Sunday, January 26, 2014


Tipu Sultan had, ruled his kingdom only for sixteen-and-a-half years, from December 7, 1782 to May 4, 1799. The territory of Malabar was under his effective control only for a short period of eight years. If he had not secured the assistance of the wily Purnaiyya, there would not have been so many Muhammadans in the states of Kerala and Karnataka. Hindus also would not have become less prosperous, and fewer in number.

When that Brahmin Prime Minister, Purnaiyya, presented to Tipu Sultan 90,000 soldiers, three crore rupees, and invaluable ornaments made of precious stones, he was tempted to rule as the Emperor of the South India. Tipu did not consider the Hindu rulers of Maharashtra, Coorg and Travancore or the Muslim ruler Nizam as impediments. He was afraid of only the British. He had convinced himself that he could easily become the Emperor of South India if he could somehow vanquish the British. Because of his intense and-British attitude, the so-called progressive and secular historians have made a vain attempt to paint Tipu Sultan as a great national hero.

Opposition to foreign powers need not always be due to love for one's country. To achieve his selfish goal and to face the British forces, Tipu Sultan sought the assistance of another foreign power, the French, who were manoeuvring to establish their own domination in the country. How is it possible, therefore, for Tipu Sultan to be an enemy of foreign forces when he himself had sought help from Napoleon who was then a prisoner in St. Helena Island and also the French King, Louis XVI?

Besides, he also wanted to establish Islamic rule in the country; to achieve that he had to first defeat the British. For this purpose, Tipu Sultan solicited the assistance of Muslim countries like Persia, Afghanistan and Turkey. It is true that Tipu did not harm the Raja of Cochin or anyone for that matter who surrendered and pledged loyalty to him. But how does that make him a friend of Hindus?
 M.A. Gopal Rao, stated a few years ago in one of his articles: 'In a deliberately designed taxation scheme, the religious prejudice of Tipu Sultan became quite clear. His co-religionists, Muslims, were exempted from house tax, commodity tax and also the levy on other items of household use. Those who were converted to Muhammadanism, were also given similar tax exemptions. He had even made provisions for the education of their children. Tipu Sultan discontinued the practice of appointing Hindus in different administrative and military jobs as practised by his father, Hyder Ali Khan, in the past. He had deep hatred towards all non-Muslims. During the entire period of sixteen years of his regime, Purnaiyya was the only Hindu who had adorned the post of Dewan or minister under Tipu Sultan. In 1797 (two years before his death) among the 65 senior Government posts, not even a single Hindu was retained. All the Mustadirs were also Muslims. Among the 26 civil and military officers captured by the British in 1792 there were only 6 non-Muslims. In 1789, when the Nizam of Hyderabad and other Muslim rulers decided that only Muslims would be appointed henceforth in all Government posts, Tipu Sultan also adopted the same policy in his Mysore State. Just because they were Muslims, even those who were illiterate and inefficient, were also appointed to important Government posts. Even for getting promotions, one still had to be a Muslim under Tipu Sultan's regime. Considering the interest and convenience of only Muslim officers, all the records relating to tax revenue, were ordered to be written in Persian rather than in Marathi and Kannada as followed earlier. He even tried to make Persian the State language in place of Kannada. In the end all the Government posts were filled by lazy and irresponsible Muslims. As a consequence the people had to suffer a great deal because of those fun-seeking and irresponsible Muslim officers. The Muslim officers, occupying important posts at all levels, were all dishonest and unreliable persons. Even when people complained to him with evidences against those officers, Tipu Sultan did not care to inquire about the complaints lodged."

Gopal Rao had written all these on the basis of the writings of Tipu's own son, Ghulam Muhammad, and Muslim historians like Kirmani. Even the Hindu names of places, the Sultan could not tolerate. Therefore, Mangalapuri (Mangalore) was changed to Jalalabad, Cannanore (Kanwapuram) to Kusanabad, Bepur (Vaippura) to Sultanpatanam or Faruqui, Mysore to Nazarabad, Dharwar to Quarshed-Sawad, Gooty to Faiz-Hissar, Ratnagiri to Mustafabad, Dindigul to Khaliqabad, and Calicut (Kozhikode) to Islamabad. It was after the death of Tipu Sultan that the local people reverted to old names.

The cruelties which Tipu Sultan committed in Coorg, has no parallel in history. On one occasion, he forcibly converted over ten thousand Hindus to Muhammadanism. On another occasion, he captured and converted to Islam more than one thousand Hindu Coorgis before imprisoning them in the Sreerangapatanam fortress. In the period of confusion and anarchy prevailing in Sreerangapatanam during the last war of Tipu Sultan against the British, all the Coorgi prisoners escaped from the prison and became Hindus again after reaching their native kingdom. Against the solemn oath given to the Raja of Coorg, Tipu Sultan forcibly abducted a young princess from the Coorg royal family and made her his wife against her will.

The atrocities committed by Tipu Sultan in Bidnur in North Karnataka during and after its capture by him, were most barbarous and beyond description. Ayaz Khan who was Kammaran Nambiar from Chirackal Kingdom before his forcible conversion to Islam by Hyder Ali Khan, had been appointed as Governor of Bidnur. Tipu Sultan was jealous of and opposed to Ayaz Khan from the very beginning because Hyder Ali Khan had considered the latter more intelligent and smart. When Ayaz Khan learnt that Tipu Sultan was scheming to kill him secretly, he escaped to Bombay with plenty of gold. Tipu Sultan came to Bednur and forcibly converted its entire population to Islam. The people accepted Islam for the sake of their lives.

After the capture of Mangalore, thousands of Christians were also forcibly sent to Sreerangapatanam where all of them were circumcised and converted to Islam. Tipu Sultan's justification was that during the Portuguese domination, prior to the arrival of the British, many Muslims had been converted to Christianity by their Missionaries. He proudly proclaimed his action as a sort of punishment for the conversion of many Muslims by the Portuguese.

Then he marched upto Kumbla on the northern borders of Kerala, forcibly converting to Islam every Hindu on the way. This time, his argument (repeated by the Muslim and secularist historians of today) was that if all belonged to one religion - Muhammadanism - there would be unity and consequently it would be easy to defeat the British!

In Malabar, the main target of Tipu Sultan's atrocities were Hindus and Hindu temples. According to Lewis B. Boury, the atrocities committed by Tipu Sultan against Hindus in Malabar were worse and more barbarous than those committed against the Hindus in Hindustan by the notorious Mahmud of Ghazni, Alauddin Khalji, and Nadir Shah. He disputes in his book Mukherjee's version that Tipu Sultan had converted only his opponents. Normally even a cruel person kills or tortures only his enemies. But that argument does not justify the cruelties committed by him against innocent women and children.


According to the Malabar Manual of William Logan who was the District Collector for some time, Thrichambaram and Thalipparampu temples in Chirackal Taluqa, Thiruvangatu Temple (Brass Pagoda) in Tellicherry, and Ponmeri Temple near Badakara were all destroyed by Tipu Sultan. TheMalabar Manual mention that the Maniyoor mosque was once a Hindu temple. The local belief is that it was converted to a mosque during the days of Tipu Sultan.

Vatakkankoor Raja Raja Varma in his famous literary work, History of Sanskrit Literature in Kerala, has written the following about the loss and destruction faced by the Hindu temples in Kerala during the military regime (Padayottam) of Tipu Sultan: "There was no limit as to the loss the Hindu temples suffered due to the military operations of Tipu Sultan. Burning down the temples, destruction of the idols installed therein and also cutting the heads of cattle over the temple deities were the cruel entertainments of Tipu Sultan and his equally cruel army. It was heartrending even to imagine the destruction caused by Tipu Sultan in the famous ancient temples of Thalipparampu and Thrichambaram. The devastation caused by this new Ravana's barbarous activities have not yet been fully rectified."


