Sunday, December 29, 2013


Tamil and Vedas
Vedic Roots of Tamil,Culture
The archaeological finds from Attirappakkam northeast of Chennai evidences the existence of Tamils about a million years ago!
“The prehistoric period during which Lower Paleolithic settlements existed in the Tamil Nadu region has been estimated to span the period from about 1,510,000 BCE[1] until around 3000 BCE.[2] For most part of the lower Paleolithic stage, humans lived close to river valleys with sparse forest cover or in grassland environments. The population density was very low and so far only two localities of this lower Palaeolithic culture have been found insouth India. One of these is in Attirampakkam valley in the northwest of Chennai in Tamil Nadu.[3] Archaeological research has uncovered evidence of fossil remains of animals and primitive stone implements around the northern Tamil Nadu that could be dated to belong to around 3000,000 BCE.[citation needed]Humans in South India, belonging to the species of Homo erectus, lived in this primitive ‘old stone age’ (Palaeolithic) for quite a long time, using only crude implements such as hand axes and choppers and subsisting as hunter-gatherers“(wiki)
The Tamil History based on this, Tamil Literature,Sanskrit Literature and Arikkamedu findings,Puducherry is between   15,000 BCE to 10,000 BCE.
Such an old civilization quotes Sanskrit and Vedic Literature .
But we are dating the Vedas around 5000 BC.
If the Sangam period , Muthal Sangam, at 500 BC is true, how is it that the Purana, which are earlier by at least by 4000 years, quote Tamils, Tamil Kings?
As I pointed out in my earlier post, Sanskrit and The Vedas quote Tamil.
So the History of India may need revision in dating taking into account the Tamil and History together and not studying them in isolation.
The problem is compounded by the fact the references to Tamil Poets,Sanskrit Poets,Rishis,even Gods’ names do not seem to be Real.
They are nom de plumes.
We find the poets and Scholars, Rishis seem to have existed at various points of time.
Viswamitra is not one man, the name means ‘friend of the World”
he seems to have existed during Ramayana, Mahabharata periods.
Take for instance even God, Hanuman>
He is reported to have existed both during Ramayana and Mahabharata periods.
Same with Vasisha, his name meaning ‘one who is very austere and one who follows discipline’
The list in Sanskrit is endless.
In Tamil Sage Agasthya appears in many places ,transcending time.
Avvaiyaar,has the same distinction.
And take the instance of Tirukkural which is dated about 2000BC.
Now there is no unanimity  about the persona of Thiruvalluvar.
His name is linked with a man of a Community , called Valluvar
And the name of the Community is Valluvar.
The thoughts presented in the Thirukkuaral encompasses Jain and Buddhist thoughts which came later!
If you look at the Bhagavad Gita, one would find  that it contains Buddhist and Jain Thoughts when Buddhism and Jainism were not even born!
There is this point in Indian Philosophy which states that Time is Cyclic and that events happen and keep on happening in a Cycle ao that at any given point time, nothing seems to precede other for one who can Perceive.
Then you  have Viswamitra banishing his offspring to Dravida Desa and their successor Apasthamba organizes Vedas for those South of Vindhyas.
But we find Tamil literature quotes Mahabharata to the period before Vuswamitra sent his sons to South.
But to confound you Tamils are mentioned in the Ramayana!
And you have the concept of Siddhas in Tamil.
The Siddhas are reported to be transcending time.
One of the great Philosophical treatises in Ttamil, Thirumandiram  is written by Thirumoolar, a Siddha whose time is not accurately calculated( definitely before  Second Tamil Sangam) and his thoughts are Adi Shankara’s Advaita.
Shankara dates around mid 14 Century at the latest?
How come his thoughts, more or less the same, in Tirumandiram?
The Archaeological reference throw more confusion in dating Tamil and Sanskrit in that each quoting the other as preceding them, but How?



Extraordinary Proof ! All humans once were HINDUS. Every one including Non Hindus and Non Indian Must read it _/\_
------------ From Bhakti Ananda Goswami:

Several Devotees have asked me what God this is about, or WHO is the God that this Montage is about. Here is my answer...

The interdisciplinary evidence proves that ALL of ancient humanity once worshiped the SAME Original Supreme Personality of Godhead. Africans, Europeans, the Slavic Nations, the Semites (of the Tradition), the peoples of the Middle East, India, the Orient, Southeast Asia, Oceana and the Western Hemisphere All once worshiped the same One True God.

Did these peoples all retain the original Sattvic worship of their God in the benevolent nature of the Sattva Guna Mode of Goodness? No. Some societies devolved into the Modes of Raja-Guna / Passion and Ignorant Tamo-Guna. In His Bhagavad-gita As It Is, the Supreme Lord Hari (Krishna-Vishnu) describes religion in these Three Modes of Material Nature to His Friend and Devotee, Arjuna.

Using Sri Krishna's description, we can actually sort-out GLOBAL human history according to the more-or-less Sattvic, Rajarshic and Tamasic tendancies of the various civilizations and their RELIGIOUS REALIZATIONS and IDEALS.

The global worship of the Supreme Lord in His Man-Lion Form as Time, associated with His Serpent of Infinity Form as Eternity, can easily be traced through the ancient Sacred Art of the various civilizations. In this Album, I am giving some examples of how the Supreme Lord of Time and Eternity was worshiped and depicted by various civilizations in the ancient World.

To the Vedic-Vaishnavas of India, He was Nara-Hari or Krishna-Vishnu's Man-Lion Form as Kalah / TIME, His Wrathful Theophany (Appearance of God) in His Bhagavad-gita Self-Revelation.

The Shaivite Hindus also call Shiva "Kalah" TIME and say that the Revelation of Cosmic All-devouring TIME / Kalah in the Bhagavad-gita is of their Shiva-Kalah TIME.

The Pure Land (Mahayana) Buddhists say that Kalah-Bairab or Mahadeva (Shiva) is the Wrathful Transformation of Hari or Avalokiteshvara [Vishnu]. Thus Northern or Mahayana Pure Land Buddhism affirms that Shiva or Kalah-Bairava is a Wrathful Form of the Supreme Lord, Hari or Krishna-Vishnu.

Among the many Names of Nara-Simha or Nara-Hari, the Wrathful Man-Lion Form of Hari (Krishna-Vishnu), are the Names of Kalah/Time, Shiva, Mahadeva, Bairava (Bairab) and other Names of Baladeva and Shiva from various cultures and languages.

In this Album I am giving a few of these ancient Holy Names and showing the related Man-Lion Forms associated with them. In ancient times, other than through sound and language, people first communicated visually by signs, symbols and art. Early writing was very pictographic. Thus at first communication was by simultaneous NAMA-RUPA. The HOLY NAME described the FORM, and the FORM revealed the NAME of GOD. So the further back we can explore in the ancient evidence of human religious experience, tracing backwards the more convergence we can find of the Global worship of the One True God, via His Holy Names and Forms. Conversely, if we trace His ancient worship forward in time and space diffusion, the more divergence we find.

Please realize that the very late association of some of these Holy Names of the Supreme Lord with mere polytheistic astrological planetary powers or kings/regents, reflects a terribly mis-leading corruption of the original ancient Monotheism of HARI. Thus a real expert on the most ancient forms of Greek and Roman religious thought or Helios / Soleus-centered Monotheism will say the the Greek Kronos TIME or Roman Saturnus TIME was the Supreme Father God of a previous or Golden Age, that He was associated with agriculture, the civilizing sciences and arts and even, perhaps a Global Edenic Age of Peace of World Peace. He was a Form of Helios Kouros / Krishna associated with that original Monotheism. AND as TIME He was the Origin of the Cosmic Emanations and Incarnations of Divinity. He was the Supreme Father God as the Creator, Maintainer and Destroyer of all Temporary (Material) Worlds!

