Sunday, April 12, 2020

Ram Setu- a marvel of ancient engineering

More than 1.7 million years old Ram Setu- also called  adam's bridhe was constructed by Ram and other neinderthals ,people call then Vanara,monkeys to bring God Ram's wife from clutches of Ravana. This was pretty wide bridge as there were millions of Vanaras to cross from Rameswaram to Lanka, was several kilometers long .

Was Ram setu built by lord Rama?
According to epic Ramayana, this bridge was built more than 1.75 million years ago to assist lord Rama in crossing the Indian Ocean to reach sri lanka where he fought the war with King Ravana to free her wife ‘sita’ incarcerated by king Ravana.
This bridge made of floating stones can still be seen between India and sri lanka from Rameshwaram, the place where Lord ram prayed to lord Shiva and started the construction of the bridge. Since this story is very old and unproven, many historians, scientists and archaeologists deny accepting this bridge to be built by lord Rama but at the same time they are unable to explain the concept of floating stones found in rameshwaram. There are no proofs of this bridge being built by lord rama but there are many evidences for the same which can be found in the two article listed below:
Rama Sethu-Proof of India great ancient science
Strange floating stones of rameshwaram
Strange fact about these floating stones is that they are found only on the coastal regions of rameshwaram. These stones are similar to any other stone and possess the same features, physical and chemical composition like the stone you may find in your locality. Seeing these stones from a far distance, you may feel that this stone is made of corals but on physical examination, it is found that this is not a coral stone and it has same 40 kind of chemical compositions, like you find in a normal stone

In above video, you can see the floating stones shot by a group of youngsters traveling through rameshwaram
Scientist has been claiming far and wide that the stones of ram setu are actually coral formation.  Nasa scientists even release the photo where they claims the Ram setu underwater bridge to be coral formation. Below is the image release by their space shuttle ‘endevaour’ in February 2000.

In the above image, sri lanka is shown as a giant tear drop falling from the southern tip of Tamil nadu(South Indian state). They claim India and sri lanka to be separated by the 50km wide Palk Strait, along the side of a series of stone coral islets known as Ram setu that almost form a land bridge between the two countries
  G Mohan Das, a historian, priest and caretaker of the stones, said the following words on this stone.
“We believe there is no difference in these stones. Both the stones do not have air in them. The composition is the same and it has 40 kinds of chemicals”.
Coral stones don’t float on water
Even the scientist claim of floating coral stones is not true since coral stones don’t float on water. Corals are marine animals (class Anthozoa, phylum Cnidaria) who typically lives in compact colonies called "polyps". Corals include the reef builder who secretes calcium carbonate to produce a hard Skelton which doesn’t float on water. There is nothing like floating coral in this world because coral is calcium carbonate, and its chemical composition is too dense to float on water. Geologist claims that after years of formation of layers on ocean bed, coral stones are formed within the layer, but when they were asked why these stones were formed only in rameshwaram and nowhere else on other sea bed or ocean bed then they were speechless and called it as the act of nature. However, other geologist disagrees with such views since coral stones doesn’t occur naturally in the sea, they occur only on land/hard surface.

One more false claim of comparing floating stones with pumice
Some archeologist compared this floating stones with pumice which is a kind of volcanic rock which floats on water. But according to me, this comparison is very foolish and juvenile. Pumice is a kind of rock made from water and lava (of volcanoes) and is very lightweight. Such kinds of rocks are usually found near volcanic regions like the recent one in New Zealand. (Check the link below)
Mass of volcanic rocks floating off New Zealand

There is no volcano near rameshwaram nor is there any evidence which claims the existence of volcano in the areas surrounding rameshwaram over the last few millions of years. Also, floating stones of rameshwarm are not light weighted like pumice rocks and doesn’t have the chemical composition similar to pumice rocks. It might be possible that this is some special kind of heavy pumice rocks found only at rameshwaram but if this would have been the case, then it would have been confirmed by indian archealogists. According to visitors, some of the stones do look like pumice but are extremely heavy to be called as pumice. Also, color of the pumice rocks is white or creamish in color but there are many black floating stones in rameshwaram which you can see in the above videos(one shot from train and another one in patna).
Scientific explanation of Ram setu floating stones is wrong
On immersing an object in a liquid, it displaces the liquid to occupy a small volume of space, earlier occupied by the liquid. An object floats on a liquid only when the weight of the liquid displaced by the object is equal or more than the Weight of the object itself. This also means that the amount of object immersed on the water depends upon the relative densities of the object and displaced liquid. For ex: only 90% of the ice floats on water and remaining 10% can be seen floating outside the water.
This is why only stones which are very light weighted or are hollow or have air inside floats on water. Since there are air cavities inside stone, the weight of the water displaced by stone is more than the weight of the stones and hence, it allows the stone to float on top of water.
A nice attempt but I find it extremely difficult to believe. In the below video you see a 15 kg stone floating on water. Any normal stone of that size without any air cavities also weighs 15 kilograms. Also if they believed that there is air cavities inside Ram setu floating stones then why didn’t they went there and broke one of those stones to see if there are any air cavities inside. Moreover, I am not able to digest the fact that the weight of the water, displaced by a 15 kg stone in a small tub, is greater than 15 kg.