As per the provisions of the Treaty of Mangalore of 1784, the British had allowed Tipu Sultan to have his suzerainty over Malabar. 'In consequence, the Hindus of Malabar had to suffer the most severe enormities the world had ever known in history,' observes K.V. Krishna Iyer, in his famous book, Zamorins of Calicut, based on historical records available from the royal house of Zamorins in Calicut. "When the second-in-line of Zamorins, Eralppad, refused to cooperate with Tipu Sultan in his military operations against Travancore because of Tipu's crude methods of forcible circumcision and conversion of Hindus to Islam, the enraged Tipu Sultan took a solemn oath to circumcise and convert the Zamorin and his chieftains and Hindu soldiers to Islamic faith," he adds.

L.B. Boury writes: "To show his ardent devotion and steadfast faith in Muhammaddan religion, Tipu Sultan found Kozhikode to be the most suitable place. It was because the Hindus of Malabar refused to reject the matriarchal system, polyandry and half-nakedness of women that the 'great reformer' Tipu Sultan tried to honour the entire population with Islam." To the Malabar people, the Muslim harem, Muslim polygamy and the Islamic ritual of circumcision were equally repulsive and opposed to the ancient culture and tradition in Kerala. Tipu Sultan sought a marriage alliance with the matriarchal Muslim family of Arackal Bibi in Cannanore. Kozhikode was then a centre of Brahmins and had over 7000 Brahmin families living there. Over 2000 Brahmin families perished as a result of Tipu Sultan's Islamic cruelties. He did not spare even women and children. Most of the men escaped to forests and foreign lands.

Elamkulam Kunjan Pillai wrote in the Mathrubhoomi Weekly of December 25, 1955: "Muhammadans greatly increased in number. Hindus were forcibly circumcised in thousands. As a result of Tipu's atrocities, strength of Nairs and Chamars (Scheduled Castes) significantly diminished in number. Namboodiris also substantially decreased in number."

The German missionary Guntest has recorded: 'Accompanied by an army of 60,000, Tipu Sultan came to Kozhikode in 1788 and razed it to the ground. It is not possible even to describe the brutalities committed by that Islamic barbarian from Mysore." C.A. Parkhurst also noted that 'Almost the entire Kozhikode was razed to the ground."

Thali, Thiruvannur, Varackal, Puthur, Govindapuram, Thalikkunnu and other important temples in the town of Kozhikode as well as those nearby were completely destroyed as a result of Tipu's military operations. Some of them were reconstructed by the Zamorin after he returned following the defeat of Tipu Sultan in Sreerangapatanam and the Treaty of 1792.

The devastation caused by Tipu Sultan to the ancient and holy temples of Keraladheeswaram, Thrikkandiyoor and Thriprangatu in Vettum region was terrible. The Zamorin renovated these temples to some extent. The famous and ancient Thirunavaya Temple, known throughout the country as an ancient teaching-centre of the Vedas, revered by the devotees of Vishnu from Tamil Nadu, and existing before the advent of Christ, was also plundered and destroyed by Tipu's army (Malabar Gazetteer). After dismantling and destroying the idol, Tipu converted the Thrikkavu Temple into an ammunition depot in Ponnani (Malabar Manual). It was the Zamorin who repaired the temple later. Kotikkunnu, Thrithala, Panniyoor and other family temples of the Zamorin were plundered and destroyed. The famous Sukapuram Temple was also desecrated. Damage done to the Perumparampu Temple and Maranelira Temple of Azhvancherry Thamprakkal (titular head of all Namboodiri Brahmins) in Edappadu, can be seen even today. Vengari Temple and Thrikkulam Temple in Eranadu, Azhinjillam Temple in Ramanattukara, Indyannur Temple, Mannur Temple and many other temples were defiled and damaged extensively during the military regime.

Tipu Sultan reached Guruvayoor Temple only after destroying Mammiyoor Temple and Palayur Christian Church. If the destruction caused by Tipu's army is not visible today in the Guruvayoor Temple, it is mainly because of the intervention of Hydrose Kutty who had been converted to Islam by Hyder Ali Khan. He secured the safety of the temple and the continuation of land-tax exemption allowed by Hyder Ali earlier, besides the renovation and repairs done by the devotees later. According to available evidences, fearing the wrath of Tipu Sultan, the sacred idol of the Guruvayoor Temple was removed to the Ambalapuzha Sri Krishna Temple in Travancore State. It was only after the end of Tipu's military regime, that the idol was ceremoniously reinstated in the Guruvayoor Temple itself. Even today, daily pujas are conducted in Ambalapuzha Sri Krishna Temple where the idol of Guruvayoor Temple was temporarily installed and worshipped.

Damages caused to the nearby temples at Parampathali, Panmayanadu and Vengidangu are visible even today. The deplorable state of the architecture of the sanctum sanctorum of Parampathali Temple destroyed during the military operations of Tipu Sultan is really heart-rending. The atrocities committed in Kozhikode during the nightmarish days of the military occupation are vividly described in the works of Fra Bartolomaeo who had travelled through Kerala at that time. How cruelly Tipu Sultan, ably assisted by the French Commander M. Lally, had treated the Hindu and Christian population can be clearly understood from his writings.

Govinda Pillai says in his famous book, History of Literature; "During Malayalam Era 965 corresponding to 1789-90, Tipu Sultan crossed over to Malabar with an army of uncivilised barbarians. With a sort of fanatical love for Islamic faith, he destroyed many Hindu temples and Christian churches which were the custodians of precious wealth and religious traditions. Besides, Tipu Sultan abducted hundreds of people and forcibly circumcised and converted them to Islam - an act which was considered by them as more than death."

A small army of 2000 Nairs of Kadathanadu resisted the invasion of the huge army of Tipu Sultan from a fortress in Kuttipuram for a few weeks. They were reduced to starvation and death. Tipu Sultan entered the fort and offered to spare their lives, provided they accepted conversion to Islam. The unfortunate lot of 2000 Nairs were then forced to eat beef after being converted to Islamic faith, at the end of usual religious ritual of mass circumcision. All the members of one branch of Parappanad Royal Family were forcibly converted to Muhammadan faith except for one or two who escaped from the clutches of Tipu Sultan's army. Similarly, one Thiruppad belonging to Nilamboor Royal Family was also forcibly abducted and converted to Islam. Thereafter, it was reported that further conversions of Hindus were attempted through those converts. In the end, when the Kolathiri Raja surrendered and paid tribute, Tipu Sultan got him treacherously killed without any specific reason, dragged his dead body tied to the feet of an elephant through the streets, and finally hanged him from a tree-top to show his Islamic contempt for Hindu Rajas.
Many Nair and Brahmin landlords fled the country leaving their vast wealth behind. The Mappilas forcibly took possession of their lands and wealth. Tipu Sultan did not object to their actions. Most of the Mappila landlords of today claim that they purchased the ownership of the landed properties from Nairs and Brahmins after paying heavy compensation. These blatant lies are being repeated by them in spite of the fact that practically nothing was paid to the Hindu landlords then or later. (The same Islamic treachery was repeated during the Mappila riots of 1921.)

In any case, Tipu Sultan succeeded in mass killing, converting lakhs of Hindus to Islamic faith, driving thousands out of their traditional homes, and finally making the rest extremely poor. Many Hindus belonging to lower castes accepted conversion to Islam under duress. However, many others, especially the Thiyyas, fled to Tellicherry and Mahe for safety.

When the British established their rule in Malabar and the Hindu landlords made efforts to recover their landed properties, illegally occupied by the local Mappilas, Mullahs started preaching to their fanatic followers that "killing of Hindu landlords was a sacred Islamic act," leading to frequent Mappila outrages in Malabar.1

In Cherunad, Vettathunad, Eranad, Valluvanad, Thamarassery and other interior areas, local Mappilas unleashed a reign of terror on the Hindu population, mainly to retain the illegally occupied land and to establish their domination over Hindus as during Tipu's regime. Fearing the organised robberies and violence, people could not even travel freely in the Malabar hinterland of predominantly Mappila population.