As Eternity, Ananta Sesha Naga, the Ourobolos Serpent of Infinity, He was also the Lord and Maintainer of the Deathless Spiritual Sky too. Thus He was worshiped Globally and by all peoples as the Supreme Lord of the Spiritual Sky, all of the Spiritual and Cosmic Heavens / Manifestations and Earths, past present and future.

As the Lord of the Three Worlds of Past Present and Future, He was called Zeus or Jupiter Amun Tri-Opes Three-Eyed, Helios Tri-Occulos Three-Eyed, or Nara-Hari Vishnu-Shiva (or Buddhist Narasingha-Lokeshvara, or Kalah-Bairab) TRI-AKSHA Three-Eyed! Commonly when HARI or Krishna-Vishnu wears a single peacock Eye Feather on His Head or Three such Eye-Feathers, this ALSO is a pictorial pun for the fact that He is in- reality ALSO the Three Eyed Lord of the Three Worlds, or Kalah of His Bhagavad-gita Self Revelation as Time and Eternity!

These are the things West calls it has Alien Gods. But they are no one but Ancient Hindus . Do u think These highly qualified Scientists have noclue about it ? BIZARE and Shameless Way of faking Human History. Every one has the right to know who they are , And wr they are from ! As i always said ,History can be faked and Hidden But History can not be changed . This is the reason many religions wr found and lost But Hindusim Still goes strong . Its just matter of time White,Black Brown Asians Join hands as Hindus for a Good old Peaceful ancient Days . Live has a One Community in search of Divinity and Peace .


To understand the concept of ‘Hindu Rashtra’, we first need to understand the meaning of the two words contained in it, ‘Hindu’ and ‘Rashtra’. We begin by understanding the meaning of the word ‘Hindu’.

The origin of the word ‘Hindu’ is purely geographical. The name Sapta-Sindhu is found in the oldest records of the world itself – the Rig-Veda- as an epithet applied to Vedic India. It is well known that the syllable ‘S’ in Sanskrit is at times changed to ‘H’ in some of the Prakrit languages and even in European languages. The ancient Persians referred to the people inhabiting Vedic India as Hapta-Hindus and later on the word ‘Hindu’ was used for the same purpose by all nations flourishing at that time.
As we can see, the word Hindu has a geographical history and does not mean a religious faith like Islam or Christianity. There are some instances which illustrate the use of the word Hindu.

When the Shahi Imam of Jama of Delhi went to Mecca on a pilgrimage, a local resident asked him, “Are you a Hindu?” The Imam was startled by this question and replied, “No, I am a Muslim.” When Imam Saheb asked him the reason for calling him a Hindu, he replied that all Hindustanis were called Hindu there.

Late Sri Mohammed Carrim Chagla, the former Chief Justice of Bombay High Court and Education Minister in the Central cabinet wrote that he is a Muslim only by religion but by culture and race he is a Hindu and all Muslims of this country are Hindus.

The word Hindusthan and Hindu are often used with a national connotation only. For example, the first nationalist daily from Chennai, started in the last century, was named ‘The Hindu’. Many public sector industrial units are named Hindusthan Aeronautics, Hindusthan Photo films, Hindusthan Machine Tools, etc. The sea to the south of our country is called Hind Mahasagar.

Mohammed Iqbal, the famous Urdu poet has sung Sare Jahan Se Achha, Hindostan Hamara — Note Hamara Hindusthan, i.e., Our Hindusthan.
The word Hindu thus connotes not a particular sect, a religion or a faith, but the people, the culture, the tradition, the way of life of the people inhabiting this part of the world from times immemorial. Before the advent of the British, Bharat was known as Hindusthan and all the nationals as Hindus. Only the British gave the new name India and the word Indian came to be used in place of Hindu.

What is a Rashtra?

We now try to understand the meaning of the second word in the concept of ‘Hindu Rashtra’ i.e. Rashtra or Nation. What is a Nation? Scholars on the subject agree that a mass of humanity assuming the nomenclature of Nation should be inspired by the feeling of ‘we-ness’ i.e. a common identity and identification. This means that people constituting a Nation experience a feeling of oneness with one another and consider themselves distinct from others. When Edward de Cruz asked a Japanese University student whether the Japanese people considered themselves nearer to the East or the West in their life-style, habits and beliefs, his reply was: “We are like neither the East nor the West. We are simply Japanese”. The young man’s assertion that even while mixing with the world in a hundred ways they remained Japanese, is in fact an indication of their true nationhood.

The stretch of land which a community, imbued with a sense of we-ness, forms the natural boundaries of that Nation. That community is not merely emotionally attached to it; it also derives from the mother soil a special characteristic for its life, civilization and culture. Thus the Nation imparts a distinct identity to its members.

Hindu Rashtra

Combining the meaning of the two words ‘Hindu’ and ‘Rashtra’, we are now ready to understand the meaning of ‘Hindu Rashtra’. ‘Hindu Rashtra is nothing but the Rashtra of Hindus. The Hindus have been living on their common motherland for thousands of years. They have common forefathers, common sages, saints and heroes, common values of life, common traditions and culture, common history, common way of life, which is called Dharma and common aspirations. Those who identify with these common factors form the Rashtra or the Nation here and that is exactly Hindu Rashtra. Thus Hindu Rashtra is not a religious or political concept but a cultural and emotional one, eternally asserting itself.

Nation Vs State

As we have seen above, Hindu Rashtra is not a religious or a political concept, but it is generally misrepresented as a theocratic state or a religious Hindu State. This is because of the confusion between the terms Nation and State. Nation (Rashtra) and State (Rajya) are entirely different and should never be mixed up. State is purely a political concept. It is a political authority with sanction, concerned with the governance of the people, laying down and directing the policies of the government. The State changes as the political authority shifts from person to person or party to party. The people and the Nation remain the same.

Since ancient days, various dynasties ruled in different parts of India at different times, but the basic and fundamental cultural unity of the people of India was never disturbed. For the past one thousand years various Islamic invaders ruled over different parts of the country at different times and later the British ruled over almost the entire country, but the people of India did not change, i.e. remained Hindus (as defined above) . After Independence, the Congress party ruled the entire country for some time and then various political parties captured political power in different states. But still, the common emotional factors of the people of Bharat have remained the same and the people too uphold those values and sentiments in one voice, rising above regional, linguistic and religious differences as was witnessed on several occasions. This is the uniform experience.

That clearly explains the difference between a Rashtra and a Rajya i.e., Nation and State. Rashtra is eternal and State is transitory. It is like the body and the Soul (Atma). According to the Hindu philosophy, the Atma is eternal and only the bodies and their forms are changed. Likewise, the Rashtra which is the soul of the country remains unchanged, but the State which is the body keeps changing.


All nationals of a particular country have an emotional attachment to its history, forefathers, heroes and traditions. This makes them work hard, suffer and sacrifice for the progress and protection of their country. The national sentiment is supreme and is above all other sentiments, whether religious or sectional. Take for example, one of the youngest nations, America, formed four hundred years ago by various people of various countries. For the past four hundred years they have developed an American identity, their own traditions and their own National heroes like George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Every American holds this national tradition and their heroes with highest regard respect. No Jew or Muslim of America can say that because Washington and Lincoln were not Jew or Muslim he cannot revere them. The religious sentiments are subservient to national sentiments and values. As in America, in Hindu Rashtra, every national should hold its national heroes of Hindus like Sri Rama, Sri Krishna and Shivaji in high esteem. They are the age old symbols of all the great values which the country stands for.

Religion should not come into the picture at all!

However many consider the idea of Hindu Rashtra as rank communalism and a biggest threat to secularism. There are serious misunderstandings and confusion regarding concepts like nation, state, Hindu, secular, etc in the people’s minds. The reasons for these misunderstandings are plenty and are not a focus of this article.

Hindu Rashtra: The Vibrant Reality

What are the factors that have kept India as one in spite of foreign domination for over thousand years? It is its faith in its age old culture, Dharma, tradition, its forefathers and national heroes like Sri Rama, Sri Krishna, and Shivaji. All this can be condensed into one word and that is the Hinduness or Hindutva.