Same news can be read in the below article
One more false claim of uniformity in density  On carefully examining one of the stones, one of the emerging scientist (Student) made the following claim about this stones. He said that on immersing the stone into the water, always the same part of the stone stays on the top while the opposite part remains on bottom. This suggest that the stone is not uniformly built and a part of the stone has higher density compared to the opposite part and this is why, even when I throw the stone keeping the more denser part on top, the stones realigns itself and changes it position to float with the less denser part on the top. This situation fits the law of physics which states that stones would always float in a position where its potential energy is minimum. He concluded by saying that the stones don’t have uniform density and has air cavities located near the surface which makes it floats on the water.
One more futile attempt by a scientist, but this was again refuted by Vikasa Swami Maharaj, a devotee of iskcon.  In the below image, Swami immerse a stone weighing about 20-25 pounds from both sides at Rama Kund of Rameswaram temple.  
Both sides of the stones floating on water can also be seen in below video.

Ram setu was built by Lord Rama
Ramasethu is an engineering masterpiece which was made of floating stones. If this stones were coral then sage valmiki must have mentioned it as corals since there is a precise word for corals in Sanskrit. If any sage says it is made of stones then by de facto, it is made of stones. From scientific point of view, I can say that the technology once existed to make stones float on water and the architect like nal and neel were two advanced in building a bridge from India to sri lanka within 5 days with the help of dedicated work force of million Vanaras. Even in valmiki Ramayana, there is a concept of civil engineering in building this bridge. This bridge was not constructed just by throwing stone with lord name but there were many engineering methods used by nal and neel

Below verse says about cutting of trees to construct bridge Valmiki Ramayan, Yuddha kanda, chapter 22, verse 53
te nagaan naga samkaashaaH shaakhaa mR^iga gaNa R^iSabhaaH
babhanjur vaanaraas tatra pracakarSuH ca saagaram | 
Translation Those army-chiefs of monkeys, who resembled mountains, broke the rocks and trees there and dragged them away towards the sea.
Below verse talks about the mechanical device used to carry wood and stones Valmiki Ramayan, Yuddha kanda, chapter 22, verse 58
hastimaatraan mahaakaayaaH paaSaaNaamshca mahaabalaaH
parvataamshca samutpaaTya yantraiH parivahanti ca | 
The huge bodied monkeys with mighty strength uprooted elephant-sized rocks and mountains and transported them by mechanical contrivances.

Check the above video for scientific construction of bridge as depicted in child animated movie ‘Ramayana’
Below verse talks about constructing poles, measuring bridge, same like we use to construct buildings 
Valmiki Ramayan, Yuddha kanda, chapter 22, verse 62 and 63
daNDananye pragR^ihNanti vicinvanti tathaapare ||
vaanaraiH shatashastatra raamasyajJNaapuraHsaraiH |
meghaabhaiH parvataabhashca tR^iNaiH kaaSThairbabandhare ||  
Some monkeys were holding poles for measuring the bridge and some others collected the material. Reeds and logs resembling clouds and mountains, brought by hundreds of monkeys, lead by the command of Rama, fastened some parts of the bridge.

Below verse says about using a string to make sure the rocks are kept on a straight line Valmiki Ramayan, Yuddha kanda, chapter 22, verse 60
samudram kshobhayaamaasurnipatantaH samantataH ||
suutraaNyanye pragR^ihNanti hyaayatam shatayojanam | 
The rocks befalling on all sides perturbed the ocean. Some others drew up strings a hundred Yojanas long.
More such verses can be found in the below link

Thousands of devotees visit rameshwaram daily to see floating stones
Every day, devotees in large numbers from all across the country visit the ancient Rama temple of rameshwaram to worship Lord Rama and to have a glance on the so-called "floating stones". Four to five floating stones, each weighing 10 to 20 kilograms have been kept here since ages and can be seen at this temple even today. Adjacent to this temple is the panchmukha Hanuman Temple where you can find few more floating stones used by 'Nal - Neil ' to build the stone bridge to Sri Lanka
Below is the video (with south Indian background music) which shows a five kg stone immersed on water

A point to note about this city is that India greatest nuclear scientist and Ex President Dr A.P.J.Abdul Kalam hails from Dhanushkodi area of Rameshwaram. In spite of being an Indian Muslim and a scientist, APJ Abdul kalam regards bhagavad gita with high respect and encourage young scientist to research Vedas. This may be because he has seen so much that internally, he also feels the presence the god.

Scientist and government play politics
Nature is the biggest magical engineer. Our mind is very limited in understanding the beauty and laws of nature (God). Many scientists are of the idea that if all people start believing in god then their theories and discoveries will not be held in high regard as the people will treat their discoveries as the act of god. Hence, many scientists try to make scientific claims behind every event because they believe whole foundation of science will be demolished if all people start believing in god.
When the lord can create whole planets with oceans and mountain to float in space, then why can’t stones float on water? Scientist can only give you an explanation on how things happen but not why things happen or why it was created that way.
Even when scientist are finding it very difficult to explain the mystery behind floating stones of Ram setu unfortunately, without any research, our Indian government in their initiative of constructing setu samundram bridge, said it very easily that there is no evidences of ram setu being built by lord rama.
Above image shows the evidences of lord ram. First two are the floating stones of lord Ram Bridge, exactly as mentioned in Ramayana. Third image shows the portion of floating stone bridge and the last one show the satellite image of the bridge connecting India and sri lanka.
Unfortunately, we believe in scientific theories like evolution even when there is no solid evidence to prove evolution and at the same time, very easily, we discard our religious theories like reincarnation & karma by terming it as a mythology. 
Conclusion Being a secular country, our constitution doesn’t allow government school to teach ancient religious scriptures. Luckily, I read and learned about Mahabharata and Ramayana at my house and I am very glad that I did so.
Everything is the creation of nature (God). There is an immediate cause and ultimate cause for each action. Whether these stones float due to air cavities or varying density, it just reveals the greatness of God. Scientist can only make assumptions but cannot perceive this vast creation through their mundane mind because this materialistic creation is beyond any logic and explanation. Only those who meditate and concentrate their mind & senses on the divine soul can realize the supreme and absolute truth. In my next article, we will see the conspiracy behind the destruction of Ram setu.  


