Saturday, May 3, 2014

Nirvana Satakam- Sankhya sutra by Adi Shankaracharya

The World Is  Sankya, Nirvana Satakam

By Adi Shankaracharya explaining the various elements in us for understanding Objects  and how we perceive them, the ‘Observer
न च प्राणसंज्ञो न वै पञ्चवायुः
न वा सप्तधातुः न वा पञ्चकोशः ।
न वाक्पाणिपादं न चोपस्थपायु
चिदानन्दरूपः शिवोऽहम् शिवोऽहम् ॥२॥
Na Ca Praanna-Samjnyo Na Vai
Na Vaa Sapta-Dhaatuh Na Vaa |
Na Vaak-Paanni-Paadam Na Copastha-Paayu
Cid-Aananda-Ruupah Shivo[a-A]ham Shivo[a-A]ham ||2||
2.1: Neither am I the Vital Breath, nor the Five Vital Air,
2.2: Neither am I the Seven Ingredients (of the Body), nor the Five Sheaths (of the Body),
2.3: Neither am I the organ of Speech, nor the organs for Holding ( Hand ), Movement ( Feet ) or Excretion,
2.4: I am the Ever Pure Blissful Consciousness; I am Shiva, I am Shiva,
The Ever Pure Blissful Consciousness.
The outside world, to be made known to us has,
The Prakriti,(The Potential Energy to be known,),of  three constituent  Dispositions of the Prakriti) called the Gunas.
Purusha, Kinetic Energy that Flows,
Mahat, The Intellect, to translate these,
Ahankara,The Feeling of ‘I, Mine” to be conscious,
Mind,(For the Observer)
Five sensory organs,(For the Observer)
Five Motor organs,(For the Observer)
Five Subtle Elements(For The Observed, The World)
Five Gross Elements(For the Observed)
Total 25.
Let us look at each in brief.
What is to be known, has ‘To Be’
That implies presence.
That presence has to be immanent and be inert, to be activated when to it is to be known or aware of.
This presence is Prakriti or the Principle that is permanent, immanent and inert, awaiting to be known.
This is provided by Purusha, the Kinetic principle that interacts with the Prakriti to generate Intellect,(at the macro level)
Now Prakriti is constituted by the Three Gunas or Dispositions(for details see post Gunas under Indian Philosophy)
This Intellect at the Macro level is Mahat.
Once the Intellect is formed, it is ready to be known, both at the Macro-level and at the individual level.
To be  understood, at the Macro-level, the external World has the Following.
Five elements,Earth, Water, Fire, Air and Ether.
These five elements have five  subtle elements called Tanmatras.
The Five elements of the external world are gross in nature.
Their qualities are a part of them ,  like Heat and Light are the qualities of Fire.
We can not experience them as they are.
The qualities embedded in them make us aware of them, like the heat is known by our bodies, light by our eyes.
To sum up, the external world, the’Observed’ has elements that complement the internal organs of the Individual(Observer).
When these connect Awareness or Knowledge dawns.
Put it in another way , the Observed becomes Observer when connected, when the Individual Ego is identified with it.
Therefore to know the Observer(self), is identical with knowing the Observed(External world), for the elements that constitute both are the same.
The Observed becomes known when the elements of both the Observer and the Observed become  One, when the ‘Ahankara’ or  the ‘I, Mine ‘ is eradicated.
This , in essence, is Advaita of Shankaracharya.
It would be interesting to note that the principles elaborated above are from the Sankhya system of Indian Philosophy , which is called a Nastika, Heterodox, as it does not believe in the authority of The Vedas and for Shankaracharya , the Vedas are his source.
Truth has many facets but destination and truth is one.
From Ramani

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