्थुः ||
........... Rig Ved 10.13.1
" O my sense organs and their presiding deities, I salute you (that is, I merge you all with the eternal Brahman through meditation). May this hymn of praise spread everywhere through the medium of the wise. May you all, children of immortal Bliss, and all those living in the bright (divine) worlds, listen to me ! "
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The word Brahman or Brāhmaņa occurs more than a hundred times in the Rig-Ved. In only one place, the Purusha Sūkta occurring in the tenth mandala, uses the term Brāhmaņa to signify an order.
Again, Brahman of the Rig-Ved is not the Brahman, Para Brahman of the Upanishads, the highest principle of Existence. Rig-Ved uses the words "tad ekam", "That one," param (beyond), "Ekam Sat" (one reality) to signify the principle of Para Brahman or “The one without a second" of the Upanishads.
Brahman is used in the Rig Ved as term for a high divinity or as another name for Agni :
असादि वर्तो वह्निराजगन्वानग्निर्ब्रह्मा नर्षदने विधर्ता |
दयौश्च यं पर्थिवी वाव्र्धाते आ यं होता यजति विश्ववारम ||
......... Rig Ved 7.7.5
“He has come, chosen bearer, and is seated in man's home, Brahman, Agni, the Supporter, He whom both Heaven and Earth exalt and strengthen whom, Giver of all boons, the Hotar worships ."
The term Brahman is also used to represent the spoken word. Brahman acquires the meaning of unchanging, infinite, immanent and transcendent reality in the Upanishads.
" Om Shanti Shanti Shanti