Note: Images used on this website are either a production of Bhaktivedanta Book Trust(, Iskcon Foundation or were found in google search under "Free to use and share". If any of the images presented here violates copyright issues or infringes anyone copyright or are not under "Fair use", then please bring it to our notice. 

Science in Hinduism


The Vedas have indefinite knowledge and depth of knowledge about science. When we talk of gravity what comes to our mind. Certainly newton, because that is what is being taught in schools today. But if we go one step down and ask how newton discovered force of gravity. Then one would say, through rigorous experimentation. Similarly, Vedas consist of real life information perceived by Rishis (sages) after intense penance, spiritual austerities and meditation. In order to realize the supreme truth, one needs to practice the concepts mentioned in the Vedas and recommended by great souls like dayanand saraswati, Vivekananda etc.

Let us see some of the verses before we proceed further
Rigveda 8.12.28
As planets come closer to sun due to attraction, their speed of coming closer increases proportionately -
The above verse was later proved by kepler and is known today as Kepler law or conservation of angular momentum

Rig Veda 8.12.28“O Indra! By putting forth your mighty rays, which possess the qualities of gravitation and attraction-illumination and motion - keep up the entire universe in order through the Power of your attraction.”
Rig Veda 5. 45. 9 
Seven horses draw the chariot of Surya".

Lod surya(Sun) on his seven divine horses 

Rig Veda 1.6.5, Rig Veda 8.12.30“O God, You have created this Sun. You possess infinite power. You are upholding the sun and other spheres and render them steadfast by your power of attraction.

Rig Veda 1.35.9“The sun moves in its own orbit but holding earth and other heavenly bodies in a manner that they do not collide with each other through force of attraction.

Rig Veda 1.164.13

“Sun moves in its orbit which itself is moving. Earth and other bodies move around sun due to force of attraction, because sun is heavier than them.

Yajur Veda 33.43“The sun moves in its own orbit in space taking along with itself the mortal bodies like earth through force of attraction.”
Atharva Veda 4.11.1“The sun has held the earth and other planets”
Above verses are self-explanatory. Now let us see verses from some other texts in details.
On seeing a fruit falling down from a tree, Newton derived the notion of gravitational force.  However, millenniums before the birth of Newton, Indian spiritual sages recorded the concept of gravitational force in various ancient texts. For example, In Surya Siddhartha (written around 400 AD), Bhaskaracharya stated that
"Objects fall on the earth due to one force. The Earth, planets, constellations, moon and sun are held in orbit because of that one force".
Statue of bhaskaracharya at patnadevi (Birth place)

According to Indian spiritual gurus, all knowledge is pre-existing, and needs to be "recovered" rather than "discovered", by researching Vedas and similar ancient indian texts.

The words gravity and gravitational force in sanskrit is called as “GURUTVA AKAARSHANA SHAKTI”. ‘Gurutva’ meaning ‘mass’ and ‘Akaarshana’ means ‘attractive pull’. 

The Taittiriya branch of Krishna Yajurveda says -

The above verse says sun is holding the earth and other planets in space. kristheeh Means attraction. So, above verse says sun has power of attraction (kristheeh) and shines without interruption. (Which means sun is shining even at night).
Saying that the sun attracts earth implies that the earth is also an onject with different type of repulsive force (Gravitational force). Otherwise, if sun had attractive force and earth doesn’t have any force of its own, then they would have collided long back.
This same idea is also reflected in verse of Varahamihira (6th  century AD) 
Above verse means earth is like a sphere made up of the five basic elements, and is placed
At the middle of a cage, this cage is made up of the galaxies and stars and hence, earth is dangling in the sky, like an iron ball in the middle of a cage of magnetic balls.
Above verse also says that earth was not made only of earth. Instead it had five basic elements like fire, soil, water etc.  Bhaskaraacharya (12th  century AD) rediscovered this concept in his work “Goladhyaya”.

Above verse means “Without any support, Earth is hanging in the space through his
own internal energy (shakti), because of which the whole solar system rotates in
specified orbits, while creatures  like demons, humans, animals etc rests on her surface.
Notice the five basic elements in the above verse which combiningly forms the earth
Five elements of earth

In above verse, it is said that earth is hanging in space because of her own energy.  So, what is this energy? Bhaskaracharya answers in the subsequent verse


Above verse translates as “Ball of earth has energy of aakrushti shakti meaning “attraction”. Because of this attractive force, the earth pulls eveything towards her (svastham) and this power is her own and natural. Due to this attractive false, all objects dropped on earth appears to be falling down.”

  Bhaskara concludes his topic by answering the question, “Is earth falling down in space?”
By answering this question, he was actually referring to a group of western scholars who proposed that earth must be falling down at a great speed since objects thrown in space falls down in varying speed as per their size and earth itself is a very heavy object.