Hindu Rashtra is very much alive and it asserts in various forms. The RSS wants to make every Indian understand, realize and feel proud of the same. This is the strongest and the only integrating factor for binding people from North to South and East to West, rising above all other considerations of region, language, religion, caste or class. It is foolish to say that the idea of Hindu Rashtra will disintegrate the country into various Rashtras. In fact it is contrary to the very idea of Hindu Rashtra.

In spite of the havoc done by political parties and leaders for the last sixty years of independence, the country remains one only because of its essential Hindu character. Hindutva alone can integrate the entire country. Several fissiparous tendencies have cropped up only because Hindutva is being suppressed by politically vested interests. RSS is convinced that only when every person in India realizes that he is after all part and parcel of the Hindu Rashtra, the nation can progress, and stand up as one strong being. It is working hard against odds to see this goal realized.

Saturday, December 28, 2013

Speed of light according to Rig-Veda

Speed of light according to Rig-Veda

The speed of light, (defined as 299 792 458metres/s) is a universal constant which was often believed to be impossible to breach. However it is now known that the speed of light is approximately 304,463.2 km/sec.The simplest and most successful attempt to measure the speed of light was performed by Max Planck, Different physicists have tried to measure the speed of light throughout history.

Galileo attempted to measure the speed of light in the seventeenth century. An early experiment to measure the speed of light was conducted by Ole Rømer, a Danish physicist, in 1676. Rømer calculated that light takes about 22 minutes to traverse the diameter of Earth’s orbit. Unfortunately, its size was not known at that time. If Ole had known the diameter of the Earth’s orbit, he would have calculated a speed of 227,000,000 m/s.

In Rigveda, following sloka’s state about the speed of light which is nearly about of modern value of 186,282.397 miles / seconds:

“Yojananam Dwe Dwe Shate Dwe Cha Yojane
Aken Nimishardhena Krammana Namostute” - Rig-veda I, 50:4

In the verse Sun light speed is measured with the help of units called Yojan & Nimesha.This verse explain that sunlight moves 2202 Yojans in Half Nimish.

Taranir Vishvadarshato Jyotishkrdasi Surya |
Vishvamaa Bhaasirochanam ||

Oh Sun! (You) overwhelm all in speed, visible to all, source of light. (You) shine pervading the Universe.

Rigvedic commentary, Sayanacarya who was a minister in the court of Bukka of the great Vijayanagar Empire of Karnataka in South India (in early 14th century) says:

Tatha Ca Smaryate Yojananam. Sahasre Dve Dve Sate Dve Ca Yojane
Ekena Nimishardhena Kramaman.

Meaning :

“It is remembered here that Sun (light) traverses 2,202 yojanas in half a nimisha”

Sayanacarya’s Calculation for Speed of light (The commentary on the Rig-veda by Sayana (c. 13 15-1387), a minister and scholar par excellence in the court of King Bukka I of the Vijayanagar Empire in South India):

In the Vedas, Yojana is a unit of distance and Nimisha is a unit of time.

Distance travelled =2202 Yojanas

1 Yojana = 9 miles, 110 Yards =21,144.705 miles (Apprx)

Time taken 1/2 nimesha = 0.114286 seconds(Apprx)

Speed of light= 185,016.169 miles / seconds.

Modern Value= 186,282.397 miles / seconds.
Modern science claims the speed of light to be aproximately 186,282.397 miles / seconds

This Sukta is attributed to the son of Kanva Maharshi and is prescribed for use in two different occasions – in Suryeshti sacrifice (a ritual to please the Sun God)

Unit of Time: Nimesa

Nimesa Definition as per Moksha dharma parva of Shanti Parva in Mahabharata

15 Nimisha = 1 Kastha
30 Kashta = 1 Kala
30.3 Kala = 1 Muhurta
30 Muhurtas = 1 Diva-Ratri (Day-Night) One Day-Night = 24 hours

Unit of Distance: Yojana

Yojana Definition as per “Vishnu Purana”

10 ParamAnus = 1 Parasúkshma
10 Parasúkshmas = 1 Trasarenu
10 Trasarenus = 1 Mahírajas 10 Mahírajas= 1 Bálágra 10 Bálágra = 1 Likhsha 10 Likhsha= 1 Yuka 1o Yukas = 1 Yavodara 10 Yavodaras = 1 Yava 10 Yava = 1 Angula

6 fingers = 1 Pada
2 Padas = 1 Vitasti

2 Vitasti = 1 Hasta
4 Hastas = a Dhanu, a Danda, or pauruSa (a man’s height), or 2 Nárikás = 6 feet

2000 Dhanus = 1 Gavyuti = 12000 feet
4 Gavyutis = 1 Yojana = 9.09 miles

Everybody knows the speed of light is 186,000 miles which is actually discovered in 1675 by ROMAR.

But the hymn 1.50 of the Rigveda on the Sun, says
[O Sun] you who traverse 2,202 yojanas in half a nimesa. The usual meaning of yojana is about 9 miles as in the Artha shastra and for nimesha.
The measures of time are thus defined in the Puranas:
15 nimesa = 1 kastha
30kastha= 1 kala
30 kala = 1 muhurta
30 muhurta = 1 day-and-night

A nimesa is therefore equal to 16/75 seconds. It does come very close to the correct figure of 186,000 miles per second.”

The first quantitative estimate of the speed of light is seen in Indian vedic scholar Sayana’s commentary on the Rigveda, one of the main Hindu scriptures. It says sun light travels 2202 Yojanas in a half Nimesa. Yojana is an ancient unit of length. Arthasastra defines it as being equal to 8,000 dhanus, which is equivalent to 9 miles. A nimesa is an ancient unit of time that is equal to 16/75 seconds. Thus 2,202 yojanas in half a nimesa is equal to 185,794 miles per second after conversion. The modern estimate of the speed of light is 186,281.7 miles per second.

It is to be noted that Bhatta Bhaskara (probably in 10th century) made the same statement in his commentary on Taittiriya Brahmana, another Hindu Veda . He says this to be an old tradition.

Lets get to the details now:-

taranirviśvadarśato jyotishkridasi sūrya viśvamā bhāsirocanam

Swift and all beautiful art thou, O Surya, maker of the light; illuminating all the radiant realm. [RV: 1.50.4]

Sayana (c.1315-1387 AD) comments: “It is remembered that Sun traverses 2,202 yojanas in half a nimesa; giving light to all things, even to the moon and the planets, by night; for they are of a watery substance from which the rays of the sun are reflected.”yojana is a yoking or harnessing, that which is yoked or harnessed, a team or vehicle, or a course or path. Yojana is a stage or the distance traversed in one harnessing or without unyoking.

1 yojana is said to comprise either 4 or 8 krosha (a cry or shout, or the range of the voice in calling); and 1 krosha (or goruta ~ as far as a cow’s lowing may be heard, or a bull’s roar) may represent either 1000 or 2000 daNDa (a rod or staff).

Sound radiates in all directions, so perhaps there is some confusion in regarding a krosha either as the radius of travel in one direction or as the full diameter of travel.Man is the traditional measure of all things, and 1 danda represents 1 pauruSa (a man’s length) which equals 1 dhanvantara (bow-string) or dhanu (bow).

1 yojana measures either 4,000 or (more likely) 8,000 dhanus. Assuming that 1 paurusha is 6 ft long, then 1 yojana must represent a distance of about 14.6 km (or about 9 miles, as suggested by Monier-Williams).A full range of self-consistent units was anciently devised from the proportions of man’s own frame, although their exact conversion into modern units is unclear.