प्राचीन भारत के विमान(प्राचीन सम्रद्ध भारत की गौरवशाली झलक

प्राचीन विमानों की दो श्रेणिया इस प्रकार थीः-

मानव निर्मित विमान, जो आधुनिक विमानों की तरह पंखों के सहायता से उडान भरते थे।
महर्षि भारद्वाज के शब्दों में पक्षियों की भान्ती उडने के कारण वायुयान को विमान कहते हैं। वेगसाम्याद विमानोण्डजानामिति ।।
विमानों के प्रकार:- शकत्युदगमविमान अर्थात विद्युत से चलने वाला विमान, धूम्रयान(धुँआ,वाष्प आदि से चलने वाला), अशुवाहविमान(सूर्य किरणों से चलने वाला), शिखोदभगविमान(पारे से चलने वाला), तारामुखविमान(चुम्बक शक्ति से चलने वाला), मरूत्सखविमान(गैस इत्यादि से चलने वाला), भूतवाहविमान(जल,अग्नि तथा वायु से चलने वाला)।

आश्चर्य जनक विमान, जो मानव निर्मित नहीं थे किन्तु उन का आकार प्रकार आधुनिक ‘उडन तशतरियों’ के अनुरूप है।

विमान विकास के प्राचीन ग्रन्थ

भारतीय उल्लेख प्राचीन संस्कृत भाषा में सैंकडों की संख्या में उपलब्द्ध हैं, किन्तु खेद का विषय है कि उन्हें अभी तक किसी आधुनिक भाषा में अनुवादित ही नहीं किया गया। प्राचीन भारतीयों ने जिन विमानों का अविष्कार किया था उन्हों
ने विमानों की संचलन प्रणाली तथा उन की देख भाल सम्बन्धी निर्देश भी संकलित किये थे, जो आज भी उपलब्द्ध हैं और उन में से कुछ का अंग्रेजी में अनुवाद भी किया जा चुका है। विमान विज्ञान विषय पर कुछ मुख्य प्राचीन ग्रन्थों का ब्योरा इस प्रकार हैः-

1. ऋगवेद- इस आदि ग्रन्थ में कम से कम 200 बार विमानों के बारे में उल्लेख है। उन में तिमंजिला, त्रिभुज आकार के, तथा तिपहिये विमानों का उल्लेख है जिन्हे अश्विनों (वैज्ञिानिकों) ने बनाया था। उन में साधारणत्या तीन यात्री जा सकते थे। विमानों के निर्माण के लिये स्वर्ण, रजत तथा लोह धातु का प्रयोग किया गया था तथा उन के दोनो ओर पंख होते थे। वेदों में विमानों के कई आकार-प्रकार उल्लेखित किये गये हैं। अहनिहोत्र विमान के दो ईंजन तथा हस्तः विमान (हाथी की शक्ल का विमान) में दो से अधिक ईंजन होते थे। एक अन्य विमान का रुप किंग-फिशर पक्षी के अनुरूप था। इसी प्रकार कई अन्य जीवों के रूप वाले विमान थे। इस में कोई सन्देह नहीं कि बीसवीं सदी की तरह पहले भी मानवों ने उड़ने की प्रेरणा पक्षियों से ही ली होगी। याता-यात के लिये ऋग वेद में जिन विमानों का उल्लेख है वह इस प्रकार है-

जल-यान – यह वायु तथा जल दोनो तलों में चल सकता था। (ऋग वेद 6.58.3)
कारा – यह भी वायु तथा जल दोनो तलों में चल सकता था। (ऋग वेद 9.14.1)
त्रिताला – इस विमान का आकार तिमंजिला था। (ऋग वेद 3.14.1)
त्रिचक्र रथ – यह तिपहिया विमान आकाश में उड सकता था। (ऋग वेद 4.36.1)
वायु रथ – रथ की शकल का यह विमान गैस अथवा वायु की शक्ति से चलता था। (ऋग वेद 5.41.6)
विद्युत रथ – इस प्रकार का रथ विमान विद्युत की शक्ति से चलता था। (ऋग वेद 3.14.1).
2. यजुर्वेद में भी ऐक अन्य विमान का तथा उन की संचलन प्रणाली उल्लेख है जिस का निर्माण जुडवा अशविन कुमारों ने किया था। इस विमान के प्रयोग से उन्हो मे राजा भुज्यु को समुद्र में डूबने से बचाया था।

3. विमानिका शास्त्र –1875 ईसवी में भारत के ऐक मन्दिर में विमानिका शास्त्र ग्रंथ की ऐक प्रति मिली थी। इस ग्रन्थ को ईसा से 400 वर्ष पूर्व का बताया जाता है तथा ऋषि भारदूाज रचित माना जाता है। इस का अनुवाद अंग्रेज़ी भाषा में हो चुका है। इसी ग्रंथ में पूर्व के 97 अन्य विमानाचार्यों का वर्णन है तथा 20 ऐसी कृतियों का वर्णन है जो विमानों के आकार प्रकार के बारे में विस्तरित जानकारी देते हैं। खेद का विषय है कि इन में से कई अमूल्य कृतियाँ अब लुप्त हो चुकी हैं। इन ग्रन्थों के विषय इस प्रकार थेः-

विमान के संचलन के बारे में जानकारी, उडान के समय सुरक्षा सम्बन्धी जानकारी, तुफान तथा बिजली के आघात से विमान की सुरक्षा के उपाय, आवश्यक्ता पडने पर साधारण ईंधन के बदले सौर ऊर्जा पर विमान को चलाना आदि। इस से यह तथ्य भी स्पष्ट होता है कि इस विमान में ‘एन्टी ग्रेविटी’ क्षेत्र की यात्रा की क्षमता भी थी।
विमानिका शास्त्र में सौर ऊर्जा के माध्यम से विमान को उडाने के अतिरिक्त ऊर्जा को संचित रखने का विधान भी बताया गया है। ऐक विशेष प्रकार के शीशे की आठ नलियों में सौर ऊर्जा को एकत्रित किया जाता था जिस के विधान की पूरी जानकारी लिखित है किन्तु इस में से कई भाग अभी ठीक तरह से समझे नहीं गये हैं।
इस ग्रन्थ के आठ भाग हैं जिन में विस्तरित मानचित्रों से विमानों की बनावट के अतिरिक्त विमानों को अग्नि तथा टूटने से बचाव के तरीके भी लिखित हैं।
ग्रन्थ में 31 उपकरणों का वर्तान्त है तथा 16 धातुओं का उल्लेख है जो विमान निर्माण में प्रयोग की जाती हैं जो विमानों के निर्माण के लिये उपयुक्त मानी गयीं हैं क्यों कि वह सभी धातुयें गर्मी सहन करने की क्षमता रखती हैं और भार में हल्की हैं।
4. यन्त्र सर्वस्वः – यह ग्रन्थ भी ऋषि भारदूाजरचित है। इस के 40 भाग हैं जिन में से एक भाग ‘विमानिका प्रकरण’के आठ अध्याय, लगभग 100 विषय और 500 सूत्र हैं जिन में विमान विज्ञान का उल्लेख है। इस ग्रन्थ में ऋषि भारदूाजने विमानों को तीन श्रेऩियों में विभाजित किया हैः-

अन्तरदेशीय – जो ऐक स्थान से दूसरे स्थान पर जाते हैं।
अन्तरराष्ट्रीय – जो ऐक देश से दूसरे देश को जाते
अन्तीर्क्षय – जो ऐक ग्रह से दूसरे ग्रह तक जाते
इन में सें अति-उल्लेखलीय सैनिक विमान थे जिन की विशेषतायें विस्तार पूर्वक लिखी गयी हैं और वह अति-आधुनिक साईंस फिक्शन लेखक को भी आश्चर्य चकित कर सकती हैं। उदाहरणार्थ सैनिक विमानों की विशेषतायें इस प्रकार की थीं-