To counter these arguments, Bhaskaracharya started with the assumption that heavier object falls with greater speed than lighter object. Let us now suppose an arrow is shot up, it goes to a certain distance and then its starts falling down. The arrow started falling down, and since the earth itself is traveling down, arrow should never fall back to the earth surface since the earth is mighty compared to arrow and is falling down at a heavier speed than a light weighted arrow. But it is not so. Hence, bhaskacharya suggested everyone to accept earth is not falling down.
Today, this concept is well known by the formulae 
Bhaskaracharya gave one more argument to prove his theory. He said that for a person standing on the northern hemisphere, word ‘downward’ means a direction from head to feet.  At the same moment, a person standing on the southern hemisphere feels the same but it is actually in the opposite direction.  Now, if the earth is falling down, then which way it is falling, from the northern hemisphere side or the southern hemisphere?  So, it is worthless to say that earth is falling down.
Bhaskara also gave a third technical argument. Suppose the sun is in the star “Bharani”. On such a date, at the time of sunset, the face of the Dhruva fish (fish shaped group of stars around dhruva the pole star) moves to the western direction.  The next morning when the Sun rises in the east, the face of Dhruva fish turns to the eastern side.  This can be clearly observed by anybody. If the earth is falling down, the same Sun, who was on the western end of the Dhruva fish yesterday, cannot appear on the eastern end of the same fish in a gap of 12 hours. If that is the case, we may have to agree that there are two Suns, which is absurd.  So, Bhaskara concluded that it cannot be said that the earth is falling down. 

Objects are falling down because of the attractive force of earth. Referring to this idea, Aryabhatta(5th   century AD) said that livings beings in different location are not scattered away into the space because of the attractive force of earth. 

In this verse, Aryabhatta used flower as synonyms of this universe objects.
Above verse translates as “Each flower is a cluster of co-centric smaller flowers, all of which put together make a ball like single flower. The smaller flowers of the Kadamba flower are tied to the center of the cluster, all the water living, the surface living and the sky living creatures are tied to the center of the earth.  ”
Indian scriptures also say that not all objects falls on earth.

This verse states that one should not say that every object in this earth falls down. In fact, every element of this Universe has a quality of attracting other objects of its own class, and repelling those of other classes. Sage Valmiki (who wrote Ramayana) takes the example of the falling fruit.
Scientific formula for attractive force

Sage Valmiki says that, since the fruit is a smaller part of the earth, it is attracted by the earth and hence it travels towards earth. It is neither going down nor up. It is going towards earth. Take a ball, which is hanged in the space by the help of a small thread.  Now suppose some ants walk all around the ball in a zigzag way. Now, how will you determine the downward direction for these ants? Every ant says that his legs are in the downward direction and his back is towards the upper direction. All ants are right even those who are in the downward direction relative to earth but upward direction relative to ball. So, there is nothing like a downward or upward direction.
There is only a travel of an object towards another object of its own class.

Interestingly the same example is repeated in Surya Siddhanta.  
Above verse questions that if every element of panchabhutas has a quality of repelling the other bhutas, how is it that water, air and fire are also available on the surface of the earth itself. He says that the other elements on the earth are studded in her, just like a few gems in a big golden bangle. The panchabhutas available to us are not pure ones. They are intermixed by a process called “panchikarana.”  Hence, every particle in this Universe has a few traces of other elements also with in itself. Hence, the earth cannot totally repel other elements living on her surface.
That is why they stay there, just like studded stones in a bangle.  If it were a piece of her own category, that would not have remained like a stone in a bangle, but it would have been totally absorbed in the earth in due course. That means, the power of attraction between two atoms of the same category is maximum

Attractive and repulsive force

This statement straightaway reminds us about the most recent EPR paradox, established by Einstein and subsequently development by Dr. Bell. According to Bell’s theorem, it was proved experimentally that two atoms of the same category, separated by seven to eight lakh miles, behave as if they are inter connected. They have termed this connection as “superluminal”. 
It is very clear that Valmiki’s understandings of the principle of gravity are subtler and more logical than that of the medieval Vedic scientists (Sages).

According to modern concept of cosmos, no celestial body is static in space. Each and
Every celestial body is rotating about itself and also about another heavier one, nearby. 
The earth does so about sun.  Likewise, the sun also is revolving about a celestial body
named by scientists as “SERIUS” .  As such, the entire solar system is to be considered as
Rotating about that ‘Serius’.   That being so, the locus of Earth in space, or of any other member of the solar system, cannot be considered as a simple ellipse (which is a closed conic).  It may, for the time being, be assumed to be an Elliptical spiral.  The statement that the orbit of Earth is
elliptic is only relative and limited to the solar system - only under the assumption that
the Sun is static - which is not a reality.  
That being so, we have come, in some other path, near to the concept of earth’s falling

Thus, we saw the concepts of gravitational force and repulsive force between objects in deep and I hope you liked this depth explanation.

So, before I end, Let us pray to the supreme god for his divine creation by embracing the below image which shows the magnificence of sun rays and how sun makes objects look extremely beautiful.
Jai shree krishna

Note: Images used on this website are either a production of Bhaktivedanta Book Trust(, Iskcon Foundation or were found in google search under "Free to use and share". If any of the images presented here violates copyright issues or infringes anyone copyright or are not under "Fair use", then please bring it to our notice. 

Monday, December 9, 2019

मुरुदेश्वर, कर्नाटक, Murudeswar, Karnatka, India- Highest Shiva in world

मुरुदेश्वर, कर्नाटक
मुरुदेश्वर मंदिर-
कर्नाटक में मेंगलोर की भटकल तहसील में यह मंदिर अरब सागर के बहुत ही सुन्दर एवं शांत तट के किनारे बना हुआ है. मुरुदेश्वर बीच [समुद्र तट] यहां के सब से सुन्दर तटों में से एक है।पर्यटकों के लिए यहाँ आना दोहरा लाभ देता है एक और इस धार्मिक स्थल के दर्शन और दूसरी तरफ प्राकृतिक सुन्दरता का नज़ारा भी हो जाता है.