The basic unit is an angula (digit or finger), and 1 danda was perhaps originally divided into 100 digits, although 108 is the traditional value, and Aryabhatta prefers 96. Assuming a 6 ft danda, Aryabhatta’s angula is exactly ¾ inch (or about 1.9 cm).It does appear that 1 angula has always measured around 1.8 to 1.9 cm, with 1 danda or dhanu ranging from 1.83 to 2.05 m, so that 1 yojana must extend somewhere between 14.6 and 16.4 km.nimeSa means shutting the eye or winking, and as a measure of time it is a wink of the eye or a moment.Kautilya’s Arthashastra (c.320 BC) defines 1 nimesha as 1/360,000th of a day and night ~ i.e. 0.24 seconds.2,202 yojanas in half a nimesha.Given that 1 yojana is between 14.6 and 16.4 km, 2,202 yojanas must represent between 32,149 and 36,113 km. Half a nimesha is 0.12 seconds.

Sayana thus gives the speed of light as between 267,910 and 300,940 km/sec ~ the currently accepted value for the speed of light being 299,792 km/sec.

Assuming that the true speed of light was actually known to Sayana, who presented “2,202 yojanas in half a nimesha” as a verity; and accepting Kautilya’s value for nimesha; then a perfect yojana would be exactly 16,337.4636 m and a perfect paurusha or danda exactly 2.0422 m in length.

And (assuming 108 digits per danda) then 1 angula = 1.89 cm, 1 dhanurgraha = 7.56 cm, 1 dhanurmushti = 15.13 cm, 1 vitasti = 22.69 cm, and 1 hasta (cubit) = 51.05 cm.

All discussion of Sayana’s comment has assumed that one yojana is about 14.6 km, and this is based on the western ideal of a 6 ft man. The ancient sacred Egyptian cubit measured 28 angulas or 52.92 cm; and the ancient sacred Babylonian cubit measured 51.03 cm ~ i.e. 27 angulas ~ and this cubit was well known in ancient India. There are 32,000 hasta or cubits in a yojana; and if the Sumerian sacred cubit is assumed, then one yojana is actually 16.33 km.

Therefore, 2,202 yojanas measures 35,958 km, and the speed of light is properly calculated to be 299,648 km/sec ~ and western science did not match the precision of Sayana’s estimate until 1907 !

The ordinary cubit measures 24 angulas (digits) or 6 dhanurgrahas (palms) or about 45 cm. The old Egyptian royal cubit measured 28 digits (each 1.8710 cm) or 7 palms (each 13.0970 cm) ~ i.e. 52.3881 cm. A copper bar from Nippur (c. 2650 BC) perhaps defined a Sumerian cubit of about 51.85 cm.

The Persian cubit measured about 50.01 cm. The Harappan cubit was between 51.562 cm and 52.324 cm in length. Thus, an ordinary man is about 1.8 m tall, and his travel is measured by stages of about 14.5 km. The divine Egyptian ruler measured 2.09552 m, and his journey was by stages of 16.7642 km. The copper man of Nippur would perhaps have stood 2.074 high, with leaps of 16.592 km.

The Persian paurusha was about 2.0004 m long, with stages or yojanas of 16.0032 km. The Indus standard was between 2.062 and 2.093 m, with yojanas from 16.50 to 16.74 km. Given the dictum of 2,202 yojanas in half a nimesha, an ordinary man would judge the speed of light to be 266,075 km/sec; and the pharaoh’s photon would travel at 307,623.07 km/sec, but neither the royal Egyptian cubit of 28 digits nor the mortal human cubit of 24 digits is appropriate for this formula, which traditionally relies on a measure of 108 (i.e. 4 x 27) digits.

The Nippur standard would provide a speed of 304,463.2 km/sec; the Persian standard gives us 293,658.72 km/sec; and the Sarasvati standard gives a figure somewhere between 302,775 km/sec and 307,179 km/sec. Assuming a perfect yojana, the constant of 2,202 could actually be any number from 2,182 to 2,222, and the resultant speed of light would still be accurate to within 1 percent. Very simply, light travels about 2,200 yojanas in half a nimesha; so that light travels about 2,200 x 720,000 yojanas in a day. And given a yojana of about 16.5 km, this means that the speed of light was anciently calculated to be about 302,500 km/sec.

The modern accepted value for the speed of light is exactly 299,792.457


'Planetary Earth Grid'

It outlines many of the Earths sacred temples many of which originated in ANCIENT INDIA, and draws a link between them and the Ley Lines of the Earth Grid. A hypothetical network of Divine Energy

The 'Planetary Grid' hypothesis is as modern concept which suggests that the Earth is surrounded by an invisible network of energy which is carried around the globe by a kind of '...geometric highway' known as Ley-Lines.

These geometric lines meet at various intersecting points forming a powerful grid (see attachment). What makes the theory so compelling is the amount of sacred sites which run in alignment to these energy lines. This includes many of the Earths major heritage sites such as the Rameshwaram Temple, Pyramids of Giza, the Prang temple and Stonehenge.

Designed By - Simon E. Davies

BIG BANG THEORY DEBUNKED. Modern Physics and Hindu Philosophy #Debunked Big Bang

big bangNow scientist are confused saying big bang never hapenned and Universe was forever, so there is no end and begining , infinite as Ancient India sages, scientists always say"The Big Bang singularity is the most serious problem of general relativity because the laws of physics appear to break down there," Ahmed Farag Ali at Benha University and the Zewail City of Science and Technology, both in Egypt, told and coauthor Saurya Das at the University of Lethbridge in Alberta, Canada, have shown in a paper published in Physics Letters B that the Big Bang singularity can be resolved by their in which the universe has no beginning and no end.

Read more at:

Read more at:

Modern Physics and Hindu Philosophy

There are amazing similarities between implications of theories of modern physics and ancient Hindu philosophy as expressed in Vedas and Upanishads. The basis of Hindu philosophy is the mystical idea of Brahman. The Brahman is usually described by the words “Neti, Neti “meaning, not this, not this! When I went into study of physics, I realized that, as far as knowledge of ultimate reality is concerned, physicists are in exactly same situation as the ancient Rishis. Both cannot describe it in everyday language. In Mundak Upanishad, knowledge is divided into two parts: Para Vidya which deals with the eternal truth that can lead to self realization and Apara Vidya which deals with knowledge about material world. Under this classification, Physics might come under Apara Vidya. But, I would like to convince you that Modern Physics is also Para Vidya!

 A number of early pioneers in quantum theory such as Bohr, Schrodinger, Heisenberg and later Bohm, were deeply influenced by eastern mystical ideas. A number of books have been written on this subject. Fritz Capra’s book in seventies on “The Tao of Physics” started the ball rolling. More recently, physicists Subhash Kak, Amit Goswami, John Hagelin (Maharshi Mahesh Yogi’s group) and some others have published extensively on this subject.

Now, I will describe briefly implications of some of the theories of modern physics for non-physicists. Physics which was discovered before the 20th century is known as classical physics which describes everyday physics like major parts of mechanics, heat, electricity-magnetism, optics etc which are used extensively in engineering and technology. At the beginning of 20th century, experimental data and certain inconsistency problems compelled physicists to accept two revolutionary theories: Quantum theory and Relativity theory. Physicists were forced to change their view of nature drastically as a result. Initially, there was immense reluctance to give up classical ideas. They were forced into quantum theory and relativity theory kicking and screaming. First of all, it was found that the world is not made out of rigid firm objects like billiard balls or bricks. At the atomic and sub-atomic level it consists of fuzzy wavelike objects and lot of empty space. So the solid nature of objects we see around is only apparent. As one goes deeper and deeper, one keeps on finding vacuum all the way. cosmology of hinduism is more advanced

