Friday, January 10, 2014

Stages of Creation of Material Universe ~ Structure of the Universe

“There is a systematic schedule for the perpetual manifestation, maintenance and annihilation of the material world, as stated in Bhagavad-gītā (9.8): bhūta-grāmam imaṁ kṛtsnam avaśaṁ prakṛter vaśāt. As it is created now and as it will be destroyed later on, so also it existed in the past and again will be created, maintained and destroyed in due course of time. Therefore, the systematic activities of the time factor are perpetual and eternal and cannot be stated to be false. The manifestation is temporary and occasional, but it is not false as claimed by the Māyāvādī philosophers.
The material world is called illusory because it is a place of forgetfulness of the transcendental service of the Lord. Thus one engaged in the Lord’s devotional service in the material world may sometimes be very much disturbed by awkward circumstances. There is a declaration of war between the two parties, the illusory energy and the devotee, and sometimes the weak devotees fall victim to the onslaught of the powerful illusory energy. Lord Brahmā, however, was sufficiently strong, by the causeless mercy of the Lord, and he could not be victimized by the material energy, although it gave him cause for anxiety when it managed to totter the existence of his position.
The seeds of all the planets in the universe were impregnated in the lotus on which Brahmā was situated. All the planets were already generated by the Lord, and all the living entities were also born in Brahmā. The material world and the living entities were all already generated in seedling forms by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and Brahmā was to disseminate the same seedlings all over the universe. The real creation is therefore called sarga, and, later on, the manifestation by Brahmā is called visarga.” [From the Puports by Srila Prabhupada]
Summarized from Śrīmad bhāgavatam 3.10 Divisions of the Creation
First creation: Mahat-tattva – sum total of material ingredients which modes interact due to the presence of the Lord
Second creation: False ego – material ingredients, material knowledge and material activities arise
Third creation: Sense perceptions – elements are generated
Fourth creation: Creation of knowledge and working capacity
Fifth creation: Controlling deities (demigods) – created by interaction of the mode of goodness; mind is the sum total of goodness
Sixth creation: Ignorant darkness of the living entity – master acts like a fool; forgetfullness of the relationship with the Supreme Lord; 5 kinds of illusion that cause material bondage: attachment, hatred, pride, ignorance and false identification
Creations from first (1) to sixth (6) are natural creations by external energy of the Lord (prākṛta-natural creations)
Seventh creation: Immovable entities: fruit trees without flowers, trees and plants, creepers, pipe plants, creepers with no support, trees with the flowers and fruits = they are almost unconscious but have feelings of pain within
Eigth creation: Lower species of life – 28 varieties, all extensivelly foolish and ignorant – they know their desirables by smell only; those are animals with cloven hooves, with one hoof, five nails on claws, birds etc.
Ninth creation: Human beings – mode of passion is very prominent in them
Creations from seventh (7) to ninth (9) are creations by Brahmā (vaikṛta creations)
There is also tenth creation and that is creation of the demigods which is of 8 varieties:
  1. demigods
  2. forefathers
  3. asuras (demons)
  4. Gandharvas (expert artisans in the higher planets) and Apsarās (Angels, angelic beings)
  5. Yakṣas and Rākṣasas (demonic beings, man-eating demons, carnivorous)
  6. Siddhas (perfected beings, advanced mystics), Cāraṇas (celestial singers) andVidyādharas (other demigods)
  7. Bhūtas (ghosts), Pretas (evil spirits, hobgoblins, ghosts) and Piśācas (witches, evil spirits)
  8. superhuman beings, celestial singers
These are all created by Brahmā.
The three kinds of annihilations are (1) due to the scheduled time of the annihilation of the entire universe, (2) due to a fire which emanates from the mouth of Ananta, and (3) due to one’s qualitative actions and reactions.
Summarized from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 3.11, Calculation of Time, from Atom
1 year of demigods = 360 years of humankind
12,000 years of demigods = 4 milleniums (yugas) = 4.320,000 years of humans
4 milleniums (yugas): Satya, Tretā, Dvāpara, Kali = 12,000 years of demigods
Satya yuga=4,800 years of demigods, Tretā yuga=3,600 years of demigods, Dvāpara yuga=2,400 years of demigods, Kali yuga= 1,200 years of demigods
Transitional periods between yugas (yuga-sandhyās) – few hundred years before and after every millenium (yuga) – in these periods all kinds of religious activities are performed.
There are 3 planetary systems:
Lower planets – Pātālalokas (Bhūḥ) – hellish planets
Middle planets – Bhūrlokas (Martya, Bhuvaḥ) – earthlike planets
Upper planets – Svarlokas (Svarga, Svaḥ) – heavenly planets
Still higher planets – Maharloka, Tapoloka, Satyaloka and Brahmaloka which do not dissolve in devastating water.
Brahma lives for 100 years (Brahma’s years). Please see the calculation:
4 yugas x 1000 = one day of Brahmā (4 x 4.320,000 x 1000)
likewise, 4 yugas x 1000 = one night of Brahmā – during which 3 planetary systems are submerged in the water of devastation. In this sleeping condition, Brahmā dreams of Garbhodakśayī Viṣṇu and takes instruction from the Lord for the rehabilitation of the devastated area of space. In the night of Brahmā, manifestation of universe merges in the darkness of night when living entities remain merged in dissolutions and everything is silent.
Lifespan of Manus = 852,000 years of demigods = 306,720,000 years of humankind
There are 14 consecutive Manus, fathers of mankind during one day of Brahmā, and each of them has different descendants. 7 sages, Indra, Gandharvas all appear simultaneously with Manu.
Blazing fire from the mouth of Saṅkarṣaṇa rages for 100 years of demigods = 36,000 human years.
For another 36,000 years there are torrents of rain, violent winds and waves and the seas and oceans overflow. These 72,000 years are the beginning of the partial devastation of the 3 worlds.
In Satya yuga = 100,000 years
In Tretā yuga = 10,000 years
In Dvāpara yuga = 1,000 years
In Kali yuga = 100 years

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