पूर्णत्या अटूट, अग्नि से पूर्णत्या सुरक्षित, तथा आवश्यक्ता पडने पर पलक झपकने मात्र समय के अन्दर ही ऐक दम से स्थिर हो जाने में सक्ष्म।
शत्रु से अदृष्य हो जाने की क्षमता।
शत्रुओं के विमानों में होने वाले वार्तालाप तथा अन्य ध्वनियों को सुनने में सक्ष्म। शत्रु के विमान के भीतर से आने वाली आवाजों को तथा वहाँ के दृष्यों को रिकार्ड कर लेने की क्षमता।
शत्रु के विमान की दिशा तथा दशा का अनुमान लगाना और उस पर निगरानी रखना।
शत्रु के विमान के चालकों तथा यात्रियों को दीर्घ काल के लिये स्तब्द्ध कर देने की क्षमता।
निजि रुकावटों तथा स्तब्द्धता की दशा से उबरने की क्षमता।
आवश्यक्ता पडने पर स्वयं को नष्ट कर सकने की क्षमता।
चालकों तथा यात्रियों में मौसमानुसार अपने आप को बदल लेने की क्षमता।
स्वचालित तापमान नियन्त्रण करने की क्षमता।
हल्के तथा उष्णता ग्रहण कर सकने वाले धातुओं से निर्मित तथा आपने आकार को छोटा बडा करने, तथा अपने चलने की आवाजों को पूर्णत्या नियन्त्रित कर सकने में सक्ष्म।
विचार करने योग्य तथ्य है कि इस प्रकार का विमान अमेरिका के अति आधुनिक स्टेल्थ फाईटर और उडन तशतरी का मिश्रण ही हो सकता है। ऋषि भारदूाजकोई आधुनिक ‘फिक्शन राईटर’ नहीं थे परन्तुऐसे विमान की परिकल्पना करना ही आधुनिक बुद्धिजीवियों को चकित कर सकता है कि भारत के ऋषियों ने इस प्रकार के वैज्ञिानक माडल का विचार कैसे किया। उन्हों ने अंतरीक्ष जगत और अति-आधुनिक विमानों के बारे में लिखा जब कि विश्व के अन्य देश साधारण खेती बाडी का ज्ञान भी पूर्णत्या हासिल नहीं कर पाये थे।

5. समरांगनः सुत्रधारा – य़ह ग्रन्थ विमानों तथा उन से सम्बन्धित सभी विषयों के बारे में जानकारी देता है।इस के 230 पद्य विमानों के निर्माण, उडान, गति, सामान्य तथा आकस्माक उतरान एवम पक्षियों की दुर्घटनाओं के बारे में भी उल्लेख करते हैं।

लगभग सभी वैदिक ग्रन्थों में विमानों की बनावट त्रिभुज आकार की दिखायी गयी है। किन्तु इन ग्रन्थों में दिया गया आकार प्रकार पूर्णत्या स्पष्ट और सूक्ष्म है। कठिनाई केवल धातुओं को पहचानने में आती है।

समरांगनः सुत्रधारा के आनुसार सर्व प्रथम पाँच प्रकार के विमानों का निर्माण ब्रह्मा, विष्णु, यम, कुबेर तथा इन्द्र के लिये किया गया था। पश्चात अतिरिक्त विमान बनाये गये। चार मुख्य श्रेणियों का ब्योरा इस प्रकार हैः-

रुकमा – रुकमानौकीले आकार के और स्वर्ण रंग के थे।
सुन्दरः –सुन्दर राकेट की शक्ल तथा रजत युक्त थे।
त्रिपुरः –त्रिपुर तीन तल वाले थे।
शकुनः – शकुनः का आकार पक्षी के जैसा था।
दस अध्याय संलगित विषयों पर लिखे गये हैं जैसे कि विमान चालकों का परिशिक्षण, उडान के मार्ग, विमानों के कल-पुरज़े, उपकरण, चालकों एवम यात्रियों के परिधान तथा लम्बी विमान यात्रा के समय भोजन किस प्रकार का होना चाहिये।

ग्रन्थ में धातुओं को साफ करने की विधि, उस के लिये प्रयोग करने वाले द्रव्य, अम्ल जैसे कि नींबु अथवा सेब या कोई अन्य रसायन, विमान में प्रयोग किये जाने वाले तेल तथा तापमान आदि के विषयों पर भी लिखा गया है।

सात प्रकार के ईजनों का वर्णन किया गया है तथा उन का किस विशिष्ट उद्देष्य के लिये प्रयोग करना चाहिये तथा कितनी ऊचाई पर उस का प्रयोग सफल और उत्तम होगा। सारांश यह कि प्रत्येक विषय पर तकनीकी और प्रयोगात्मक जानकारी उपलब्द्ध है। विमान आधुनिक हेलीकोपटरों की तरह सीधे ऊची उडान भरने तथा उतरने के लिये, आगे पीछ तथा तिरछा चलने में भी सक्ष्म बताये गये हैं

6. कथा सरित-सागर – यह ग्रन्थ उच्च कोटि के श्रमिकों का उल्लेख करता है जैसे कि काष्ठ का काम करने वाले जिन्हें राज्यधर और प्राणधर कहा जाता था। यह समुद्र पार करने के लिये भी रथों का निर्माण करते थे तथा एक सहस्त्र यात्रियों को ले कर उडने वालो विमानों को बना सकते थे। यह रथ-विमान मन की गति के समान चलते थे।

Saturday, January 25, 2014

EXCLUSIVE CLONING in Ancient India 14000+ BC Years ago Proof in Rig Veda & Puranas

(the following content is from a research paper presented by
Dr. Padmakar Vishnu Vartak
M.B.B.S., F.U.W.A.I., Ph.D. (Lit) [Washington DC])

"Vasistha and Agastya were test tube babies produced in a utensil named as Vasatiwara, by Mitra and
Varuna.(RV 7-33-13). Even, Cloning was successfully done by the three brothers, the famous Rubhus. They
produced a horse from another horse and a cow from the skin of a cow. I had told this discovery to in the first
meeting of the Veda Vidnyana Mandal in 1976; but everybody laughed, saying if the modern science can not
do it, how is it possible for the Vedic people ? However after 21 years Cloning was performed in the modern
world in 1997 when a lamb was produced from udder of a sheep, which is a part of skin. Therefore the Vedic
principle of cloning appears correct. It proves that the Vedas have recorded only the principles on which we
have to work hard.
The same Rubhus had divided one ‘Chamasa’ into four. Chamasa was not an ordinary pot of clay or
metal. If it was so it could not have been divided into four. Hence it must have been some special. peculiar pot.
The meaning is present in the name ‘Chamasa’ itself. The root ‘Cham’ means to drink and eat.The root
‘As’means to live. Therefore Chamasa means a pot of life energy. The word ‘Chit Chamasa’ is also used by
the Rigveda, which suggests a Chamasa having Chit or Chetana or Manas. Thus Chit-Chamasa means a living
cell. A fertilised egg can be called as Chit Chamas. It was divided into four by Rubhus. It means Rubhus
evolved four animals from a single zygote or fertilised ovum. Such experiments are done in the modern science
and four animals are produced from a single zygote.
I would say that the Veda contains all knowledge, scientific and eternal. The seers blended everything
in Veda. There was no classification of knowledge in different disciplines, as is done today. All the knowledge
was stored in the Veda, which is a vast ocean of knowledge, full of the seeds of all the varieties of knowledge.
We have to take out those seeds, sow them, raise them carefully so that we will get many trees of knowledge,
which will supply us plenty of fruits of knowledge."

Animal Cloning was done few years ago in modern world but human cloning is still not done successfully and it is also prohibited in almost all countries.
In Ancient India, animal cloning was done to multiply number of cows and horses.
In Rigveda, Rubhus are mentioned as brothers (Rubhu, Vajra and Vibhu) who brought youthfulness to their old parents. They even managed to bring back their lost skills. (They must have used ayurvedic recipes to bring back youthfulness. So much literature about such recipes exist even today but is neglected).
They even cloned a cow and a horse.

Seven different sages Kanva Medhatithi (1-20), Angirasa Kutsa (1-110,111), Deerghatamas (1-161), Vishvamitra (3-60), Vamadeva (4-33), Vasistha Maitravaruni (7-48), and Shrunu Arbhava (10-176) mentioned about Rubhus in their vedic verses.
These 7 sages belong to different generations, so it is known that Rubhus were known for their work over a long period of time.

The first work of Rubhus was to bring back youthfulness to their old parents. This is mentioned in multiple verses of Rig Veda.
1-20-4 – With their exclusive power they made their old parents youthful again.
1-110-8 – They made their old parents full of youth again by their skill.
1-111-1 – Ingenious Rubhus prepared a chariot for Indra, prepared two powerful horses (2nd being cloned from 1st), made their old parents youthful again and gave new mothers to orphaned calves or children.
1-161-7 – Oh Rubhus, with the power of your intelligence you converted your old parents into youthful state.
4-33-3 – Rubhus who made their old parents youthful again may come to our Yajna.
4-34-9 – Rubhus gave a new life to their old parents, to Aswinau, to a cow and a horse.
4-35-5 – Oh, ingenious Rubhus, you made your old parents youthful again.
4-36-3 – Oh, Rubhu, Vaja and Vibhu, your workmanship of making your old parents youthful again was praised by gods.

The second work of Rubhus was on cows and their first step was to produce a cow which yielded copious milk. (RigVeda 1-20-3).
Probably cows in that generation did not yield enough milk and to meet the demand, cloning was done.
They mention about a method where skin from cow’s back in taken and cells are multipled from it to produce a new cow (named Viswaroopa) which looks alike.

Third work of Rubhus brothers was to produce two powerful horses. First they created a horse (named Hari) and presented it to Indra. Then they produced another horse which is a clone of Hari and now both were used to yoked to his chariot (1-161-7, 4-33-10).

Before cloning, Rubhus brothers seem to have worked on living cells and their multiplication.
Sun gave ‘Chamasa‘ with Amruta to Rubhus (1-110-3) and they divided it into four equal parts.
‘Chamasa‘ here can be considered as a cell and amruta (immortal thing) makes it a living cell.
Rig Veda suggests a Chamasa having Chit or Chetana or Manas, so Chit-Chamasa means a living cell.
A fertilised egg can be called as ‘Chit Chamasa‘. It was divided into four by Rubhus, which means Rubhus evolved four animals from a single zygote or fertilised ovum.
This living cell or an embryo is prepared Twashta (God).

During the experiment, eldest brother(Rubu) said, “ we can make two cells from the original one ” (4-33-5). However, the younger(Vajra) brother said, “ We can make three” , because he observed that when one cell was divided into two, there were three cells.
The youngest brother(Vibhu) observed and said , “ We can make four ”, as second cell also can be divided equally like the first.

Next was human cloning, which is mentioned in story of King Vena.
He was a great king but became evil and corrupt. So, Mother Earth (Bhoodevi) decided that she would not provide crops to humans anymore.
A group of Rishis (Sages) killed King Vena out of anger. They removed all the evil from his corpse’s thigh.
Then they created his clone from his arm.
This clone had similar body but however, mind cannot be cloned. So, a new King who was named ‘Prithu’ was created with pure mind. He brought back Mother Earth (Bhoodevi) to her normal state and promised be her eternal guardian. This is why Earth (Bhoodevi is also known as Prithvi.

There are examples of abnormal cloning, like of Nishada in Vishnu Purana.
Nishada, though an abnormal clone, could live long and could produce children. His tribe was known after his name and King Nala (of the famous Nala-Damayanti story in Mahabharata) and Ekalavya were his descendants.

Rubhus had also made a chariot flying in air, so they were automobile engineers too.

There are many more instanced like the demon ‘Rakta Beeja’ or AhiRavana and Mahi-Ravana who produce Rakshasas(demons) who look like them from their blood drops in war. It might be cloning from the white blood corpuscles, which contain nuclei.

Embryo Development - Bhagavath Purana

Embryo Development in - Bhagavath Puran-From Ancient UFO

Embryo development stages described in Bhagavata Purana, Mahabharata, Aitareya Upanishad

Embryology is the science of development of an embryo from the fertilization of the ovum to the fetus stage.
The earliest scientific approach is credited to Aristotle (384 – 322 BC), but indians have done a lot of scientific work, long before Aristotle. Kapil Muni was probably the first man who studied embryo.
Ancient Indian rishis had discovered the body secretions, which reproduce and called them Raja (ovum) and Reta (sperm).
The Mahabharata, Shanti Parva, 301, 320, 331, 356, and the Bhagawata 3/31 state that one fine particle of Shukra conjugates with that of Shonit during copulation. The fine particles are sperm and ovum. They termed the conjugate product as ‘Kalala’, whereas modern science terms it as ‘Zygote’ or fertilized ovum.
Bhagawata states that only in one night, which means 12 hours’ time, from the coitus, Kalala forms.
Science admits that an ovum remains fertilizable for a short time, measured in hours, after its release from ovary.

“dasahena tu karkandhuh” |”kalalam tv eka-ratrena” |”panca-ratrena budbudam” |”pesy andam va tatah param” – 3-31-2

says Bhagavata Purana

Translation : On the first night, the sperm and ovum mix, and on the fifth night the mixture ferments into a bubble. On the tenth night it develops into a form like a plum, and after that, it gradually turns into a lump of flesh or an egg.

Bhagavata Purana describes all the microscopic changes taking place up to 15 days of the embryonic life, in a womb of a living woman. Science has 2 used microscopes, uterine wash-outs, post-mortem examinations, etc and arrived at same conclusion.

“bahv-anghry-ady-anga-vigrahah” |”linga-cchidrodbhavas tribhih” |”masena tu siro dvabhyam” |”nakha-lomasthi-carmani” – 3-31-3

In the course of a month, a head is formed, and at the end of two months the hands, feet and other limbs take shape. By the end of three months, the nails, fingers, toes, body hair, bones and skin appear, as do the organ of generation and the other apertures in the body, namely the eyes, nostrils, ears, mouth and anus.

Bhagavata Purana states that the Linga i.e. external genitalia are formed in the third month. Science has revealed that external genitalia are present in 8 weeks’ old embryo. According to science male genitalia take their final form at the end of the 3rd month and Utero-vaginal canal also forms by the third month. Anus is formed some time after the genitals.

“aturbhir dhatavah sapta | pancabhih ksut-trd-udbhavah | sadbhir jarayuna vitah | kuksau bhramyati daksine”

Within four months from the date of conception, the seven essential ingredients of the body, namely chyle, blood, flesh, fat, bone, marrow and semen, come into existence. At the end of five months, hunger and thirst make themselves felt, and at the end of six months, the fetus, enclosed by the amnion, begins to move on the right side of the abdomen.

In the 7th month the soul of embryo remembers everything about its past lives and also gets knowledge about the present life. Science cannot demonstrate this fact, but it can be inferred indirectly. The foetus of 7th month is viable, so its brain must be functioning in the 7th month.
Electro-encephalographic tracings of the foetus may prove this in future.