This reminds one of the ideas of sunyata and Maya or illusion covering the whole universe, as Adi Shankaracharya said “Brahma Satyam, Jagat Mithya”. Brahman is the only truth; the world is a false illusion. Now, just like us, he must have seen solid bodies, rigid walls and trees. I believe he realized that all of this disintegrates and thus cannot be fundamental reality. Thus, because of the covering of Maya, one does not see the underlying real Brahman. (Previously, the concept of Maya from Mandukya Upanishad was emphasized by Shankaracharya’s spiritual grandfather Gaudapadacharya). Similarly, in physics, one sees only the material objects around and does not see strange quantum fuzzy world underlying all the matter. Moreover, the particles of modern physics are believed to be in some kind of suspended state devoid of any specific properties until they are measured. They are in some sense both here and there at the same time and are described by a wave function, a superposition of seemingly contradictory properties. Such a description is very similar to the description of Brahman e.g. in Ishopanishad: “It moves and it moves not; it is far and it is near; it is within all this and it is also outside all this.” Then the ultimate shock of quantum theory came when Bell’s theorem and subsequent experiments proved the so called entanglements to be right. In such cases, two or more atoms, electrons or photons demonstrate correlated properties even at distances where no communication is possible between them during the given time. These developments are the most important developments in the history of physics and perhaps in the whole of science. They give rise to the idea of the interconnected wholeness of the world and non-local interactions in contrast to the separate identities with local interactions. Thus atoms also exhibit holistic like properties and perhaps some primitive relationship to consciousness. So it is not proper to say that any analysis starting with atoms is reductionist and not holistic.
The four Mahavakyas express similar concept about individual and Brahman. Pragnanam Brahman - "Consciousness is Brahman" (Aitareya Upanishad 3.3 of the Rig Veda) Ayam Atma Brahman - "This Self (Atman) is Brahman" (Mandukya Upanishad 1.2 of the Atharva Veda) Tat Tvam Asi - "That Thou art " (Chandogya Upanishad 6.8.7 of the Sama Veda) Aham Brahmasmi- "I am Brahman" (Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 1.4.10 of the Yajur Veda). Thus Brahman is present in everything. This matches very well with the concept of modern physics that everything is made out of the same fundamental particles. Another basic finding of quantum theory is the involvement of the observer in the observed things. It is impossible to separate the effect of the measuring apparatus from the object measured. Detachment of the two is just not possible. Such an idea about the observer and the object of observation is also emphasized in Upanishads. It is behind the holistic philosophy about mind and body.

A leading current model of origin of universe assumes that there was total vacuum in the beginning and the universe arose from a quantum fluctuation. In this way something came out of nothing. At that time it was totally dark since light had not emerged from vacuum yet! Compare this model with the following quotation from Vayupuran about origin of universe. "In the beginning, there was nothing in the universe. The Brahman (the divine essence) alone was everywhere. The Brahman had neither color nor scent; it could not be felt or touched. It had no origin, no beginning or no end. The Brahman was constant and it was the origin of everything that was destined to be in the universe and the universe was shrouded in darkness. nasadiya sukta  of Rig Veda(story of creation) also mentions that there was total darkness before creation.

There are strange facts in the theory of relativity also: It requires that measurement of time depends on observer’s motion and also the strength of gravitational field he/she is in. An often recurring mention in Hindu scriptures is that Brahma’s time is different from ours. When one hears about Arjun looking at the past, present and future in the mouth of Lord Krishna in Vishwaroop Darshan (Ch.11 of Bhagvatgeeta), one is reminded of collapse of the space time coordinate system near singularities of general theory of relativity. Also, it is well known that Hindu scriptures came up with the correct order of magnitude of the age of universe of several billion years, when other religious systems insisted on the age to be a few thousand years.
Per Upanishad’s, Brahman cannot be understood by logic! If it can be understood, it is not Brahman! There is a story about two yogis.
Some parts of Vedas are full of worship of natural elements like wind, water, fire etc and also picture Gods to look like human beings in the form of avatars. In some parts of Vedas and many Upanishads, we see clearly concept of abstract, omnipresent, invisible, eternal, transcendent and immanent Brahman who has qualities unfamiliar in our everyday life. 

Scientist such as Penrose, Hameroff and Stapp have suggested that consciousness in our brain may arise from atomic size domains and hence consciousness may be quantum mechanical in nature. but currently there is no real understanding of
There is an all pervading holistic non-local layer which we may call Brahman. Part of our consciousness may draw on this. This connection may be what is called Atman. Non-local entanglements of atoms may be also related to this layer.



Ancient Indian Science of Voice, Vocal and Music.

The word Bharata (India) – Which is condensed out of the musical expression Bhava, Raga and Tala, rightly emphasises the inalienable relationship between the thoughts, words and actions of human life, and music in India. On one side, it can be said that it is the music within, the Sat-Chit-Ananda (Existence-Knowledge- Bliss Absolute) that finds manifold expressions outside in man’s life. Viewe...d from the other side, it is the sublimation of actions, words and thoughts that lead one to hear the same music within.


sound as wave of creation---

 In India, music is considered as a subtle divine thread capable of linking the Jeevatman (individual soul) with the Parmatman (Supreme Soul), a concept originating in the Tantric idea of Sabdabrahman, the primeval source of creation. This idea finds expression in the eloquent words of the renowned violinist Yehudi Menuhin, ‘Indian music reflects Indian life having no predetermined beginning or end but flowing without interruption through the fingers of the composer-performer.’

To fully understand the beauty, depth and elevating qualities of Indian music, one must therefore understand, if not experience, these concepts at least to some extent.

It is believed that the Supreme Being is of the nature of Sabdabrahman or Nadabrahman. This Ultimate Sound Principle gets manifested as its vibrations. Through the Samyoga and Viyoga i.e. the union and separation of these vibrations, Sabdabrahman creates the world of ‘forms’, from the sub-atomic to the biggest and the mightiest! The entire cosmos is the manifestation of Sabdabrahman. That being so, in uniting the entire creation, lies ‘Naada’. As the Naada evolves, differentiates and expands from the subtle to the gross, it gives rise to articulate sounds- ‘Varnas’, ‘Srutis’ and ‘Swaras’ – and moves on to create ‘Ragas’, capturing the ‘Bhavas’ (moods) of the mind. From Varnas arise by permutations and combinations, the world of ‘forms’.

Today scientific substantiation of these concepts has been forthcoming through the experimental demonstration that different geometrical figures can be produced by manipulating sound! That means it is possible to reduce all ‘physical forms’ to ‘sound forms’ and vice-versa. In other words, form is sound made manifest. According to the Tantras there are 50 basic sounds out of which the world of forms has come into being.
Classification of sound--

 Nowhere in the world has the science of Sound and Music been studied so deeply and exhaustively as in ancient India. Panini, Patanjali, Bhartruhari, Nandikeswara, Anjaneya and Bharata are outstanding among those who have contributed to the unravelling of the mystery of sound, music and creation. The ‘Sabda’ itself is classified into Para, Pashyanti, Madhyama and Vaikhari.

1.The grossest of these four is Vaikhari, the dense audible sound.

2. Madhyama is the stage where thought takes the form of sound or word.

3. Pashyanti is the preceding stage where ‘thought’ assumes a ‘form’ where sound vibration becomes ‘visible’ in the mind. At that stage, there is no impress of language on the form. That is, here the barrier of language has no meaning.

4. Beyond it lies the subtlest, highest and most transcendental stage of Para where neither thought, nor names nor forms find a place, as there are neither waves nor wavelengths there. It is the ultimate unifying substratum – the undifferentiated, yet potential sound of Sabdabrahman. This is the stage of Godhead – sans thought, sound or form, the goal of deep meditation.

No wonder that such a concept and understanding of music developed into a form of worship (Nadopasana) and has carried many on its wings to self-unfoldment and merger with the Ultimate Truth or Parabrahman. From the unmanifest to the manifest, from the manifest to the unmanifest, thus goes the cycle of Naada (sound), stretching from Eternity to Eternity – linking everything without any distinction of desa-kala-nama-roopa (place, time, name, form). Only in the land of Nataraja (cosmic dancer; Shiva), Saraswati (goddess of learning), the Veena (stringed musical instrument), Murali (flute), could such a sublime concept have been conceived, creating a vibrant life, science and tradition in music.

Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa had beautiful visions bearing on this principle. He used to see a long white thread proceeding out of himself.

‘This mass would open and within it he would see the Mother with a Veena. Then, she would begin to play and as she played he would see the music turning into birds and animals and worlds and arrange themselves. Then she would stop playing and they would all disappear. The light would grow less and less distinct till it was just a luminous mass, the string would grow shorter and shorter and the whole world would be absorbed into himself again.’