कन्दुका पहाड़ी पर ,तीन ओर से पानी से घिरा यह मुरुदेश्वर मंदिर भगवान शिव को समर्पित है.यहाँ भगवान शिव का आत्म लिंग स्थापित है.जिस की कथा रामायण काल की है।.अमरता पाने हेतु रावण जब शिव जी को प्रसन्न करके उनका आत्मलिंग अपने साथ लंका ले जा रहा था.तब रास्ते में इस स्थान पर आत्मलिंग धरती पर रख दिए जाने के कारण स्थापित हो गया था.गुस्से में रावण ने इसे नष्ट करने का प्रयास किया था।

दक्षिण में मंदिर के प्रवेश द्वार को गोपुरा कहा जाता है.'राजा गोपुरा '/राज गोपुरम विश्व में सब से ऊँचा गोपुरा माना जाता है.यह २४९ फीट ऊँचा है.इसे वहीँ के एक व्यवसायी आर.एन शेट्टी ने बनवाया था .द्वार पर दोनों तरफ सजीव हाथी के बराबर ऊँची हाथी की मूर्तियाँ देखी जा सकती हैं.।

मुरुदेश्वर, कर्नाटक
भगवान शिव के मंदिर पूरी दुनिया में बने हुए हैं। भगवान शिव के कई ऐसे मंदिर हैं, जिनका संबंध पौराणिक समय से जुड़ा हुआ है। आज हम आपको भगवान शिव के एक ऐसे ही मंदिर के बारे में बताने जा रहे हैं, जिसका संबंध रामायण काल से है।
कर्नाटक राज्य में उत्तर कन्नड़ जिला है, इस जिले की भटकल तहसील में ही मुरुदेश्वर मंदिर है। यह मंदिर अरब सागर के तट पर बना हुआ है। समुद्र तट होने की वजह से यहां का प्राकृतिक वातावरण हर किसी का मन मोह लेता है। बेहद सुंदर होने के साथ-साख यह शिव मंदिर बहुत ही खास भी है, क्योंकि इस मंदिर के परिसर में भगवान शिव की एक विशाल मूर्ति स्थापित हैं। वह मूर्ति इतनी बड़ी और आकर्षक है कि उसे दुनिया की दूसरी सबसे विशाल शिव प्रतिमा माना जाता हैं
Image may contain: night

Saturday, November 30, 2019



Airavateshwara Mandir is 85 feet high vastu architecture, carved like huge vimana encased in a Lotus. Here Airavat, the four tusked white elephant of Indra prayed to Mahadev and Shiv resides here in Airavateswara form.

Entire mandir is carved with various hindu devas like Ardhnarishwar, Nagaraj, Surya, Ganga, Mohini etc and many stories of Indian history. Carving also includes types of Nrtya (dance forms like Bharat Natyam), rasa dances, gymnasium, extra ordinary musical steps, rishis, kings etc.

Musical step is one of the wonder of Chola dynasty who did that almost a thousand years ago. It is also said that temple goes back to many thousands years, Chola dynasty did many additions and maintenance time to time. To protect the musical steps, it was later grilled. The step show extra ordinary mastery of ancient indians on various musical notes and various material which could produce such musical sounds. It's one of the highest form of science in rock melting technology.

One can hear all the seven Swaras at different points at the agrr mandapa of the mandir which has an attached square porch of 7 metres (23 ft) side. It has ornately carved musical steps that go from east to west. On its east, outside the main podium, is the bali-pitham. It is unusual, in that it is produced as intricately carved balustraded steps. When one walks or steps on them, they produce a musical note. They are therefore called the #singingsteps.

#Darasuram is 5-6 kms from Kumbakonam in Tamil Nadu. It is said King Raja Raja II constructed this architectural and sculptural marvel temple in his name called Raja Rajishwaram (at present Airavatesvara) in 1160 in two decades. #Palaiyarai is ancient temple city and the Capital of the Cholas.  King Raja Kambeera Mamannan, Raja Raja Chola II (1146 A.D. to 1172 A.D) changed his capital from Gangaikonda Cholapuram to Palaiyarai and renamed it as Raja Raja Puram (at present it is Darasuram).
There were 1000 #Thaligai (temples/mandirs) in Palaiyarai .There were 4 padai veedus (Military Camps) on all the four directions of the Capital. Thalicherippendirgal were appointed by the king to develop fine arts especially music and dance in the mandir during festival occasions.  It is a world heritage monument protected by UNESCO. This temple is very different as it is highly ornate in execution to the micro level. The temple consists of a sanctum without a circumambulatory path and axial mandapas. The front mandapa known in the inscriptions as Rajagambhiran tirumandapam is unique as it was conceptualized as a chariot with wheels. The pillars of this mandapa are highly ornate. The elevation of all the units is elegant with sculptures dominating the architecture. The labeled miniature friezes extolling the events that happened to the 63 #nayanmars (Saiva saints) are noteworthy and reflect the deep roots of Saivism in this region.

The ancient Sri Sthanumalayan temple in Suchindram in Kanyakumari district, the Meenakshi Sundareshwarar temple in Madurai, theAiravateshwara temple of Darasuram, and Adhinathar temple at Alwartirunagari are among the temples in Tamil Nadu that have fascinating musical stones which produce sapta swaras when tapped.

The #ShilpaShastra clearly classifies the stones and the type that ought to be used for temple architecture.