Kapil Muni describes that the foetus lies with complete flexion of its back and head. It is a fact and is scientifically proved.
He also said that the foetus is unable to do respiration. This is also true, because the foetus lies in the amniotic fluid and requires no breathing. The foetus gets oxygen and nourishment from the mother’s blood.
Kapil Muni also says that in the 10th month the foetus is forced down by Prasooti Vayu, through the maternal passage.
During this process of delivery, the foetus gets lot of troubles and loses its past memory.
Science cannot give any proof for the loss of memory, but we can assess it by the fact that during delivery foetal head is compressed to a great extent.
It may compress the brain, which in turn, may cause loss of memory. It is a proved fact that compression and concussion of human brain causes loss of memory.

In 1972, Dr. H.P.Robinson of Glasgow University, showed using ultrasonic Doppler technique, that the heart begins at about 12-14 weeks.
Bhagavata Purana states that two ears develop and gets knowledge of sound and directions. Two separate functions are attributed to the ears, clearly. It is proved true during 1936 when Ross and Tait published their paper showing that the directions are recognized by the Labyrinth, situated in the Internal ears.
Aitereya Upanishad (1/1/4 and 1/2/4, written in 6000 BC) mentions the same fact.

The Bhagavata Purana gives microscopic details about the origin of a person (Purusha). It is narrated in a form of a story of He and She. (3/6/1-5)
He noticed that unless He and She unite, reproduction is not possible.
Therefore He conjugated with She. He entered into her 23 principles and brought together all the 23 principles.
He stimulated her creative energy. Her 23 principles got activated, they conjugated with his 23 principles and the combined energy of those 23 principles reproduced the person.

Modern science discovery has shown that 23 chromosomes of a sperm join with those of an ovum and then an embryo forms.
Chromosomes are called as Gunawidhi in bhagavata purana and mahabharata because they control Guna (characters) and Widhi (functions).

Ancient Indian sages revealed that Jeevatma(soul) is not perishable. At the time of death, it leaves the physical body and goes to Bhuvarloka. Then it comes down with rainwater, enters a food grain, goes in to a male and occupies a sperm.
With that sperm it enters the female and joins with an ovum to create an offspring. The sperm on which rides Atman gets success to win an ovum.
During one coitus 200 to 300 millions of sperms are deposited in a female passage.
Out of them only one enters an ovum. Why that one only? Science says it is a chance.
And why not a woman gets pregnant everytime she mates a man during her fruitful days ?

Embryo is the first descent of a fraction of Aatma. That part of Aatma is named as Praana.
Praana enters in and guides the sperm to enter an ovum.
So, only that single sperm which is driven by the child’s soul will enter woman’s womb.
Vedic Astrology has proved that it can derive the date of pregnancy, gender of child, date of delivery too, based on horoscopes of parents.

Thursday, January 23, 2014

Mayas’ Pyramids similaritis to Vedic Architect Maya and DECODED EGYPT PYRAMIDS

Were the Mayas’ Pyramids Built By the Vedic Architect Maya? by Marcus Schmieke Nowadays, it is generally known that Columbus was not the first to discover America. In the course of centuries, almost every seafaring culture set out to the American continents. In the last few years, direct traces have been discovered which lead from India directly into the heart of the Maya Culture of Central America. In the scriptures of South India, countries located south of India and their relation to the Vedic culture were mentioned. Following these traces, the renowned Vedic architect Dr. V. Ganapati Sthapati travelled to Peru in spring of 1995. His ancestors had built the big Shiva temple in Tanjore approximately a thousand years ago, and he himself continues to build temples all over the world according to the same principles of Vedic architecture. Merely studying old Sanskrit and Tamil scriptures on architecture caused him to assume that there had to be a connection between South America and India. Not only is its plot based exactly on the same geometric matrix, the Vasatipurusha Mandala, but also its form is identical with the South Indian Vimana (temple domes) even in details. Furthermore, there are amazing similarities as to measurements. Dr. Sthapati discovered that the South-Indian measure/rule (Kishku yardstick approx. 33 inch) was used mainly in the Peruvian region of Kushku. Residential buildings were also built strictly according to the principles of Vasati , as developed by Maya Danava. Its plots, position of doors and windows, proportions, form of roofs, inclination angles of roofs, diameter of columns, width of walls etc. are perfectly in accordance with the rules of Vasati , which are still applied in 60% of all houses built in India nowadays. Considering so many similarities, it is hard to believe in accident as an explanation. In addition, also the techniques applied by the Maya to erect their buildings and to hammer their huge stones for temples and pyramids are identical to those still taught and applied by Dr. Sthapati today. They have been described by Maya Danava in his books on Vasati. Did Maya Danava really travel from South India to Peru, or did he originally come from South America to become a famous architect in India later? This question can only be answered if we take into account the mystical personality of Maya Danava. According to historical records of the Vedic culture, Maya Danava’s influence on man was prevailing for 8000 years. But at the same time, he is described as a being from another planetary system who is equipped with all sorts of mystic powers and with an astronomic life span. Had the same Maya Danava first worked as an architect in South India and published Vedic texts in order to contribute later to the development of the Maya Culture in Central America, which shows a number of similarities with the Vedic India also in fields different from architecture? It is also very interesting to have a closer look at a linguistic comparison. Even today there are a number of words in the Maya language which indicate a relation to the Vedic culture. The Maya word K’ultanlini refers to the divine power and has obvious similarities to the Sanskrit word Kundalini which also refers to the life power and the power of consciousness. The Sanskrit term yoga can be found again in the Maya word Yok’hah, which means at the top of truth. For our considerations, it is most interesting to investigate the connection between the Maya word Chilambalam which is the name for the temple room of the caste-pyramid Chichen Itza. This pyramid has the same plot as a South Indian temple vimana. Both are based on a grid consisting of 8 x 8 squares. In Vasati such a square grid is called Manduka Mandala, the frog mandala. The centre is formed by a square made of four squares, which corresponds to the Brahmasthana, the place of Brahma. At this location the divine energy is so strong that it is not suitable for people to live there. Both in the Vasati temples and in the Maya pyramids the most sacred place of the whole structure is located exactly in this square. The Mayas call this area Chilambalam, which means sacred room. This room is cubic and corresponds to the original form of room itself in Vasati. Adhering to this principle, there is a Shiva-temple in South India in which the sacred room or the room of consciousness is being worshiped. This temple with immaculate proportions is called Chidambaram and ranks amongst the most famous Vasati temples of South India next to Shri Rangam. The same concept of the sacred room or hall of consciousness was called Chilambalam by the Mayas. Another perplexing parallel.

Why Chants of mantra is important

21st century tonoscope Creates 22000+BC year old Hindu diagram of OM . Amazing ? Read More

The Sri-Yantra Mandala is the image of the OM mantra, the primordial Hindu sound of creation . When OM is intoned into a tonoscope, it first produces a circle. As the tone is completed, the circle is filled sequentially with concentric squares, triangles and finally, as the "mmm" dies away, the Sri Yantra. 
A tonoscope is an appliance that turns sounds into patterns.

There is a science called Cymatics that is about the translation of sound vibrations into visible patterns. It is usually done by vibrating a fine powder or a liquid on a plate connected to a speaker. The images that can be produced with different frequencies are complex and beautiful and often look like mandalas. see video link

Mantras are not small things, mantras have power. They are the mind vibration in relationship to the Cosmos. The science of mantra is based on the knowledge that sound is a form of energy having structure, power, and a definite predictable effect on the chakras and the human psyche.

Hindu Scriptures About invisible rays

Mundakopanishad-6000BC abt particles that travel faster than light and other invisible Rays for naked eyes and its effect on human Body. BEFORE 12000-6000 BCE. Amazing ? Read More ... 

Tachyons, Ultra-voilet, Infra-red bands, Nuclear Energy and Blacks Holes in Mundakopanishad

Mundakopanishad written around 6000 BCE in ancient india, is associated with the Atharvaveda.
It describes about Tachyons (particles that travel faster than light), Ultra-Violet band, Infra-Red band, Nuclear Energy and Black Holes in the space.

Mundakopanishad might have derived its name from ‘munda‘ (shaven head of a monk).
It has three chapters and each chapter is divided into sub chapters which are called “Khanda“. In total this Upanishad has 64 Mantras.
This Upanishad divides all knowledge into two categories. The knowledge that leads to Self Realization is called Para Vidya (Great or Divine Knowledge) and everything else is called Apara Vidya or Knowledge of Material world (wordly knowledge).
Another important feature of this upanishad is its lauding of Sarva Karma Sannyasa or Renouncement of All Action. Thus encourages the opinion that monkhood is good way for attaining self-realization.

In 1st chapter, 2nd section, it has a mantra which describes seven flickering tongues of the fire(light/energy).
Those are Kaali (black one), Karaali (terrific one), Manojava (swift as the mind), Sulohita (the deep red), Sudhumravarna (the smoke-coloured), Sphulligini (sparkling) and the Viswa-Rupi or the Viswaruchi (having all forms).
Whoever performs his Karmas (Agnihotra etc.), when these flames are shining and in proper time, then these oblations lead him through the rays of the sun to where the one lord of the Deva dwells.

The properties described for Manojava are same as for Tachyon, which travels faster than light and its speed is equal to that of human mind.
In modern science, Tachyon, (pron.: /ˈtæki.ɒn/) (term in use since 1967) is a hypothetical faster-than-light particle.
In the 1967 paper that coined the term, Gerald Feinberg proposed that tachyonic particles could be quanta of a quantum field with negative squared mass.

The descriptions of Sulohita is similar to Infra-red rays, of Sudhumravarna is similar to ultra-violet rays, Sphulligini same as nuclear energy and Viswaruchi same as Black Hole in space that can absorb everything.

The art of Navigation was born in the river Sindhu >6000 years ago

The art of Navigation was born in the river Sindhu >6000 years ago. The very word Navigation is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘Navgatih’. The word navy is also derived from Sanskrit ‘Nou’. In those days India had colonies, in Cambodia (Kambuja in Sanskrit) in Java, (Chavakam or Yava dwipa) in Sumatra, in Borneo, Socotra (Sukhadhara) and even in Japan. Indian traders had established settlements in Southern China, in the Malayan Peninsula, in Arabia, in Egypt, in Persia, etc., Through the Persians and Arabs, India had cultivated trade relations with the Roman Empire. Sanskrit and Pali literature has innumerable references to the maritime activity of Indians in ancient times. There is also one treatise in Sanskrit, named Yukti Kalpa Taru which has been compiled by a person called Bhoja Narapati. (The Yukti Kalpa Taru (YKT) had been translated and published by Prof. Aufrecht in his ‘Catalogue of Sanskrit Manu scripts. An excellent study of the YKT had been undertaken by Dr. Radha Kumud Mookerji entitled ‘Indian Shipping’. Published by Orient Longman, Bombay in 1912.) A panel found at Mohenjodaro, depicting a sailing craft. Vessels were of many types Their construction is vividly described in the Yukti Kalpa Taru an ancient Indian text on Ship-building. This treatise gives a technocratic exposition on the technique of shipbuilding. It sets forth minute details about the various types of ships, their sizes, the materials from which they were built. The Yukti Kalpa Taru sums up in a condensed form all the available information The Yukti Kalpa Taru gives sufficient information and date to prove that in ancient times, Indian shipbuilders had a good knowledge of the materials which were used in building ships. Apart from describing the qualities of the different types of wood and their suitability in shipbuilding, the Yukti Kalpa Taru also gives an elaborate classification of ships based on their size. The primary division is into 2 classes viz. Samanya (ordinary) and Vishesha (Special). The ordinary type for sea voyages. Ships that undertook sea voyages were classified into, Dirgha type of ships which had a long and narrow hull and the Unnata type of ships which had a higher hull. The treatise also gives elaborate directions for decorating and furnishing the ships with a view to making them comfortable for passengers. Also mentioned are details about the internal seating and accommodation to be provided on the ships. Three classes of ships are distinguished according to their length and the position of cabins. The ships having cabins extending from one end of the deck to the other are called Sarvamandira vessels. These ships are recommended for the transport of royal treasure and horses. The next are the Madhyamarnandira vessels which have cabins only in the middle part of their deck. these vessels are recommended for pleasure trips. And finally there is a category of Agramandira vessels, these ships were used mainly in warfare. MACCHA-YANTRA – THE ANCIENT INDIAN MARINER’S COMPASS There were Sanskrit terms for many parts of a ship. The ship’s anchor was known as Nava-Bandhan-Kilaha which literally means ‘A Nail to tie up a ship’ . The sail was called Vata Vastra a which means ‘wind-cloth’. The hull was termed StulaBhaga i.e. an’expanded area’. The rudder was called Keni-Pata, Pata means blade; the rudder was also known as Karna which literally means a ‘ear’ and was so called because it used to be a hollow curved blade, as is found today in exhaust fans. The ship’s keel was called Nava-Tala which means ‘bottom of a ship’. The mast was known as Kupadanda, in which danda means a pole. Even a sextant was used for navigation and was called Vruttashanga-Bhaga. But what is more surprising is that even a contrived mariner’s compass was used by Indian navigators nearly 1500 to 2000 years ago. “The early Hindu astrologers are said to have used the magnet, in fixing the North and East, in laying foundations, and other religious ceremonies. The Hindu compass was an iron fish that floated in a vessel of oil and pointed to the North. The fact of this older Hindu compass seems placed beyond doubt by the Sanskrit word Maccha Yantra, or fish machine, which Molesworth gives as a name for the mariner’s compass”. It is significant to note that these are the words of a foreign Naval Architect and Shipbuilding Expert. It is thus quite possible that the Maccha Yantra (fish machine) was transmitted to the west by the Arabs to give us the mariner’s compass of today. Indian shipping has thus had a long and brilliant history covering a period of about five millennia from the very dawn of India’s civilization in the Indus Valley. Both Hindu and Buddhistic texts are thus replete with references to the sea-borne trade of India that directly and indirectly demonstrate the existence of a national shipping and shipbuilding. It was one of the great national key industry of India. Indeed, all the evidence available clearly shows that for full thirty centuries India stood at the very heart of the commercial world, cultivating trade relations successively with the Phoenicians, Jews, Assyrians, Greeks, Egyptians, and Romans in ancient times, and Turks, Venetians, Portuguese, Dutch and English in modern times. There is enough evidence to prove that Indians maintained their maritime activity through out the ancient and mediaeval periods, naturally with variations in its extent and excellence, over such a long period of time. Both Basham and Marxist historians of India have presented untruth, and half truth as truth. Sylvain Levi French art Historian has shown how references in the Ramayana, Mahabharata, Mahaniddesa and Brihat-Katha that the products of Burma and Malaya Peninsula were known to Indian merchants and sailors and also some of its ports such as Suvarnakudya, Suvarnabhumi, Takkolam, Tamlin and Javam from at least first century A.D. (source: Ancient India – By V. D. Mahajan p. 752-753). That Indian traders and settlers repeatedly undertook journeys to Southeast Asia, despite the hazards and perils involved, speaks well for their physical prowess, courage, and determination, even if allowance for the pull of profit is made. Historian K. M. Panikkar, who in his brilliant exposition, India and the Indian Ocean, speaks about the ‘influence of the Indian Ocean on the shaping of Indian history.’ For Panikkar, the geographical ‘imperative’ of the Indian Ocean – and indeed the Himalaya in the North – has conditioned and shaped the history and civilization of this subcontinent. ‘The importance of geographical path on the development of history is only now receiving wide and general recognition,’But recent discovery of 14000+ BC year old city found.Which had a huge Dock and Port.It is a port city .So it Proves Ancient Hindus invented Ships too. Greatest Civilization on this Planent Yest to be Declared has Mother of All Human Civilization. Truth can be hidden But History cannot be changed.All western civilizations are puzzled by the facts emerge one by one every day and every minute. The time will come all human will return to their Mother Religion Real Culture. Jai Sri RAM

Saraswati-Sindhu Culture

Saraswati-Sindhu Civilization

Beautiful article Written by Dr. S. Kalyanaraman

The recent discovery of the courses of ancient River Saraswati_ from the Himalayas to
Gujarat presents a new perspective on indigenous evolution of and the continuing cultural
traditions of India. The earthquake (8.1 on the Richter scale) in Rann of Kutch which
occurred on January 26, 2001 is a reminder of historical tectonic events recorded during
quaternary periods in North-west India, in the region abutting the Deccan and Tibetan
continental plates. The plate formations are parallel to the ancient courses of Rivers
Sindhu and Saraswati. The secular sequence of desiccation of River Saraswati and the
dates of the tectonic events correspond with the carbon-14 dates of the Harappan

The Rigvedacontains a number of references to River Saraswati attesting to
the composition of the hymns mostly on this River Basin. We thus have an
apparent concordance of the locus of Vedic culture and the locus of the Harappan
civilization. (Out of 2,600 archaeological sites of the civilization listed in a Gazetter –
Gregory L. Possehl, 2000, Indus Age: the Beginnings, over 1600 (many of Pre- and
Mature-Harappan periods in the 3rd millennium BCE) are located on the Saraswati_ River
Basin, making the basin the substratum of the Harappan civilization).
The river is the high-way of communication between the Vedic and Harappan cultures.

The Basin is rich in copper resources (Khetri mines of marusthali_ or the Great Indian
Desert in Rajasthan) and together with the mineral resources available in Rann of Kutch
and Saurashtra (Gujarat), and the forest resources of the Punjab and Haryana, the
indigenous evolution of the urban cultures of the civilization can be explained. The
desiccation of River Saraswati_ also explains the internal migrations into the Ganga-
Yamuna doab and towards Saurashtra and southwards to the Godavari valley along the
Sindhu sa_gara (Arabian ocean) as attested by Late and Post-Harappan megalithic
cultural sites of Central and South India. in the 2nd millennium BCE

Wednesday, January 22, 2014


33 Devas

May Varuna with guidance straight,
And Mitra the One-who-knows,
And Aryaman in accord with Aditya,
Guide us forth, like the wind that blows,

As with their Might Evermore
They guard the Sacred Laws,
Shelter may they vouchsafe to us,

Immortal Gods to mortal men..

DEVAS ,in Sanskrit root 'Div' meaning the 'Shining One'.

The effulgent Devas

The derived term 'Deus' or 'Dios' from the same root, is still used to refer to God in modern European languages and even in the translations of the New Testament of Bible. The oldest texts detail 33 principle Devas who were the guardians of Nature and Cosmic Creation. They are:

  • 12 Adityas or Solar gods including Indra, Surya, Mitra and Varun
  • 11 Rudras, the Manifestations of Lord Shiva
  • 8 Vasus or Elemental gods such as Vayu, Agni, Antariksh and Dyaus, the Sky God
  • Prajapati Brahma
  • Shri Hari Vishnu

The ancients especially venerated the Adityas and Vedas are full of hymns dedicated to Indra, Agni, Surya, Varun and the like. The 12 Adityas correspond to the 12 Solar months and represent different attributes of social life. These are:

Ansh (due share),
Aryaman (nobility),
Bhaag (due inheritance),
Dhatri (ritual skill),
Tvashtar (skill in crafting),
Mitra (friendship),
Pushan/Ravi (prosperity),
Savitra/Parjanya (power of word),
Surya/Vivasvan (social law),
Varun (fate),
Vaman (cosmic law).

Indra/Shakra, of course is the eldest and the undoubted leader of other Adityas and has proved his worth on numerous occasions, most famous of his exploits being the slaying of the dragon Vritra.

Indra leads the Adityas

Interestingly, these 12 Adityas were adopted into Chinese and Japanese Buddhism as guardians of the monasteries covering the four main directions, four semi-directions, above, below and the Sun and Moon. They are known as Devas or Ten 天 in Japan (which literally means Heaven or Celestial).

The 12 Japanese Devas

A similar depiction is found on a rock-cut cave far away in Yazili Kaya in Turkey! This rock-cave has multiple depictions of Gods and Goddesses that resemble Hindu gods. The lower chamber in this cave shows a frieze with 12 gods carved onto it who were worshiped by the people known as Hittites.

The 12 Adityas from Turkey

Moving on, the 8 Vasus are attendant deities of Indra and comprise of eight elemental gods that represent the different aspects of Nature. They include:

Anal (Fire),
Anil (Wind),
Apas (Water),
Antariksh/Dyaus (Space),
Dhara (Earth),
Dhruv (Pole Star),
Prabhas (Dawn),
Soma (Moon).

The 11 Rudras are three-eyed manifestations of the Original Rudra and include Lord Shiva, who, along with Prajapati Brahma and Shri Hari Vishnu forms a part of the highest echelons of the hierarchy amongst Gods known as the Trimurti . The respective roles of the Holy Hindu Trinity are:

  • Brahma, the First in this Trinity and is the Creator and Master of all Divine Ceremonies.
  • Shiva, the Cosmic Dancer, Nataraj who through his celestial dance, sustains the endless rhythm of the Universe.
  • Vishnu, the Preserver god who incarnates to help mankind face the challenges posed whenever Evil forces become too dominant in the Universe.

With time, other manifestations of the Supreme Lord appeared and were also incorporated in the group of Devas. Principal amongst these are Ganesh, the elephant-headed son of Lord Shiv and Shakti; and Hanuman, the monkey-god who is the 12th manifestation of Lord Shiva. Others include the twin sons of Surya - Ashwini Kumars and the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu known as the Dashavatar.

Buddhist Cosmology expands the concept of the 33 Devas further and describes a separate Heaven for them called the Tavatimsa, on top of Mount Meru, similar to Mount Olympus of the Greeks in purpose as well as function).

Devas in the Heaven

The father of Indra is Dyaus who is worshiped as Zeus in Greek Mythology, Deus-Pater or Ju-piter in Roman Mythology, and as Ju-daea in Hebrew traditions. In Slavic Mythology, the same name appears as Div and in Norse Mythology as Ziu or Tyr.

Dyaus Pita/Zeus Pater/Jupiter

In fact, a number of gods in Indo-European civilizations have similar names as well as functions. In Norse mythology, Odin is the All-father resembling Dyaus/Zeus. The Greek god Ouranos & Vedic Varun are very similar in nomenclature as well as attributes. Likewise, the Hindu Storm-gods known as Maruts are quite similar to Mars, the Roman God of War.

The Mittanis of middle-east (2000 BCE) worshiped Mitra, Varun, Indra, Tvaṣṭṛ and Nasatya (One of the two Ashvini brothers)! Greeks also worshiped one of the Adityas, Mithras while the Egyptians and Romans were big devotees of another Aditya Surya/Apollo/Re. The rivalry between Devas and their elder brothers Asuras also finds echo in the legends of Titans and their younger brothers Olympians.

Indo-Greek gods

Hindu mythology gives an insight about the principles and thoughts valued by our ancients from the time when they had a COMMON Belief-system. However, a Hindu, with sufficient insight into his religion, will not get swayed by these different manifestations and knows that all these gods are images representing the many facets of One Reality, the Supreme Brahman.

At its core, Hinduism has always believed in One Supreme God Who manifests Himself as many in order to Create, Preserve and ultimately Annihilate the Creation. This Supreme Brahman is beyond concepts and images and this attitude of Inclusiveness provides the characteristic of tolerance to Hinduism.

Devas in the Universal Form of Lord Vishnu