What an incomparable vision! A condensed drop of the entire philosophy of sound and music.

Our ancient seers living in communion with Nature must have ‘seen’ and heard the music in myriad ways and forms. In the rising sun, in the light of the stars, in the heights of the snow-clad Himalayas, in the thick forests, in the thundering clouds, in the gurgling Ganges – in the cries of birds and animals, in the blooming of flowers, dropping of petals, ripening and sweetening of fruit, in birth, growth and decay of created beings, anywhere and everywhere, they would have felt the resonance of the one Naada. Capturing this music in Nature, they must have felt their souls ringing in harmony with them and instinctively realised the same Naada vibrating within them. With joy and thrill, they must have picked up the basic notes and built around them their grand repertoire:

SA -from the cry of the peacock with its two sounds of lower and higher pitches

RE -from the cry of the bull

GA-from that of a goat

MA-from the cry of the Krauncha bird

PA-from the voice of the Koel in spring

DHA- from the neighing of the horse, and

NE-from the cry of the elephant.

It is said that Lord Shiva in his cosmic dance produced from his Damaru various types of sounds and the great saint, Patanjali, grasped them in his Maheshwara Sutras and explained the formation of the universe. According to this view, the origin of the 7 basic notes can be traced back to Shiva.

According to some others, the 7 keynotes, which form the units of music all over the world, personify 7 levels of human consciousness. Out of this consciousness springs forth the stream of life, essentially consisting of one’s aspirations to reach that sanctum of happiness, bliss and fulfilment within. In a particular direction, it is called music, in another, dance, in a third, painting, in a fourth, poetry. But among all the fine arts, the finest is indeed music. One, who has understood Naada as the very basis of music, realises it as the subtlest of vibrations, which forms the life-current in each and every cell in his body. It is this omnipresent Naada, which, following particular rhythms, curves and waves, flows through our life, enriching us with experiences. If one tries to discover it within and manifest it without, it becomes the fittest musical instrument in the hands of the Supreme and his life itself turns into a music with a rare melody of tune and rhythm.

The study of Indian music has its own practical lessons to impart to our every day life. To learn music is a discipline in itself, controlling one’s body, breath, voice, one’s very nature itself. In childhood, learning music helps one to develop a rhythm and order in his daily activities. Through Upasana of naada, he catches glimpses of the unity in diversity. In the second stage, by enriching the Bhavana (feeling) in the music, one can control and sublimate the emotions of the mind. As the evening of life approaches, music turns into a source of peace and joy. Equanimity and tranquillity of mind come as by-products of an advanced musical mind. If one is a true Upasaka (earnest student), before long, from the outer music he will turn towards the inner and start enjoying the subtlest of music – the Anahata Naada, the soundless sound – in the innermost chamber of one’s heart. Thus, music can truly form the vehicle to take man from the gross to the subtle, from the finite to the infinite. As his life’s vibrations become attuned to the divine, his soul’s music reveals to him the music in the creation and of the creation. He finds the entire universe resounding with the Eternal notes – Soham Soham.

The chords of life can be tuned properly as in a musical instrument with self-effort. If one masters this art of tuning, and brings out the best of Swaras without any Apaswaras, then his life becomes attuned to the Supreme Music and he would sing the soul-stirring music of love, compassion and understanding.

Veenaavaadana tatwajnaha;

swarajnaana vishaaradah;


param brahmaadhigacchati

“One who plays the Veena with full knowledge of the basic principles of sound, the science of tune evolution and the beat of music could attain Parabrahman without much effort.”

There is no aspect of life where music cannot play its role. The soothing of the nerves and the calming of the mind that music brings about are marvellous. Just as a mother can sing her child to sleep through her lullabies, at every context in life, whether in the farms or factories, in games or studies, music can bring in a sense of unity and harmony. In India, we have established long long back, that through proper combinations of Swaras we can create Ragas, which have the capacity to call forth forces of Nature such as the rain, fire, etc. Stones can be melted, glass can be broken, and lamps can be lighted. Trees and plants can respond to the music of one who has attuned himself to the Eternal vibrations.

Today, Indian music has caught the attention of musicologists, scientists and other learned men. With more and more research in the field of Indian musicology, more and more hidden treasures are surfacing. In spite of all the ups and downs it has gone through the several centuries of its growth, Indian music has retained its highly aesthetic and elevating spirit and its unique individuality.

Rightly has Shakespeare said of music:

“The man that has no music in himself, nor is moved with sweet concord of sweet sound, is fit for treason, stratagems and spoils.”

Nearer home, we have the Lord Himself proclaiming:

Naaham vasaami Vaikunthe,

Na yogi hriday gaavati

Madbhakta yatra gaayanti

Tatra tishthami Naarada

“I dwell not in Vaikunth (heaven), nor in the hearts of Yogins, nor in the sun; but where my devotees sing, there, O Narada, do I reside.”

That is the uniqueness of Indian music. May that all-pervading Nadbrahman, remove all the Apaswaras (discordant tunes) from our lives and fill it with pleasing, unifying and harmonising Swaras so that the music of our lives may flow melodiously, taking us from untruth to Truth, from darkness to Light, from death to Immortality.

 From the Mahabharata
Santi Parva, Section CLXXXIV

Different kinds of sound. They are the seven original notes called Shadja, Rishabha, Gandhara, Mahdhyama, Panchama, Dhaivata and Nishada. these are the seven kinds of the property that appertains to space. Sound inheres like the Supreme Being in all space though attached especially to drums and other instruments. Whatever sound is heard from drums small and large, and conchs, and clouds, and cars, and animate and inanimate creatures, are all included in these seven kinds of sound already enumerated. Thus, sound, which is the property of space, is of various kinds. The learned have said sound to be born of space. When raised by the different kinds of touch, which is the property of the wind, it may be heard. It cannot, however, be heard, when the different kinds of touch are inceptive. The elements, mingling with their counterparts in the body, increase and grow. Water, fire, wind are always awake in the bodies of living creatures. They are the roots of the body. Pervading the five life-breaths (already mentioned) they reside in the body."

follow at


Thursday, December 26, 2013


Vedic Geography

Sujalaam, Sufalaam, Malyaja Sheetalaam
Shasya Shyaamlaam Maataram..
The mighty Himalayas frame our northern border

Vedic people were spread throughout the Indian sub-continent. But then, I found some more..

To my surprise, the entire World Geography was extensively described in the scriptures along with the details of their mountains, rivers and the races inhabiting them! Although the names and divisions of these landmasses understandably differ from what they are now, the very mention of them indicated a recognition of the vastness of our planet at that early age.

Geography in ancient Hindu scriptures

Ancient Indians called this planet 'Bhu-gol' or the Round Earth, proving advancement over the flat-Earth theory believed by almost every other Early civilization. In his famous Book on India, Alberuni, the medieval Islamic scholar quotes an Indian astronomer Brahmagupta to write-

"A man on Meru observes one identical star above the horizon in the zenith of Lanka, the country of demons, whilst a man in Lanka at the same time observes it above his head. Besides all astronomical observations are not correct unless we assume the globular shape of heaven and earth.
Quoting another great astronomer-mathematician Varahamihira, he further writes:

"Mountains, seas, rivers, trees, cities, men, and angels, all are around the globe of the earth. And if Yamakoti and Rum are opposite to each other, one could not say that the one is low in relation to the other, since low does not exist… Every one speaks of himself, 'I am above and the others are below,' whilst all of them are around the globe like the blossoms springing on the branches of a Kadamb-tree."

The Nav-grihas or Nine Planets

Count Louis Hamon aka Cheiro, Irish author of several books on Science and the Occult, once remarked,

"People who in their ignorance disdain the wisdom of ancient races, forget that the great past of India contained secrets of life and philosophy that following civilizations were forced to accept. Ancient Hindus understood the Precession of Equinoxes and calculated it once in 25,870 years. The mathematical precision necessary to establish such a theory is the wonder of Astronomers even today!"