Stones, according to the Shilpa Shastra, are masculine, feminine and neuter depending on their sound and colour. #Male stone produce the tinkle of bronze bells when tapped while #female stones produce the tinkle of bass. The #neuter produces a dull sound.
Male stone is used to carve deities of Lord, while female stone is meant for making images of Goddess and neuter stone is used for the pedestal or in making ornaments as per N. Bhaskaran, a temple architect and student of Ganapathy Sthapahi, the renowned traditional architect who made the 133-feet Thiruvalluvar statue in Kanyakumari and the Valluvar Kottam.

The Shilpis displayed a remarkable skill and ingenuity in crafting “musical” pillars, which when struck at right spot produce mellifluous octaves. Though it may be difficult to identify the source of such stones, these musical pillars are of granite and charnockites. They come in different girths and volumes to produce the right octaves. Unlike the modern architecture, the ancient temples are geometrically, scientifically, and symbolically built alligned with astronomical calculations and spiritual body sciences.

Saturday, March 9, 2019

ये हैं सूर्य देव (आदित्य) के 12 स्वरूप, जानिए इनके नाम और काम :-

हिंदू धर्म में प्रमुख रूप से 5 देवता माने गए हैं। सूर्यदेव उनमें से एक हैं। भविष्यपुराण में सूर्यदेव को ही परब्रह्म यानी जगत की सृष्टि, पालन और संहार शक्तियों का स्वामी माना गया है। भगवान सूर्य जिन्हें आदित्य के नाम से भी जाना जाता है, के 12 स्वरूप माने जाते है, जिनके द्वारा ये उपरोक्त तीनो काम सम्पूर्ण करते है।आइए जानते है क्या है इन 12 स्वरूप के नाम और क्या है इनका काम।

इन्द्र (Indra)
भगवान सूर्य (आदित्य) के प्रथम स्वरुप का नाम इंद्र है। यह देवाधिपति इन्द्र को दर्शाता है। इनकी शक्ति असीम हैं। दैत्य और दानव रूप दुष्ट शक्तियों का नाश और देवों की रक्षा का भार इन्हीं पर है।

धाता (Dhata)
भगवान सूर्य (आदित्य) के दूसरे स्वरुप का नाम धाता है। जिन्हें श्री विग्रह के रूप में जाना जाता है। यह प्रजापति के रूप में जाने जाते हैं जन समुदाय की सृष्टि में इन्हीं का योगदान है, सामाजिक नियमों का पालन ध्यान इनका कर्तव्य रहता है। इन्हें सृष्टि कर्ता भी कहा जाता है।

पर्जन्य (Parjanya)
भगवान सूर्य (आदित्य) के तीसरे स्वरुप का नाम पर्जन्य है। यह मेघों में निवास करते हैं। इनका मेघों पर नियंत्रण हैं। वर्षा करना इनका काम है।

त्वष्टा (Twashtha)
भगवान सूर्य (आदित्य) के चौथे स्वरुप का नाम त्वष्टा है। इनका निवास स्थान वनस्पति में हैं पेड़ पोधों में यही व्याप्त हैं औषधियों में निवास करने वाले हैं। अपने तेज से प्रकृति की वनस्पति में तेज व्याप्त है जिसके द्वारा जीवन को आधार प्राप्त होता है।

पूषा (Pusha)
भगवान सूर्य (आदित्य) के पांचवे स्वरुप का नाम पूषा है। जिनका निवास अन्न में होता है। समस्त प्रकार के धान्यों में यह विराजमान हैं। इन्हीं के द्वारा अन्न में पौष्टिकता एवं उर्जा आती है। अनाज में जो भी स्वाद और रस मौजूद होता है वह इन्हीं के तेज से आता है।

अर्यमा (Aryama)
भगवान सूर्य (आदित्य) के छठवे स्वरुप का नाम अर्यमा है। यह वायु रूप में प्राणशक्ति का संचार करते हैं। चराचर जगत की जीवन शक्ति हैं। प्रकृति की आत्मा रूप में निवास करते हैं।

भग (Bhag)
भगवान सूर्य (आदित्य) के सातवें स्वरुप का नाम भग है। प्राणियों की देह में अंग रूप में विध्यमान हैं यह भग देव शरीर में चेतना, उर्जा शक्ति, काम शक्ति तथा जीवंतता की अभिव्यक्ति करते हैं।

विवस्वान (Vivswana)
भगवान सूर्य (आदित्य) के आठवें स्वरुप का नाम विवस्वान है। यह अग्नि देव हैं। कृषि और फलों का पाचन, प्राणियों द्वारा खाए गए भोजन का पाचन इसी अगिन द्वारा होता है।

विष्णु (Vishnu)
भगवान सूर्य (आदित्य) के नववें स्वरुप का नाम विष्णु है। यह संसार के समस्त कष्टों से मुक्ति कराने वाले हैं।

अंशुमान (Anshumaan)
भगवान सूर्य (आदित्य) के दसवें स्वरुप का नाम अंशुमान है। वायु रूप में जो प्राण तत्व बनकर देह में विराजमान है वहीं दसवें आदित्य अंशुमान हैं। इन्हीं से जीवन सजग और तेज पूर्ण रहता है।

वरूण (Varuna)
भगवान सूर्य (आदित्य) के ग्यारहवें स्वरुप का नाम वरूण है। वरूण देवजल तत्व का प्रतीक हैं। यह समस्त प्रकृत्ति में के जीवन का आधार हैं। जल के अभाव में जीवन की कल्पना भी नहीं कि जा सकती है।

मित्र (Mitra)
भगवान सूर्य (आदित्य) के बारहवें स्वरुप का नाम मित्र है। विश्व के कल्याण हेतु तपस्या करने वाले, ब्रह्माण का कल्याण करने की क्षमता रखने वाले मित्र देवता हैं।

Sunday, November 4, 2018

Varahamihir, who predicted water in Mars

Even thousands of years before, India had become famous and reached its pinnacle in astrological and astronomical sciences. Ancient Astrological works had been translated into many foreign languages. Ibn Batuta and Al Baruni were two prominent Arab travelers who had visited ancient India specially to pursue Astrology. By their translations, they had induced German scholars to come to India to study Astrology and Vedic literature. Varahamihira was one of the only renowned Indian Astronomer, Mathematician and Astrologer whose name became a household word throughout India and it is said his near contemporaries Aryabhata and Brahmagupta even did not match with the popularity of Varahamihira.
Varahamihira was born in 505 A.D. into a family of Brahmins settled at Kapittha, a village near Ujjain. His father, Adityadasa was a worshipper of the Sun god and it was he who taught Varahamihira astrology. On a visit to Kusumapura (Patna) young Varahamihira met the great astronomer and mathematician, Aryabhata. The meeting inspired him so much the he decided to take up astrology and astronomy as a lifetime pursuit.
At that time, Ujjain was the center of learning, where many schools of arts, science and culture were flourishing in the prosperity of the Gupta reign. Varahamihira, therefore, shifted to this city, where scholars from distant lands were gathering. In due course, his astrological skills came to the notice of King Yashodharman Vikramaditya of Malwa, who made him one of the Nine Gems of his court.
Varahamihira was learned in the Vedas, but he was not a blind believer in the supernatural. He was a scientist. Like Aryabhata before him, he declared that the earth was spherical.
In the history of science, he was the first to claim that some “force” might be keeping bodies stuck to the round earth. The force is now called gravity. He proposed that the Moon and planets are lustrous not because of their own light but due to sunlight.
Varahamihira’s main work is the book Pancha Siddhantika (Treatise on the five Astronomical Canons gives us information about older Indian texts which are now lost). The work it seems is a treatise on mathematical astronomy and it summarises five earlier astronomical treatises, namely, the Surya Siddhanta, Romaka Siddhanta, Paulisa Siddhanta, Vasishtha Siddhanta, and Paitama Siddhanta.
It is acclaimed that Pancha Siddhantika of Varahamihira is one of the most important sources for the history of Hindu Astronomy from before the time of Aryabhata.
Another important contribution of Varahamihira is the encyclopedic Brihat-Samhita. It covers wide-ranging subjects of human interest, including astrology, planetary movements, eclipses, rainfall, rainfall, clouds even domestic relations, gems, pearls, and rituals.
Varahamihira in 550 AD has described a large number of comets in the Brhat Samhita. He wrote over sixty couplets about comets. He did not have the modern facilities like Telescope or other electronic equipment. He says that sages Garga, Parasara, Asita, Devala and others had already written about the comets.
He was also an astrologer and has written on all the three branches of astrology. His son Prithuyasas has also contributed in the Hindu astrology through his work, Hora Sara.
Varahamihira’s mathematical work included the discovery of the trigonometric formulas. He improved the accuracy of the sine tables of Aryabhata l. He defined the algebraic properties of zero as well as of negative numbers. Furthermore, He was among the first mathematicians to discover a version of what is now known as the Pascal’s triangle. He used it to calculate the binomial coefficients.
Varahamihira made some significant observations in the field of ecology, hydrology and geology too. He was the first person who predicted underground water. His claim that plants and termites serve as indicators of underground water is now receiving attention in the scientific world.
Varahamihira, without any scientific equipment, derived the true value of equinox. This value is very important for the modern-day Geostationary Satellites.

Surya Siddhanta & description on planet Mars:

  • Pancha siddhantika includes Surya Siddhanta, an astronomical treatise which explains or determines the true motions of the luminaries. Under this work, Varahamihira has also explained the estimated diameters of the planets, like Mercury, Venus, Mars, Saturn and Jupiter.
  • The book gave the locations of several stars other than the lunar nakshatras (constellations) and the calculation of solar eclipses. The book also had a significant coverage on kinds of time, the length of the year of gods and demons, day and night of god Brahma, the elapsed period since creation, how planets move eastwards and sidereal revolution.
  • Surya Siddhanta mentioned the Mars’s diameter (which was calculated to be 3,772 miles that has an error within 11% of the currently accepted diameter of 4,218 miles), circumference and also carries calculations on and about solar eclipses and lunar eclipses, its color and portion of the moon as well.
  • Apart from these, Varahamihira also predicted the presence of water on Mars. The book had a detailed description of planet Mars. He had said in his book that planet Mars has both water and iron present on its surface, which have now been revealed by NASA and ISRO.
  • He was the first to mention and explain how each planet in the solar system has been created by and centered on the sun.
It’s intriguing to know that during NASA’s Mars mission, Arun Upadhyay, a retired IPS, did a comparative study of Varāhamihira’s calculations about Mars and found certain similarities.
Though the original book of Surya Siddhanta till date remains untraced, but somehow a few scholars had taken their notes for their own research work. Many fear that the original version was stolen by the other astronomers from overseas. The present version of Surya Siddhanta, which is often used by Panchang experts to predict festive dates and nakshatras, was modified by Bhaskaracharya during the Middle Ages.
It is learnt, Varahamihira humbly said about his own treatises: “The science of Astrology is a vast ocean and is not easy for everyone to cross it. My treatises provide a safe boat.”  Truly, even now they are acknowledged as masterpieces.

Bhaskaracharya discoveres Infinity

Bhaskaracharya discoveres Infinity .....
Bhaskara was the first to introduce the concept of Infinity: If any finite number is divided by zero, the result is infinity
Bhaskaracharya, the greatest Mathematician who introduced concept of ‘Infinity’Bhaskaracharya (Bhāskara the teacher) was an Bharatiya mathematician and astronomer of 12th century AD.
He is refered as Bhāskara II to avoid confusion with Bhāskara I (of 7th century AD). He was born near Vijjadavida (Bijapur in modern Karnataka) and lived between 1114-1185 AD. Bhaskaracharya (Bhaskara II)He represented the peaks of mathematical knowledge in the 12th century and was the head of the astronomical observatory at Ujjain, the leading mathematical centre of ancient India.
#Bhaskara II’s family belonged to Deshastha Brahmin community, which served as court scholars at Kings forts. He learned Mathematics from his father Maheswara, an astrologer. He imparted his knowledge of mathematics to his son Lokasamudra, whose son had started a school to study the works of his grand father in 1207 AD.
His main work Siddhānta Shiromani, (Sanskrit for “Crown of treatises,“) is divided into four parts called Lilāvati(beautiful woman, named after his daughter Lilavati), Bijaganita, Grahaganita (mathematics of planets) and Golādhyāya (study of sphere/earth). These four sections deal with arithmetic, algebra, mathematics of the planets, and spheres respectively. He also wrote another treatise named Karna Kautoohala. Bhāskara’s work on calculus predates Newton and Leibniz by over half a millennium. He is particularly known in the discovery of the principles of differential calculus and its application to astronomical problems and computations.
While Newton and Leibniz have been credited with differential and integral calculus, there is strong evidence to suggest that Bhāskara was a pioneer in some of the principles of differential calculus. He was perhaps the first to conceive the differential coefficient and differential calculus.
Lilavati (meaning a beautiful woman) is based on Arithmetic. It is believed that Bhaskara named this book after his daughter Lilavati. Many of the problems in this book are addressed to his daughter. For example, “Oh Lilavati, intelligent girl, if you understand addition & subtraction, tell me the sum of the amounts 2, 5, 32, 193, 18, 10 & 100, as well as [the remainder of] those when subtracted from 10000.” The book contains thirteen chapters, mainly definitions, arithmetical terms, interest computation, arithmetical & geometric progressions. Many of the methods in the book on computing numbers such as multiplications, squares & progressions were based on common objects like kings & elephants, which a common man could understand. #Bijaganita is on #Algebra & contains 12 chapters.
“A positive number has two square-roots (a negative root & a positive root)“. This was published in this text for the very first time.
It contains concepts of positive & negative numbers, zero, the ‘unknown‘ (includes determining unknown quantities), surds, simple equations & quadratic equations.
Bhaskara was the first to introduce the concept of Infinity: If any finite number is divided by zero, the result is infinity. Also the fact that if any finite number is added to infinity then the sum is infinity. He developed a proof of the Pythogorean theorem by calculating thesame area in two different ways & then cancelling out two terms to get a2 + b2 = c2.
He is also known for his calculation of the time required (365.2588 days) by the Earth to orbit the Sun which differs from the modern day calculation of 365.2563 days, by just 3.5 minutes! The law of Gravitation had been proved by Bhaskara 500 years before it was rediscovered by #Newton.
Bhaskaracharya’s contributions to mathematics are very important, and a great pride for Indian, and a great gift to the world and civilization.
Herbert John

GRAVITATIONAL FORCE and Eclipse in Vedas

Rig Veda 8.12.28
“O Indra! by putting forth your mighty rays, which possess the qualities of gravitation and attraction-illumination and motion – keep up the entire universe in order through the Power of your attraction.”
Rig Veda 1.6.5, Rig Veda 8.12.30
“O God, You have created this Sun. You possess infinite power. You are upholding the sun and other spheres and render them steadfast by your power of attraction.
Yajur Veda 33.43
“The sun moves in its own orbit in space taking along with itself the mortal bodies like earth through force of attraction.”
Rig Veda 1.35.9
“The sun moves in its own orbit but holding earth and other heavenly bodies in a manner that they do not collide with each other through force of attraction.
Rig Veda 1.164.13
“Sun moves in its orbit which itself is moving. Earth and other bodies move around sun due to force of attraction, because sun is heavier than them.
Atharva Veda 4.11.1
“The sun has held the earth and other planets”
Rig Veda 5.40.5
“O Sun! When you are blocked by the one whom you gifted your own light (moon), then earth gets scared by sudden darkness.”

Rig Veda 10.149.1
“The sun has tied Earth and other planets through attraction and moves them around itself as if a trainer moves newly trained horses around itself holding their reins.”

In this mantra,
Savita = Sun
Yantraih = through reins
Prithiveem = Earth
Aramnaat = Ties
Dyaam Andahat = Other planets in sky as well
Atoorte = Unbreakable
Baddham = Holds
Ashwam Iv Adhukshat = Like horses
Rig Veda 10.22.14
“This earth is devoid of hands and legs, yet it moves ahead. All the objects over the earth also move with it. It moves around the sun.
In this mantra,
Kshaa = Earth (refer Nigantu 1.1)
Ahastaa = without hands
Apadee = without legs
Vardhat = moves ahead
Shushnam Pari = Around the sun
Pradakshinit = revolves