Seers and sages through their Yogic powers fathomed the deepest mysteries of Space and Time which the scientists today are still struggling to explain through logic and their supercomputers and space-telescopes.

While we get an overwhelming sense of Scientific advancement from the Vedic literature, what is not really clear even today is the geographical extent of the Vedic civilization. With the limited knowledge they had, earlier historians gave Aryan Invasion Theory first and the Aryan Migration Theory later suggesting the development of Vedic culture outside India.

Conservative estimate of extent of Hinduism Before Christ

According to them, Hinduism in its present form developed through inter-mixing with the local indigenous traditions. However, as stated elsewhere, with new and new evidences pouring in everyday this view has been completely written off now!!

American scholar David Frawley in the book {Gods, Sages and Kings}, argues for an indigenous development of culture in India and subsequent migrations outwards towards the Middle-East and South-East Asia spreading the knowledge of Hinduism in the civilized world.

Indus Valley Seals with Vedic motifs

The earliest Vedas themselves refer to their land as the Sapta Sindhu, or the 'Land of Seven Rivers', while the Nadistuti sukta, [RV 10.75] gives a list of ten rivers both East and West of the Indus. Rigvedic rivers mentioned, cover the stretch from Ganges plains in the East to Afghanistan in the West thus giving us a sense of the direction of movement of people from within India to outside!

Etruscan pendant with Swastika Motifs
Today, Rome is widely accepted as the forbear of Western Civilization, but few people are aware, that excavations from the OLDEST Civilization of Italy, known as the Etruscan Civilization, has revealed artefacts with Hindu motifs on them!

It's hard to conclusively decide the Geography of the Vedic Civilization as the Historians are of differing view-points and the archeological evidence is not fully understood. I hope once the Indus-Saraswati script is deciphered, it could give us some pointers about how true my educated guesses are.

Surprisingly, the Indus-Saraswati or Brahmi script has also been found on statues and tablets in the far off Easter Islands located in the south-Pacific sea!! These are one of the world's most isolated inhabited islands and are one of the mysteries of the modern world with 887 monumental statues, called Moai!

Easter Island Statues

Is there a link between the people of Indus -Saraswati and of Easter Island ,could be because of similarity in the scripts is striking and more than 90 signs from both the places have been matched perfectly!! Chronologically, the people of Indus-Saraswati Civilization existed much before these statues were created but the similarity in scripts is intriguing and may point to long distance navigation abilities of the Harrapan people.

Indus-Saraswati and Easter Island Scripts

Still, recent developments such as the Discovery of Saraswati and its identification with the present-day Ghaggar-Hakra, have helped realize the antiquity of our civilization.



God may be in the details,
But the Goddess is in the questions..
Once we begin to ask them,
There's no turning back...

For a follower of one of the Abrahamic Religions, the answer most likely would be 'NO', as Western religions are based on the premise of a Male God, generally envisioned with white robes and a flowing white beard, sitting high on a throne in a distant heaven.

For a person following one of the Eastern religions, the answer could very well be 'YES' as most Eastern religions give equal emphasis to both Male and Female aspects of divinity. For example, Hindu Theology, believes God to be a balance of the Male and the Female Powers, the Purush and Prakriti, otherwise referred to as Shiva and Shakti.


Continuing in the same vein, I'll ask another question.. Bible, Genesis 1:27, states that - God created human beings in his own image. In the image of God he created them; male and female.

Now the question here is, if God is Male, how is a female in His image???

You may not have an outright answer to this one, but I hope the questions did begin a thought process in your mind! In the current post, we will try and understand the cult of the Goddess, not only from an Indian perspective, but also from the point of view of various other world religions.

The Historical Perspective

Historically, the cult of the Mother Goddess was more widespread all over the globe than it is now. Older Western religions viz. the Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Native American etc. included Goddess worship as a central part of their cultures.

In fact, more than 50 figurines of the Goddess have been found in excavations from all over Europe, dating more than 20,000 years ago, of which, Venus of Willendorf, is the most famous. Let us take a look at some of the goddesses worshiped in other ancient religions. Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, Celts, Incas, Aztecs, all had their favorite goddesses viz.-

  • The Celts had Abnoba- a goddess of rivers and forests and
  • Agrona- the goddess of war;
  • Greeks had Rhea- the Mother of Gods;
  • Aphrodite- the goddess of Love and Beauty and
  • Athena- the goddess of Wisdom and War.
  • Similarly, the Egyptians revered Bast- the protector of the pharaoh and
  • Isis- the goddess of magic, motherhood and fertility.

Goddesses in World religions

There are many more examples from Native American, Chinese, Japanese and Polynesian mythologies indicating that most ancient religions gave as much importance to the feminine aspect of God as the masculine.

It is also interesting to note that most of these depictions look at the Goddess as the Guardian of Nature and have a Maternal connotation just like the Mother Goddess in the Indian sub-continent.

Indeed, excavations from the Indus-Saraswati Civilization, have thrown up abundance of seals and figurines that suggest goddess-worship. Sometimes its a male-god or tribal chief worshiping a goddess while on other seals there are seven attendants accompanying the central goddess.

Man bowing to a Goddess
Mother Goddess from the Indus-Valley

The female figurines in terracotta found at Mohenjo-daro are comparable to similar artifacts excavated from archaeological sites in Baluchistan, Elam, Mesopotamia, Transcaspia, Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Cyprus, Crete, the Balkans and Egypt.

Famous Scottish anthropologist, James George Frazer, believes that all diverse goddesses worshiped in Europe were derived from a single concept originating from the Indo-European Neolithic cultures. The figurines also show an exaggerated fertility aspect suggesting the role of the goddess as a MOTHER-figure heralding a tradition that is still unbroken in Hinduism.

Goddess Worship in Hinduism

Throughout its millenia-old history, Hinduism provided its followers with the freedom of worshiping God in whichever form they want. Thus, were born the Four major sects of Hinduism:
Vaishnavism, worship of Lord Vishnu and His Avatars
Shaivism, worship of Lord Shiva
Shaktism, worship of the Goddess or Devi
Smartism, nonsectarian worship of all gods as different forms of the Supreme Brahman

These different sects provide different concepts, rituals and spiritual exercises for different modes of Awareness of the soul. Thus, Shaivism and Shaktism identify the Goddess as the consort of Shiva but while the Goddess is one half of the Complete Whole in Shaivism, she is Supreme in the latter.

In Vaishnav tradition, Goddess is considered Lord Vishnu's Yogmaya who takes the form of Mother Durga to look after the Material Creation as Her own child.

Goddess Durga as Lord Vishnu's Yogmaya

The worship of Mother Goddess actually shows a FIVE-FOLD approach by the devotees.

The FIRST approach is the one we have seen repeated in all ancient communities of the world - that personifies Divinity as the Mother Goddess. Rigved refers to Her as the Mahimata, or Earth-Mother; Viraja, the Universal-Mother; and Aditi, the Mother-of-Gods.

Verse 7.8i.4 while addressing the Dawn-goddess Usha states - Vayam syama maturna sunavah - Let us be dear to you like sons to a mother.

Mahimata, the Mother of Creation

In the SECOND approach, Goddess is visualized Mystically in the form of Shakti, the Cosmic Energy which is the Source of all Creation. All things, material and abstract are only the manifestations of the Divine Female.

Both the Puraans and Upanishads contain numerous references to Goddess as Shakti. The Mahabharat mentions Pradyumna’s worship of Goddess Katyayani, Aniruddha’s hymn to Goddess Chandi and Yudhishthira’s hymn to Goddess Durga.

Aadi-Shakti, Cosmic Energy of the Universe

The THIRD approach, identifies the Goddess in the form of Dash-Mahavidyas or the Ten Wisdom Goddesses, who represent a spectrum of feminine divinity, from horrific goddesses at one end, to the ravishingly beautiful at the other.

Worshiped by the followers of Tantrism, they are led by the fiercest of all, Goddess Maha Kali. The devotees understand them as different aspects of the same Great Goddess suited to the tastes, temperaments, and mental levels of spiritual aspirants

The ten goddesses are: Kali, Tara, Shodashi, Bhuvaneshwari, Bhairavi, Matangi, Chhinnamasta, Dhumavati, Bagala, and Kamala.

Dash Mahavidyas

The FOURTH approach is again devotional in nature, but here the goddess is (surprisingly) worshipped as the patron of the man-of-arms.

These are the super-women worshiped by warriors when they are going to war! The various warrior goddesses are known as the Saptamatrikas, or the Seven Mothers and are expansions of Goddess Durga.

This group comprises of the warrior avatars of even otherwise benign goddesses such as Saraswati and Lakshmi (!!). Thus in the Matrika cult, Brahma's consort in martial mode is Brahmani, Shiva's better half is Maheshwari and Vishnu's consort is Vaishnavi.

The fierce Matrikas in battle mode
Image courtesy Grant Morrison's 18 Days
{Art by Mukesh Singh}

At this point, it may be worthwhile to remember the Indus-Saraswati seal shared earlier which depicted seven attendants of the central goddess. The seven may actually represent the Matrikas, especially since the depiction of these goddesses has remained almost unchanged even in later Art!

Indus-Saraswati Durga and Saptamatrikas
Later temple relief depicting the Sapta-Matrikas

The FIFTH approach is of the Puranas like the Skanda Puraan, Brahmavaivarta Puraan, Devi Bhagwat Puraan, Prapancha-saratantra, Linga Puraan etc. which describe the various goddesses as consorts of the Male gods.

Thus, while Devi Durga is described as the Core Goddess, other goddesses are described as Her expansions who form the Vital Energy (Shakti) of the Gods without whom, it is impossible for them to vanquish the Demons.

This fifth approach also covers all assorted LOCAL goddesses worshipped in India's towns and villages and accords them the status of being one with the Supreme Goddess Durga. The principal THREE forms of the Devi according to the each of the three gunas of course are Maha-Kali, Maha-Lakshmi and Maha-Saraswati.

Female Hindu Holy Trinity

The Supreme Goddess DURGA

Of all texts related to goddess worship, Markandeya Puraan contains the most vivid description in the form of a full book, known as Devi Mahatmya conceptualizing and adoring the Goddess and is the first scripture to celebrate the Goddess as the Supreme Divinity.

Goddess Durga is referred to variously as
Chandi, the fierce goddess, who destroys the evil Asuras; as Annapurna or the giver of food; and as Jagaddhatri, one who upholds the world. In the ‘Devi Kavacha’ an auxiliary of the Mahatmya, Devi is conceived of in nine forms known as the Nava-durga.

These are:
  1. Shailputri, daughter of the mountains;
  2. Brahmacharini, dwelling in Brahman;
  3. Chandraghanta, who has the moon for her bell;
  4. Kushmanda, the fertility goddess;
  5. Skandamata, mother of the war god Skanda;
  6. Katyayani, the daughter of Rishi Katyayana;
  7. Kalaratri, the dark night of dissolution;
  8. Mahagauri, the light of knowledge; and
  9. Siddhidatri, the bestower of success.

According to the traditional story of appearance of the Goddess, once a Buffalo-demon called Mahishasur (Greek Minotaur??) had conquered the Three Worlds. Due to a boon from Brahma, he was invincible against any male, be it a beast or human or even a demigod.

Mahishasur, the Minotaur

Mahish had subjugated the three realms and made them his slave. Tired of his tyranny, the Devas ran to Brahma for help and after Brahma disclosed his boon, the male gods decided to create a FEMALE warrior to eliminate the buffalo demon.

They decided to pool all their creative as well as destructive powers for the process, and the COMBINED energies of all the gods took shape of a beautiful Goddess who was the Devi Durga.

Goddess Durga emerges from the Energy of Gods

The goddess was gifted weapons by all the assembled gods and she set forth on her mission. As soon as the Minotaur saw Durga's Divine form, he understood that the demigods had found a way around the boon granted to him by Brahma!

Rishi Markandeya, gives a detailed account of Ma Durga's battle with the demonic forces, including the slaying of Mahish in about 700 verses, chanted religiously by ardent devotees of the Goddess especially during the current Nine Days of Durga Puja.

Durga, Kali and other Matrikas together killed scores of demons including the dreaded Asuras like Shumbh, Nishumbh and Raktabeej.

Ma Kali defeating Raktabeej

After a prolonged battle, the buffalo-demon was slain, and henceforth, Goddess Durga was given the epithet of Mahishasur Mardini, the Slayer-of-Mahish. This is the most widely depicted representation of the Goddess in art and there's a lot of profound symbolism inherent in the depiction of the Goddess in battle mode.

Durga fighting the Minotaur

By vanquishing the buffalo-demon and reigning in a fierce Lion, Goddess Durga inspires us to tame our own ANIMAL INSTINCTS and rid ourselves of our Inner demons.

Goddess Durga slaying Mahishasur

The depiction also reflects taming of the MALE EGO by the Feminine principle to bring back balance in Creation and prevent the annihilation of our World.

The FEMALE principle tames this animal urge of mankind to destroy itself and gives it a push towards the creative process of sustenance. Men have indeed been responsible for a lot of blunders in our history just to pander to our egos..

The development and deployment of the first Nuclear bomb; Iraq's annexation of Kuwait; America's attack on Afghanistan; Pakistan's attempt to steal Kargil from India, all being very apt examples of the same.. By controlling our animal urges, Ma Durga prevents us from straying from the path of Spiritual growth and brings us back in line.

Not only Hinduism, other ancient Eastern religions also recognized and revered the Goddess for the same. In my travels, I found an unlikely temple dedicated to the Goddess in Penang Island of Malaysia! Even though the deity here is worshiped as a form of Buddha, its name and depiction clearly refers to Goddess Chandi, which is another name for Goddess Durga :o)

Chundi Bodhisattva in Penang, Malaysia

Even with the increasing opportunities available to women in civilized societies, a majority of women in the developing economies as well as certain fanatical societies do not have equal rights as their male counterparts. The many hands of the Goddess could easily represent the multi-tasking woman of today!

Traditional Goddess Modern Goddess

The prerogative is on us, the Men of today to acknowledge and respect the Goddess in women around us and to accord them the same respect we reserve for the Goddess in our Temples.

Let this Navratri be a reminder to us to deal with our inner demons and re-establish the high status accorded to women in our ancient scriptures! I conclude this post with the ode to the Goddess, the Mahishasur-Mardini Stotra compiled by Shri Adi Shankracharya-

O Daughter of Himalayas, Dwelling in the Vindhyas,
O consort of Shiva, glorified by Indra,
Creatrix of the Universe, Slayer of Mahisha,
O Daughter of the Mountain, Victory to You!

Arising from the Ocean, Nourishing the Three worlds,
Delight of Raas Dance, O consort of Vishnu,
Remover of all sins, Destroyer of evil Pride,
O Daughter of the Mountain, Victory to You!

Conqueror of Daityas, Vanquisher of Danavs,
Destroyer of Dhumralochan, Slayer of Shumbh-Nishumbh,
You stemmed the spawn of Rakta-bija,
O Daughter of the Mountain, Victory to You!

You are Invincible, with your Trident,
You string your mighty bow, and weild your shiny sword,
To remove the miseries, of all the Three worlds,
O Daughter of the Mountain, Victory to You!

You are fond of battle, against worthy warriors,
You are fond of dancing, with Shiva as Ardha-narishwar,
Your beauty captivates even the heart of Cupid,
O Daughter of the Mountain, Victory to You!

You are all Auspicious, the Merciful Mother of All,
You are my mother, and I too am Your son,
Do not reject my prayer, even if its flawed,
O Daughter of the Mountain, Victory of Victories to you!
Aum Shanti: Shanti: Shanti: